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TABERNA a shop (see HOUSE);
TABERNA a tavern (see INNS).
TABLE Tables served in ancient times only for the support of vessels necessary for meals; not (as with us) for writing and reading as well. As the couches on which people reclined at meal-times were not high, the tables were mostly lower than ours. Some were quadrangular and had four legs (fig. 1); this was for a long time the only form customary among the Romans. Others had circular or oval tops, and rested either on one leg or (more frequently) on three, to which the shape of animals' feet was given by preference (figs. 2, 3). The Greeks set a high value on the artistic adornment of their tables; but the Roman love of display expended more money on these articles of furniture than on any other. The feet were wrought in the finest metal, ivory, or stone work. The construction of the top of the table was a matter of special luxury. It was composed either of the nobler metals, rare kinds of stone, or costly varieties of wood. Especially costly were the monopodia or orbes, tables resting on one leg, with the wooden top cut out of a single log in the whole of its diameter. The most expensive and most sought-after wood was that of the citrus, an evergreen growing in the Atlas Mountains (which has been identified with the cypress, or juniper). The price of these mensoe citreoe, which were generally supported by one ivory leg, varied according to the dimensions of the diameter, which were sometimes as much as four feet and also according to the beauty of the grain, which was brought out by polish. The prices named for single specimens of such tables ranged from £5,438 to £15,226 [Pliny, N. H., xiii 92,96,102]. On account of the costliness of this kind of wood, the tops were sometimes made of some common material, especially maple, and covered over with a veneer of citrus. The small abacus served as a sideboard. Its square top, which was generally furnished with a raised rim, rested on one support (trapezophoron) which was made of marble, bronze, or silver, and lent itself readily to sculptural treatment. Another kind of ornamental table was the delphica, in the form of a Greek tripod with a round top. Tables were also included in the ordinary furniture of a temple, especially such as stood directly in front of the statue of the god, and on which were laid the offerings not intended to be burnt. (See SACRIFICES, figs. 1, 2.)
TABLINUM A room in a Roman dwelling-house. (See HOUSE.)
TACITUS The celebrated Roman historian, born about the year 54 A.D., apparently of an equestrian family. Nothing is known of his birthplace, and it is only a conjecture that he was born at Interamna (Terni). In his rhetorical education he came under the immediate influence of the most distinguished orators of the time, Marcus Aper and Julius Secundus, and he made his first appearance as an advocate at an early age. In 77 he married the daughter of the consul of that year, Julius Agricola, shortly before the latter's departure for Britain [Tac., Agr. 9]. In 78-79 he held the quaestorship under Vespasian,; in 80-81 he was aedile or tribune under Titus, and in 88 under Domitian. In 90 he left Rome with his wife on some official commission, and had not returned in 93, when his father-in- law died [ib. at end]. In 97, under Nerva, he was consul suffectus. He appears for the last time in active public life in 100, when, with his friend the younger Pliny, be appeared on the side of the prosecution in an important law-suit [Pliny, Ep. ii 12 Section 2]. The date of his death is unknown, but be probably survived the accession of Hadrian in 117. His writings are: (1) A dialogue on the decline of eloquence (Dialogus de Oratoribus), one of his earliest works, written apparently [under the influence of Quintilian] in the early part of the reign of Domitian, and originating in a close study of Cicero's rhetorical writings. It is one of the ablest works of the imperial age, and in language and style is so different from his later works that its genuineness has frequently been disputed. (2) The life of his father-in-law Agricola (De Vita et Moribus Iulii Agricoloe), published at the beginning of Trajan's reign, and written in dutiful commemoration of the deceased; it is in the manner of Sallust, from whom Tacitus to a large extent borrowed his style. (3) The "Germania" (De Sita, Moribus, ac Populis Germanioe), written soon after his Agricola; a description of the Germany of that time, which is founded on careful research, and is especially important as the source of all ours knowledge of the ancient history of Germany. (4) A history of his own times, from Galba to the death of Domitian (69-96), under the title Historioe, in fourteen books, of which books i-iv and the first half of v, covering not quite two years (69-70), have alone been preserved. (5) The history of the Julian house, in sixteen books, published between 115 and 117, beginning with the death of Augustus. (Hence the original title Ab Excessu divi Augusti; the usual title, Annales, rests on no authority.) Books i-iv are still complete; the latter part of the fifth and the beginning of the sixth is missing (the reign of Tiberius A.D. 14-37); while the second half of the eleventh, the whole of books xii-xiv and the first half of xv (the reign of Claudius from the year 47 and the history of Nero as far as 68) are still extant. The two principal works of Tacitus thus give us a complete history of the emperors from Tiberius to Domitian. He was probably prevented by his death from completing is design by writing an account of the reign of Augustus, from the battle of Actium, and also including the reigns of Nerva and Trajan. In both works the chronological arrangement of the materials is predominant; they are founded on the most searching and comprehensive study of the historical authorities, and are marked by a thoroughly critical spirit. Tacitus is always extremely careful to ascertain and to record the truth; he is never satisfied with a mere narrative of events, but seeks to elicit their causes from the facts themselves. He is an adept in fathoming the hidden thoughts and motives of human agents. His method of treatment is, in external appearance, entirely objective; but an undercurrent of sympathy, now sad, now cheerful, with the events related, is everwhere betraying itself. He is avowedly and resolutely impartial, and his judgment is eminently fair. It is only severe when he is dealing with wrongs done to the State, and to the moral laws of the universe. Thoroughly convinced of the value of virtue, he hates vice, which he seeks to terrify by exposing it to the ignominy of after ages. With all his admiration for the greatness of republican Rome, he is a stanch imperialist, being convinced of the necessity of the Empire for the stability of the State. In contrast with the bright elegance and richness of expression characteristic of his earliest work, as he advances in his literary activity his style becomes more sombre and pathetic, in accordance with the gloomy and tragic events which he has to describe. He becomes increasingly fond of rhetorical colouring, and avoids the ordinary diction of prose, while seeking to attain sublimity and novelty of style, less by archaisms than by an approximation to poetical expression. His grave and serious purpose finds its counterpart in his efforts to express himself with a terseness and precision which is often peculiarly pointed and epigrammatic. It is in the Annals that this last trait displays itself in its most characteristic form, and on the most extensive scale.
TAGES The son of a Genius and grandson of Jupiter, said to be a boy with the wisdom of an old man, who, at Tarquinli, in Etruria, suddenly rose out of a freshly ploughed field. He taught the chiefs (lucumones) of the twelve Etruscan tribes, who were summoned by the ploughman Tarchon, how to interpret the sacrifices, together with the lore of thunder and lightning and other kinds of divination which in later times were practised by the haruspices (q.v.). Having done this, he disappeared again as suddenly as he had appeared. The lore of Tages was at first transmitted orally from generation to generation in the chief families, but was afterwards handed down in a comprehensive literature [Cicero, De Div. ii 50, 51; Ovid, Met. xv 558 ff; Lucan, i 637].
TAGOS The federal commander who was elected by the States composing the Thessalian federation. He was only elected when occasion required, usually in case of war. He was chosen from the most distinguished of the nobility, generally from the Aleuadae. It was his duty to levy soldiers from the States belonging to the federation, to be their commander, and to fix the amount of tribute to be paid by each member of the league.
TALASSIO The Roman god of marriage, corresponding to the Greek Hymenaeus. He was one of the unknown gods, and was only invoked by the appellation Talasse in the refrain to the epithalamia sung when the bride was brought home. A later account makes him one of those who, with Romulus, were principally concerned in the rape of the Sabine women, and hence explains the proverbial use of his name at all marriages [Livy, i 9 § 12].
TALAUS Great-grandson of Cretheus, son of Bias and Pero, father of Adrastus, Parthenopaeus, Mecisteus, and Eriphyle. He was one of the Argonauts, and was killed by Melampus. (See ADRASTUS.)
TALENT The Greek term for (1) the highest measure of weight; (2) the designation of a sum of money consisting of a number of coins originally equal to it in legal weight and value. It was divided into 60 minoe or 6,000 drachmoe. Among the different talents in use in Greece the most widely spread was the Attic, of which 1/6000th part (drachma) weighed 57 1/2 lbs. [The intrinsic value of the metal contained in this sum of money was about £200.] (See COINAGE.)
TALOS A brazen giant in Crete whom Hephaestus had given to Minos. This giant guarded the island. He went round the island three times a day and scared away those who approached it by throwing stones at them; or, if they landed, he sprang into the fire with them and pressed them to his glowing bosom till they were burnt to death. A vein of blood ran from his head to his foot, where it was closed by a nail. When the Argonauts came to Crete, Medea caused the nail to fall out by means of a magic song. According to another account, Poeas, the father of Philoctetes, shot it out with his bow, whereupon Talos bled to death.
TALOS Nephew of Daedalus. His ingenuity and skill excited the envy of Daedalus, who threw him headlong from the Acropolis at Athens. (See DAeDALUS.)
TAMIAS A treasurer; a title borne by several officials in Athens. (1) The most important of these was the treasurer (epimeletes) of the revenue, elected by show of hands every four years. He received from the apodectoe (general collectors) all the money which was to be disbursed for public expenses, and he paid away into the treasuries of the several authorities what was necessary for purposes of administration in their respective departments. He also provided the funds voted by the people for extraordinary purposes. (2) The same name was also borne by the ten treasurers of the goddess Athene, who had the care of the treasure of the goddess which was kept in the inner chamber of the Parthenon, besides the State treasure which (according to the ordinary account) was kept in the same place. They were elected annually by lot, one from each of the phyloe. (3) Similarly, we have a board of ten regularly constituted treasurers to the rest of the gods. Their duty was to manage the sacred treasures, which in earlier times were kept in the separate temples, but in 418 B.C. were transferred to the Parthenon. [(4) Under the title of tamias ton stratiotikon, we read of a financial officer of the war department. He was probably appointed after the Peloponnesian War in place of the hellinotamioe (q.v.). Besides his duties in connexion with the war department, he had a share in the management of the Panathenaic festival (Aristotle, Constitution of Athens, 49).]
TAURISCUS A Greek artist of Tralles, belonging to the school of Rhodes. He and his fellow countryman Apollonius were the sculptors of the celebrated group of Dirce. (See cut on p. 195.)
TAXES In Athens, as in the free states of Greece generally, the citizens were freed from every personal tax; only for their slaves they had to pay the triobolon, a yearly poll-tax of three obols (4d.) for each. On the other hand, among the residents who were not citizens, the metoeci (q.v.) paid a yearly protection tax of twelve drachmae (8s.) for each independent man, and six drachmoe for every woman who managed her own house, and the freedmen paid the triobolon in addition. Besides this, all tradesmen who were not citizens had to pay a trade tax. (For extraordinary taxes on property see EISPHORA; for the more or less costly public services undertaken by wealthy citizens, see LEITOURGIA.) As indirect taxes may be mentioned: (1) the tax of 1 per cent. on the selling price paid at the sale of a piece of land. (2) The market tax, which was paid, partly at the gates, partly at the place of sale, by strangers and metoeci for the wares offered for sale in retail dealing; different articles were charged at different rates. (3) The tax on imports and exports, which was 2 per cent. on all imported or exported goods without distinction of kind. The State did not levy its dues and taxes itself, but caused them to be let out to individuals or companies by special officials, called the Poletoe (q.v.). (See TELONAe.) As at Athens, so under the Roman Republic, there was no direct taxation for citizens, except the property tax raised in extraordinary cases. (See TRIBUTUM.) The Roman citizen paid indirect taxes in the harbour tax (see PORTORIUM), and the tax introduced after 357 B.C. on the manumission of slaves at the rate of 5 per cent. of the value of the slave set free (vicesima manumissionis). Both taxes were let by the State to publicani (q.v.). Rome did not receive from her allies in Italy either direct or indirect taxes, apart from the obligations as to supplying soldiers and ships imposed on them by the alliance. After the right of citizenship was granted to them in 89 B.C. they were placed on the same footing as the citizens with respect to indirect taxes. But the provinces had to pay all the more to Rome, partly by direct, partly by indirect taxation. Yet, especially with regard to the former, there was no similarity of treatment, but every province had its own form of taxation, which, as a rule, was assimilated to the system existing in it at the time of its conquest. Some provinces paid a fixed yearly sum (see STIPENDIUM), which was raised by communal districts through the chief towns of each district, while others paid a certain quota of the varying produce of the cultivated land in the province (see DECUMA), which was farmed out to publicani. The provinces felt indirect taxation chiefly through the harbour tax, and indeed every province seems to have formed a separate fiscal district. Under the Empire it was only the indirect taxes that were at first made higher for the citizens, as Augustus added to the taxes on harbours and manumission the centesima rerum venalium, 1 per cent. on the price of articles sold at auctions; the quinta et vicesima mancipiorum, or 4 per cent. on the price of every slave bought, and the vicesima hereditatum et legatorum, of 5 per cent. on all inheritances above 100,000 sesterces, which did not fall to the nearest blood-relations, and on all legacies. The freedom of the citizens from direct taxation continued unimpaired, and when Caracalla, in 212 A.D., had granted to all free subjects of the Empire the right of citizenship, Italy, at least, maintained its freedom from taxation, until Diocletian (in 284) removed the last distinctions between the inhabitants of Italy and of other parts of the Empire, and introduced into Italy the same taxation as obtained in the provinces. It had in course of time been reduced to a more uniform system, on the basis of a general census of the Empire. The chief tax was the land tax (tributum soli), the total sum of which was promulgated every year by the emperor for the whole Empire, and divided amongst the provinces according to the number of taxable units (iuga or capita) which each province was set down as containing in the periodically revised registers. Connected with this tax in money were contributions in kind to the imperial stores for the army and the officials, who had a claim to them. The male and female population of the country not possessing land paid after a certain age (20-25 years) a poll tax (tributum capitis), the amount of which was fixed by imperial ordinance, and for women was about half the sum imposed on men. Citizens resident in towns, and not possessing land, paid a tax partly on their property, partly, as far as they happened to be engaged in a trade, on their working capital and on the trade itself. The taxes apportioned to each town with its districts were raised by tax collectors (exactores), but the decuriones, or members of the municipal senates (see MUNICIPIUM), were responsible for the amount and had to advance it themselves.
TAXIARCHUS The Greek term for a commander of a taxis, which contained a variable number of men. In Athens the ten commanders of the ten taxeis were so called. They were elected annually by show of hands, one for each tribe. They also had to look after the levying and distribution of recruits, and they were thus concerned in the drawing up of the register of those citizens who were liable to serve. On the Macedonian taxis, see PHALANX.
TAYGETE One of the Pleiades (q.v.).
TECMESSA Daughter of the Phrygian king Teuthras, mother of Euryrsaces by Ajax son of Telamon. (See AIAS, 2.)
TEIRESIAS The famous blind soothsayer of Thebes, son of Eueres and Chariclo, and a descendant of the Spartan Udaeus. The cause of his blindness has been variously stated. According to one tradition, the gods took his sight away when he was seven years old, because he revealed to men things which they ought not to have known. According to another, he became blind when, on his seeing Athene in the bath, she splashed water into his eyes. When invoked by his mother, the goddess could not restore his sight, but endued him with a knowledge of the language of birds, and presented him with a staff, by means of which he could walk like a man with perfect vision. According to a third account, he was blinded by Hera, because in a dispute between her and Zeus he decided against her, and Zeus compensated him by granting him the gift of prophecy and a life seven (or nine) times as long as that of other men. He is also said to have been changed into a woman for a short time. He plays an important part in the story of (Edipus and the wars against Thebes. In the wars of the Seven against Thebes he declared that the Thebans would be victorious if Creon's son Menoeceus were to sacrifice himself. In the war of the Epigoni he advised the Thebans to enter into negotiations for peace, and to avail themselves of the opportunity thus afforded to take to flight. During the flight, or else at the conquest of Thebes by the Epigoni, he was made a prisoner, and with his daughter Manto (q.v.), who also possessed the gift of prophecy, was consecrated to the service of the Delphian Apollo. He died at the well Tilphossa, near Haliartus, where his grave was pointed out, while he was also honoured by a cenotaph in Thebes. Homer [Od. xi 90-151] represents him as carrying his golden staff as soothsayer even in the world below, when Odysseus consults him as to his way home; and of all the shades, he alone, by favour of Persephone, possesses unimpaired memory and intellect [Od. x 495]. He had an oracle at Orchomenus in Boeotia, which is said to have ceased to give responses after a plague.
TELAMON Son of Aeacus and Endeis, and brother of Peleus. Having assisted Peleus in murdering their half-brother Phocus, he was expelled from Aegina by his father, and was received by Cenchreus of Salamis, whose daughter Glauce became his wife; and, on the death of Cenchreus, Telamon became king of Salamis. By his second wife Periboea, daughter of Alcathous, he became father of Ajax. He was one of the heroes who joined in the Calydonian Hunt, and also one of the Argonauts. He further took part in the expedition of his friend Heracles against the Amazons and against Laomedon of Troy. At the conquest of Troy he was the first to scale the walls, and that he did at the very spot where it was built by his father. As his share in the spoil, Heracles gave him the king's daughter Hesione, by whom he became the father of Teucer (q.v., 2).
TELCHINES A primeval people sprung from the sea, and living on the island of Rhodes. They are said to have been the earliest workers in metal, and to have made images of the gods, together with the sickle of Cronus and the trident of Poseidon. Poseidon is said to have been entrusted to them by Rhea to be brought up, just as Zeus was to the Curetes of Crete. They were also represented as envious sorcerers and daemons, who were enemies of both gods and men. They were therefore killed by Apollo or, according to another account, destroyed by Zeus in an inundation. According to a third account, this inundation led to their leaving the island, and dispersing themselves over Lycia, Cyprus, Crete, and Greece.
TELECLEIDES A Greek poet of the old comedy, and a violent opponent of Pericles [Plutarch, Per. 3, 16]. He is said to have written only six pieces, of which a few fragments are still extant.
TELEGONUS Son of Odysseus and Circe. At his mother's command he set out to find his father. Landing on the coast of Ithaca, he began to plunder the fields, and Odysseus came out armed against him. Telegonus did not recognise his father, and mortally wounded him with the spine of a sting-ray which Circe had given him to serve as the barb of his lance. When he learned that the wounded man was his father, he took the body home with him, accompanied by Telemachus and Penelope, and subsequently married the latter. He was supposed to be the founder of Tusculum. [Horace, Od. iii 29, 8] and Praeneste, near Rome. [Plutarch, Parall. Min. 41, and Propertius, ii 32, 4. The legend of Telegonus was the theme of the Telegonea, by the cyclic poet Eugammo, of Cyrene. The strange manner in which Odysseus met his end is mentioned in Oppian, Halieutica ii 497.]
TELEMACHUS Son of Odysseus (q.v.) and Penelope.
TELEPHUS Son of Heracles and Auge, the daughter of Aleus of Tegea and priestess of Athene. She concealed the child in the temple of the virgin goddess, and the country in consequence suffered a blight. By consulting an oracle, Aleus discovered the cause of the blight, and gave his daughter to Nauplius to drown her in the sea; but he exposed the infant on Mount Parthenion, where he was suckled by a hind and brought up by shepherds. Auge was given by Nauplius to Teuthras, king of Mysia, who made her his wife. When Telephus grew up, he consulted the oracle of Delphi to learn who his parents were, and was ordered to go into Asia to Teuthras. Teuthras welcomed his wife's son, and married him to his daughter Argiope, and at his death appointed Telephus his successor. The Greeks, on their way to Troy, landed on the coast of Mysia and began to plunder it, thinking they had reached Troy. Telephus opposed them bravely, and killed Thersander, son of Polynices; but, being forced by Achilles to fly, Dionysus in his wrath caused him to stumble over a vine, and Achilles wounded him in the thigh with his lance. As the wound did not heal, and he was told by the oracle that it could only be healed by him who had inflicted it, Telephus disguised himself as a beggar, and went to Argos, whither the Greeks had been driven back by a storm. Under the advice of Clytaemnestra he carried off Agamemnon's infant son, whom he stole from his cradle, and took refuge on the house altar, threatening to kill the child unless Agamemnon compelled Achilles to cure his wound. This had the desired effect, and Achilles healed the wound with the rust, or with the splinters, of the lance which had inflicted it. Being designated by the oracle as the guide to Troy, he showed the Greeks the way, but refused to take part in the war, because his wife, Astyoche, was a sister of Priam. His son Eurypylus rendered the Trojans the last aid they received before the fall of their town. This he did at the prompting of his mother, whom Priam had bribed by means of a golden vine wrought by Hephaestus, and given by Zeus to Tros in compensation for carrying off Ganymede. Eurypylus was killed by Neoptolemus after having performed many brave exploits. In the Mysian town of Pergamon, and especially by the kings of the house of Attalus, Telephus was revered as a national hero.
TELESILLA Of Argos, A lyric poetess, who flourished about the year 508 B.C. After a defeat of the Argives, she is said to have placed herself at the head of a band of Argive women, and to have repelled an attack of the Spartan king Cleomenes. The figure of a woman in front of the temple of Aphrodite at Argos, with books lying at her feet, while she herself is looking at a helmet, as though about to put it on, was said to represent Telesilla [Pausanias, ii § 20 Section 7]. She is said to have become a poetess because, on consulting an oracle respecting her health, she received as answer that she would receive health from the Muses. Scarcely anything remains of her poems, which consisted of hymns to Apollo and Artemis.
TELESPHORUS In Greek mythology, a boy who was regarded as the genius of health. (See ASCLEPIUS [and esp. Journal of Hellenic Studies, iii 283-297].)
TELLUS The Italian deity of mother-earth, often called tellus mater. She was invoked during earthquakes (her temple in Rome having been dedicated in 268 B.C. in consequence of an earthquake in the time of war). She was also invoked in solemn oaths as the common grave of all things, together with the Manes and with Jupiter, the god of heaven. Like the Greek Demeter, she was also the goddess of marriage, but was most revered in conjunction with Ceres as goddess of fruitfulness. Thus in her honour were held the festival of the sowing (ferioe sementivoe), celebrated in January at the end of the winter seed time, fixed by the pontifex to be held on two consecutive market days. The paganalia were celebrated at the same time in the country, when a pregnant sow was sacrificed to Tellus and Ceres. Besides these, there was the feast of fordicidia or hordicidia, at which cows in calf (fordoe) were sacrificed to her. This was held on the 15th of April to insure plenty during the year, and was celebrated under the management of the pontifices and the Vestal Virgins, partly on the Capitol in the thirty curioe, and partly outside the town. The ashes of the unborn calves were kept by the Vestal Virgins till the feast of the Parilia (see PALES), when they were used for the purpose of purification. Besides the female deity, a god Tellumo was also worshipped.
TELONAE Among the Athenians, these were the farmers of the taxes and imposts, which were not collected by State officers, but were sold at certain times by auction to the highest bidder. Smaller taxes were taken up by single persons who collected the money themselves. For larger taxes demanding a large capital, companies were often formed, represented by one person called the telonarches, who concluded the contract with the State. Sureties had also to be produced on this occasion. Such companies employed subordinate officers to collect the taxes. The payments were made by the farmers at certain periods at the senate-house, or bouleuterion, and one payment was usually made in advance when the contract was made. In default of payment, the farmer became atimos, and in certain circumstances might be imprisoned. If the debt was not paid by the expiration of the 9th prytaneia, it was doubled, and the property of the debtor and his sureties confiscated. The atimia descended to the children until the debt was paid. On the other hand, the farmer was protected by the State against fraud by severe laws. He was also exempt from military service, so that he might not be hindered in performing his duties. For the similar institution among the Romans, see PUBLICANI.
TEMPLES In ancient times temples were regarded as the dwelling-places of the gods to whom they were dedicated. They might contain an image or not, but the latter case was exceptional. As they were not houses of prayer intended for the devotion of a numerous community, they were usually of very limited extent. There were, however, temples of considerable size, among which was that of Artemis in Ephesus, 438 feet long by 226 broad; that of Hera in Samos; that begun by Pisistratus and finished by Hadrian, and dedicated to Zeus Olympius in Athens (see OLYMPIEUM); and the temple of Zeus of Agrigeutum, which was never quite completed. All of these were almost as large as the first-mentioned. Only temples like that at Eleusis, in which the celebration of mysteries took place, were intended to accommodate a larger number of people. The great sacrifices and banquets shared by all the people were celebrated in the court of the temple (Gr. peribolos), which included the altars for sacrifice, and was itself surrounded by a wall with only one place of entrance. It was a feature common to all temples that they were not built directly on the surface of the ground, but were raised on a sub-structure which was mounted by means of an uneven number of steps, so that people were able as a good omen to put their right foot on the first and last step. The usual shape of Greek temples was an oblong about twice as long as wide, at the front and back of which was a pediment or gable-roof (Gr.aetos or aetoma; Lat. fastigium). Round temples with dome-shaped roofs were quite the exception. The principal part of the temple was the chamber containing the image of the god. This stood on a pedestal, which was often placed in a small niche, and usually stood facing the east, opposite folding-doors which always opened outwards. Before the image stood an altar used for unbloody sacrifices. This chamber, called in Greek naos, and in Latin cella, generally received its light through the door alone, but sometimes there was also an opening in the roof. There were also temples designated hypoethral (from hypaithros, "in the open air");1 in these there was no roof to the middle chamber of the cella, which was separated from the lateral portions by one or more rows of pillars on each side. Generally each temple belonged to only one god; but sometimes a temple was regarded as the dwelling-place of several deities, either those who were worshipped in groups, as the Muses, or those who were supposed to stand in close alliance or other relationship to each other, such as the twins Apollo and Artemis; and Apollo, as leader of the Muses, together with the Muses themselves. Frequently only one god had an image and altar in the chief cella, while others were worshipped in adjoining chapels. Lastly, there were double temples, with two celloe built in opposite directions. (See ARCHITECTURE, fig. 13.) Many temples had, besides the cella, a kind of "holy of holies" (adyton or megaron) which was only entered by the priests, and only by them at certain times, and which was sometimes under the ground. Usually an open porch or vestibule (pronaos), with pillars in front, stood before the cella, and in it were exposed the dedicatory offerings. There was often also an inner chamber behind the image (opisthodomos) which served for various purposes, the valuables and money belonging to the temple being often kept there. It was surrounded by a wall, and the door was well secured by locks. The various kinds of temples are usually distinguished according to the number and arrangement of the pillars. Thus: (1) A temple in antis (fig. 1) is one in which the pronaos (sometimes also the opisthodomos) was formed by the prolongation of the side walls of the temple (Lat. antoe; Gr. parastades) and by two columns placed between the terminal pilasters of the antoe. (2) Prostylos, with the columns in front (fig. 2), is an epithet descriptive of a temple, the front of whose pronaos was formed in all its breadth by a row of columns quite separate from the walls, and with the columns at the extremities standing in front of the antoe. (3) Amphiprostylos (fig. 3) describes a temple with the columns arranged as in (2) at the back as well as in the front. (4) Peripteros (fig. 4) describes a temple surrounded on all sides by a colonnade supporting the architrave. This is the type most frequently employed by the Greeks. (See PARTHENON, cuts 1 and 2.) (5) Pseudoperipteros ("false peripteros") is an epithet of a temple in which the architrave appears to be carried by pilasters or by "engaged" columns in the walls of the cella. This form is seldom used by the Greeks, but often by the Romans. (6) Dipteros (fig. 5) describes a temple surrounded by two ranges of columns. (7) Pseudodipteros ("false dipteros," fig. 6). A temple surrounded with only a single range of columns, but at such a distance that they correspond in position to the exterior range of the dipteral temple. According to the number of columns in front, which must always be an even number, since the entrance was in the middle, it is usual to distinguish temples as tetra-, hexa-, octa-, deca-, or dodeca-stylos (with 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12 columns). The number of columns along each side was usually one more than twice the number along the front, but this was not the invariable rule. For the architrave and for the columns of the different orders, see pp. 57, 58. The frieze resting on the architrave, and (in the Doric order) the metopes in particular (q.v.), as well as the two pediments (Gr. tympana), were decorated with sculptures, and these sculptures, as well as the walls of the temple often had a more life-like and more varied appearance given to them by appropriate colouring. The coping of the roof, as well as the angles of the pediment, were ornamented by acroteria, which consisted of statues, vases, or anthemia (groups of flowers and leaves; cp. cut to AeGINETAN SCULPTURES). In the plan of their temples the ROMANS originally followed the Etruscans (cp.TEMPLUM, below). The ground-plan of the Etruscan temple was nearly a square, the ratio of the depth to frontage being 6:5. Half of the space was taken up by the cella, and the rest by the columns. The architrave was of wood, and without any special frieze. The great temple with three celloe on the Roman Capitol was built in the Etruscan style, the middle and largest cella being sacred to Jupiter, and the smaller ones on either side to Minerva and Juno. (Cp. JUPITER.) Under Greek influence the different forms of the Greek temple began to be imitated at Rome, the most prevalent type being that described as prostylos, which lent itself most easily to the requirements of a templum in the strict sense of the term. An important alteration in the Greek form of temple was brought about by the introduction of vaulted arches or groined ceilings, which were seldom used by the Greeks, and never on a large scale, but were brought to great perfection by the Romans. They took the form of a cylindrical vaulting in the case of a quadrangular cella, and a dome in the case of the round temples, which were frequent with the Romans. The two principal forms of the latter are (1) the monopteros, which consisted of a single circle of columns standing on a platform mounted by steps and supporting the columns which bore a dome on a circular architrave. (2) The peripteros, with the same arrangement of columns, but with a circular cella in the middle which was covered by a dome rising from the surrounding colonnade. In a third variety, of which we have an example in the Pantheon (q.v.), the circular body of the building is not surrounded by columns externally, but only provided on one side with an advanced portico.
TEMPLUM The Roman term for a space marked out by the augurs (see AUGURES) according to a certain fixed procedure. Its ground-plan was a square or rectangle, having its four sides turned to the different points of the compass; its front however, according to strict Roman custom, faced towards the west, so that any one entering the temple had his face turned towards the east. It was not until later that the front was frequently made to face the east. The building erected on this space, and corresponding to it in plan, did not become a fanum, or sanctuary of the gods, until it had been consecrated by the pontifices. (See DEDICATIO.) As, however, there were fana which were not templa, e.g. all circular buildings, so there were templa which were not fana. Of this sort were the places where public affairs were transacted, such as the rostra in the Forum, the places where the comitia met or the Senate assembled, and even the city of Rome itself. The sanctuaries of the gods were designed as templa if they were intended to serve for meetings of the Senate, and if the form of worship prescribed for such sanctuaries were appropriate to the definition of a templum.
TENNES son of Cycnus (q.v., 2). He (with his sister Hemithea) was thrown by his father in a chest into the sea, in consequence of the slanderous accusations brought against him by his stepmother. He was borne, however, by the waves to the island of Tenedos (so named from him), where he became king. He was afterwards reconciled to his father, and fell, with him, by the hand of Achilles, when the father and son, as allies of the Trojans, were opposing the landing of the Greeks on the shores of Asia.
TENSA The chariot used for processions, or for the gods at the Circensian games. (See CHARIOTS.)
TEPIDARIUM A tepid bath-room. (See BATHS.)
TEREBRA A military engine for boring into the walls of a besieged town. (See ARIES.)
TERENTIANUS MAURUS A Latin grammarian, born in Mauritania. At the close of the 3rd century B.C. he wrote a didactic poem on prosody and metre, composed in the most varied forms of verse (De Litteris, Syllabis, Metris). The estimation in which he was held by later grammarians is proved by their frequent quotations from him.
TERENTIUS Marcus Terentius Varro Reatinus (i.e. a native of Reate in the Sabine territory). The most learned of the Romans; born 116 B.C. of an ancient senatorial family. He devoted himself to study at an early age, under the direction chiefly of the learned antiquarian and philologist Aelius Stilo, without however withdrawing from public life either in time of peace or war. He held the public offices of tribune, curule aedile, and praetor. In 67 he was lieutenant to Pompey in the war against the pirates; in 49 he again held a command under Pompey in the province of Spain beyond the Iberus, but was taken prisoner by Caesar after the capitulation of Ilerda. Although he afterwards rejoined Pompey, Caesar received him into favour, and he returned to Rome in 46 B.C., where he is said to have had the superintendence of the great library which Caesar destined for the public use. In spite of his abstaining henceforward from taking any active part in public affairs, he was prescribed by Antony in 43, and only narrowly escaped with his life. Pardoned by Octavianus, he lived till the year 27, full of vigour and literary activity to the last. Varro's learning comprised all the provinces of literature known at that time, and in productivity he was equalled by no Romans, and only a few Greeks. According to his own statement, he had composed 490 books before his 78th year; the total number of his works, either in prose or verse, theoretical or practical, exceeded 70, in more than 600 books. Of these, the three books on agriculture (Rerum Rusticarum Libri), written in the form of a dialogue in his 80th year, in which he treats the subject exhaustively, drawing from his own experience as well as from more ancient sources, are the only ones that have been completely preserved. Further, of the original 25 books on the Latin language (De Lingua Latina) dedicated to Caesar, in which he systematically treats, under the head of etymology, inflexions and syntax, only books v-x exist, in a mutilated condition. This work was followed by a number of other grammatical writings. It is only through a series of extant titles of his works that we know of his literary and historical studies, which were especially directed to dramatic poetry, and in particular to the comedies of Plautus, as well as of his researches into the history and antiquities of his own nation. His principal work, of which much use has been made by later writers, the Antiquitatas Rerum Humanarum et Divinarum, in 41 books. This was the most important of his writings on these subjects, as it gave a complete account of the political and religious life of the Romans from the earliest times. The 15 books, entitled Imagines or Hebdomades, published about B.C. 39, contained 700 portraits of celebrated Greeks and Romans, in sets of seven in each group, with epigrams written beneath them. His nine Disciplinarum Libri gave an encyclopaedia of the arts pertaining to general culture (grammar, dialectics, rhetoric, geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, music, architecture, medicine). His 76 Libri Logistorici included shorter popular treatises of a historical and philosophical nature, described by titles appropriate to their contents, borrowed from the names of well-known persons (e.g. Sisenna de Historia). Among Varro's numerous and varied poetical works we will only mention, as the most original, the 150 books of Menippean Satires (Saturoe Menippeoe), which were completed before 45 B.C., a species of composition which he introduced into Roman literature in imitation of the Cynic Menippus of Gadara. In these Satires, written alternately in prose and different kinds of verse, he treats of philosophical questions, especially those relating to morality, science, etc., chiefly with the view of exposing the failings of the age. Only a number of titles and fragments of this work have been preserved.
TERENTIUS Quintus Terentius Scaurus. The most renowned Latin scholar and critic of the time of Hadrian (117-138 A.D.), commentator on Plautus and Vergil, and author of treatises on Latin grammar and poetry. A small work, De Orthographia, of some value for the history of the Latin language, bears his name [but is probably not written by this Scaurus].
TERENTIUS Publius Terentius Varro Atacinus. A Roman poet, born 82 B.C. by the river Atax in Gallia Narbonensis; he died before 36 B.C. According to an ancient authority, he only began to study Greek literature in his 35th year. Accordingly his satires on the model of Lucilius, and his epic poem on Caesar's war with the Sequani (Bellum Sequanicum) must belong to his earlier years. He afterwards followed the fashion of imitating the Alexandrian School, which was just coming into vogne, and composed, besides elegies and didactic poems after Greek models, his epic poem, entitled the Argonautoe, in four books, a free imitation of the Argonautica by Apollonius Rhodius. This masterpiece, which has been much praised by later poets, and of which (as of his poems in general) only scattered fragments remain, appears to have been the most remarkable production in the domain of narrative epic poetry between the time of Ennius and that of Vergil.
TERENTIUS Publius Terentius Afer (or the African). A celebrated Roman comic poet. He was born in Carthage about 185 B.C., and came to Rome as a slave in the possession of the senator Terentius Lucanus, who, on account of his promising talents and handsome person, gave him a good education and set him free. As early as 166, on the recommendation of the poet Caecilius Statius, he produced his first play, the Maiden of Andros (Andria), which met with great success. He succeeded in winning the favour and friendship of the most distinguished men, such as the younger Scipio and Laelius. He was less successful with his next piece, The Mother-in-Law (Hecyra), which came out in the following year, and was without doubt his feeblest production. It was only on its third representation in 166 that it met with any success. Meanwhile, in 163, two years after the first production of the Hecyra, he ventured to appear before the public with a new piece, The Self-Tormentor (Hautontimorumenos). This was followed in 161 by the Eunuchus, which was very warmly received, and by the Phormio. In 160, after bringing out another play, The Brothers (Adelphi), he went to Greece, where he died 159 B.C. Terence, like the other poets who wrote palliatoe (see COMEDY, 2), borrowed from the older Greek poets, especially from Menander (only the Hecyra and Phormio being taken from Apollodorus). This he did however with a certain freedom; and sometimes by fusing together similar Greek compositions, and borrowing appropriate scenes from other poets, he managed to expand the simple plot of the Greek original. Evidently of a refined mind, he had no taste for the lively realism of a Plautus. On the contrary, he aimed at artistic correctness of plot, delicate delineation of character, and elegance of form. He had nothing of the vivacity, force, and wit of Plautus, and fell far behind Menander in freshness and vigour, for which reason Caesar pertinently called him Menander's half [o dimidiate Menander, quoted by Suetonius in his life of Terence]. In his style, although a foreigner, he caught the refined tone of Roman society so successfully as to cause his detractors to maintain that he had been assisted in his compositions by his noble patrons, a reproach from which he does not entirely exonerate himself in the prologue to the Adelphi. His works do not appear to have maintained their reputation on the stage with the public at large for any length of time after his death. They have, nevertheless, remained for all time the favourite literature of cultivated readers. Ancient critics also made them a subject of study, and wrote many commentaries on them. We still possess the important commentary by Aelius Donatus, belonging to the middle of the 4th century A.D., as well as the less valuable one by Eugraphius of the 10th century, when Terence was (as for some time previously) a favourite text-book. These have come down to us besides the didascalioe (q.v.) to the several pieces, and the metrical arguments by Sulpicius Apollinaris.
TEREUS King of Daulis, husband of Procne (q.v.).
TERGIVERSATIO The Roman term for the dereliction of duty involved in a legal prosecution being dropped by the prosecutor. Under Nero this offence was punished by fines and disgrace (infamia).
TERMINUS The Roman god of bounds, under whose special protection were the stones (termini) which marked boundaries. The regulations respecting these stones and the religious customs and institutions connected with them went back to the time of king Numa. At the setting of such a stone every one living near the boundary assembled; and in their presence the hole prepared for the reception of the stone was watered with the blood of a sacrificial animal; incense, field-produce, honey, and wine were sprinkled over it, and a victim sacrificed. The stone, anointed and decked with garlands and ribbons, was then placed upon the smouldering bones and pressed into the earth. Whoever pulled up the stone was cursed, together with his draught-cattle, and any one might kill him with impunity and without being defiled by his blood. In later times the punishment of fines was instituted instead. The festival of the Terminalia was celebrated in Rome and in the country on the 23rd of February. The neighbours on either side of any boundary gathered round the landmark, with their wives, children, and servants; and crowned it, each on his own side, with garlands, and offered cakes and bloodless sacrifices. In later times, however, a lamb, or sucking pig, was sometimes slain, and the stone sprinkled with the blood. Lastly, the whole neighbourhood joined in a general feast. A lamb was also sacrificed in the grove of Terminus, which was six Roman miles from Rome, near the ancient border of the town of Laurentum. On the Capitol there was a stone dedicated to Terminus, which had originally stood in the open air, but when the temple of Jupiter was founded by the last king, Tarquinius Superbus, it was inclosed within the building, as the augurs would not allow it to be removed.
TERPANDER A Greek poet and musician, a native of Antissa in Lesbos. He is the true founder of Greek classical music, and also of lyric poetry, both Aeolian and Dorian. He was the first to clothe in artistic form the kind of choral song, called nomos, used at the festivals of Apollo; he also introduced other important innovations into music. He is sometimes erroneously described as having added three strings to the original lyre of four strings [Strabo, p. 618]; but it is more probable that the lyre of seven strings was already in existence in his own time [Aristotle, Probl., xix 32]. The principal scene of his labours was Sparta, whither he had been summoned by order of the Delphic oracle to quell a disturbance amongst the people. It was at Sparta that he reduced to order the music of the Dorians. It was here too that he won the prize at the musical competition at the Carneia. Between 672 and 648 B.C. he carried off the prize four times in succession at the Pythian games in Delphi. Only a few verses of his own poems are extant.
TERPSICHORE The Muse of dancing. (See MUSES.)
TERTULLIANUS One of the most important of the Latin Fathers. He was born at Carthage of pagan parents about 160 A.D., and died about 230. After receiving a careful education in rhetoric and jurisprudence (and probably practising as a lawyer), he embraced Christianity, and became a presbyter in his native town. After defending Christianity against paganism, he joined the ascetic and fanatic sect of the Montanists, and became their champion against the Church. His writings reflect with faithfulness his general ability; his rhetorical training and legal subtlety; his rugged, combative, and passionate character; and his lively and often impetuous imagination. They are written in the colloquial language of his time, which had many points of close contact with that spoken by the lower classes. His literary activity, which extended over a considerable length of time, was at its height in the reigns of Severus and Caracalla. His Apologia, written about 198, holds the foremost place amongst his works. It is one of his earliest writings, and was addressed to the provincial governors of the Roman empire, in defence of Christianity, during a time of bitter persecution.
TESSERA A die (see DICE). Also
TESSERA a ticket of admission to the theatre (q.v., II).
TESTUDO The general designation for different kinds of sheds for the protection of soldiers engaged in a siege. (See cut 2 under SIEGES.)
TETHYS wife of Oceanus (q.v.).
TETRADRACHMON A Greek silver coin equivalent to four drachmoe (see COINAGE).
TETRALOGIA The Athenian term given to the group of four plays which the poets produced in rivalry with each other at the dramatic contests held at the feast of Dionysus. After the introduction of the satyric drama, this, or a drama of a comparatively cheerful character (such as the Alcestis of Euripides), formed the fourth piece of three tragedies or of a trilogy. By a tetralogy is more particularly meant such a group of four dramas as had belonged to the same cycle of myths, and had thus formed a connected whole. Of such a kind were the tetralogies of Aeschylus. It is doubtful, however, whether he found this type of connected tetralogy already in use, or was the first to introduce it. Sophocles abolished the connexion between the several pieces, and Euripides followed his example. A complete tetralogy is not extant, although a trilogy exists in the Oresteia of Aeschylus, consisting of the tragedies Agamemnon, Choephoroe, and Eumenides; the satyric play appended to it was the Proteus.
TETRARCH Properly the ruler of one of the four parts of a district divided into four governments. Also the title of a petty prince, like the rulers in those provinces of Asia which were allowed by Rome to retain a certain independence.
TEUCER A son of Telamon of Salamis (thus named from his descent from Hesione, the Teucrian king's daughter); half-brother of Ajax. He was the best archer amongst the Greeks before Troy. On his return from the war, accused by his father of participation in his brother's murder, and banished from the country, he sought a new home in Cyprus, by the advice of Apollo, where Belus of Sidon, in return for assistance rendered him in war, made over to him the government, and he founded the town of Salamis. After his father's death, it is said that he returned to his native town of Salamis, but was driven away by his nephew and went to Spain.
TEUCER A son of Scamander and the Nymph Idaea; the most ancient king of Troy, from whom the people were called Teucri. According to another legend, he, with Scamander, was driven by famine from Crete, and found refuge with Dardanus; while another version of the story describes Dardanus as having been received by Teucer.
THALAMUS The Greek term for a commodious room in a house, and especially the nuptial chamber. (See HOUSE.)
THALIA One of the Graces. (See CHARITES.)
THALIA The Muse of dancing and pastoral poetry. (See MUSES.)
THALLO Goddess of flowers, who presided over spring. (See HORAe.)
THAMYRIS A Thracian bard, mentioned by Homer [Il. ii 595], son of Philammon and the Nymph Argiope. He boasted that he could rival the Muses, and was therefore deprived by them of sight and voice, and the power of playing the lute. According to later legends, he expiated his arrogance by being punished in Hades.
THANATOS The Greek personification of death. (See DEATH.)
THARGELIA The principal feast of Apollo in Athens, held on the seventh day of Thargelion (May-June), the birthday of the god. Originally it was connected with the ripening of the field produce. A procession was formed, and the first fruits of the year were offered to Apollo, together with Artemis and the Horae. It was at the same time an expiatory feast, at which a peculiar propitiatory sacrifice was offered, which was to purify the State from all guilt, and avert the wrath of the god, lest he should exercise his avenging and destroying power in burning up the harvest with parching heat, and in visiting the people with pestilence. Two persons, condemned to death, a man and a woman, as representatives of the male and female population, were led about with a garland of figs round their necks to the sound of flutes and singing, and scourged with seaweed and with the branches of a fig tree. They were then sacrificed at a certain spot on the seashore, their bodies burned, and the ashes cast into the sea. In later times they seem to have been contented with throwing the expiatory victims from a height into the sea, catching them as they fell, and banishing them from the country. Besides these sacrifices, festal processions and choral contests between men and boys took place. At the same time the great feast of Apollo was probably held at Delos, to which the Athenians sent a sacred embassy in the ancient ship in which Theseus is said to have sailed to Crete, and which was always kept in repair.
THAUMAS Son of Pontus and Gaea, husband of Electra, one of the Oceanides, and father of the Harpies and Iris.
THEANO The pretended wife of Pythagoras the philosopher. Seven extant letters on jealousy, on the education of children, the management of a household, etc., are attributed to her.
THEMIS One of the Titanides; daughter of Uranus and Gaea, and Jupiter's second wife after Metis; mother of the Horae and Moerae (Lat. Parcoe). She is the goddess who, with Jupiter, presides over law and order. She also reigns with him in Olympus as his trusted assessor and no longer as his wife; she represents divine justice in all its relations to man. The rights of hospitality are especially under her protection; hence she is protector of the oppressed, and honoured in many towns as the saving goddess (Soteira). She also had the power of foretelling the future, and for this reason the Delphic oracle was in her possession for some time before it came into that of Apollo. She was especially honoured in Athens, Delphi, Thebes, Olympia, and Troezen. In works of art, she is represented as a woman of commanding and awe-inspiring presence, holding a pair of scales and a cornucopia, the symbol of the blessings of order.
THEMISTIUS A Greek rhetorician of Paphlagonia, who lived in the second half of the 4th century A.D., as teacher of philosophy and oratory at Constantinople. He was much honoured by his contemporaries for his noble disposition and his learning and eloquence, which gained for him the name of Euphrades, or eloquent speaker. He was honoured with various marks of distinction by the emperors. Constantius made him a senator; Julian described him as the first philosopher of his age; Theodosius selected him as tutor to his son Arcadius, and in 384 nominated him to the prefecture. He died about 388. Thirty-four of his speeches have been preserved, one of them in a Latin translation only. They are partly philosophical and political, but principally eulogistic orations, either in compliment to or in memory of various emperors, composed in a clear, pleasant style, and valuable for the information they contain respecting contemporary history. Besides these, we possess four paraphrases by him of parts of Aristotle.
THEMISTO The third wife of Athamas (q.v.) who married her under the impression that his wife Ino was dead. When he heard, however, that Ino was living as a votary of Dionysus, in the ravines of Parnassus, he secretly sent for her. Themisto, on hearing this, determined, in revenge, to kill Ino's children, and ordered a slave, who had lately come to the house, to dress her children in white and Ino's in black, so that she might be able to distinguish them in the night. But the slave, who was Ino herself, suspecting the evil intention, exchanged the clothes. Themisto, in consequence, killed her own children, and, on becoming aware of her mistake, slew herself also.
THEMISTOGENES Of Syracuse, supposed (on inadequate grounds) to be the author of the Anabasis, which has come down to us under the name of Xenophon (q.v.).
THEOCLYMENUS Son of the soothsayer Polyphides , grandson of Melampus. When a fugitive from Argos, for a murder which he had committed, he met with Telemachus in Pylus, who succoured him and brought him to Ithaca. By means of his inherited gift of prophecy, he here made known to Penelope the presence of Odysseus in the island, and warned the suitors of their fate.
THEOCRITUS The founder and principal representative of Greek bucolic poetry, born about 325 B.C. in Syracuse, or (according to another account) in the island of Cos, pupil of the poet Philetas and friend of the poet Aratus. He lived alternately in Alexandria, at the court of Ptolemy II (Philadelphus), and in Sicily with Hiero, where he was much esteemed for his poetical skill and refinement. He died about 267. Besides a number of epigrams, thirty-two poems, some of considerable length, known as idylls, have come down to us. Some of these are probably spurious. Those that are undoubtedly genuine are of great poetical merit. They include the true bucolic idylls, descriptive of the life of shepherds and herdsmen, and also the genre pictures of every-day life and of the mythical age, together with hymns and eulogistic poems to his princely patrons, an epithalamium in honour of Helen, and some pieces in lyrical form. His poems of ordinary life are especially remarkable for their minutely faithful and dramatic descriptions. Most of his idylls are written in a largely modified epic language, with a skilful admixture of the forms of the Doric dialect spoken in Sicily, which still further enhanced their popular character. Two of the lyrical poems [xxviii, xxix] are composed in the Aeolic dialect.
THEODECTES Of Phaselis, in Lycia, a Greek rhetorician and tragic poet. He carried off the prize eight times, and in 351 B.C. his tragedy of Mausolus was victorious in the tragic contest instituted by queen Artemisia in honour of her deceased husband Mausolus. In the rhetorical contest, held at the same time, he was defeated by Theopompus. Only unimportant fragments of his fifty tragedies are extant.
THEODORUS Of Samos, son of Rhoecus. In conjunction with his father, he erected the labyrinth of Lemnos [Pliny, N. H. xxxvi 90], and advised the laying down of a layer of charcoal as part of the foundation of the temple of Artemis, at Ephesus [Diogenes Laertius ii 103]. He is said to have lived for a long time in Egypt, where he and his brother Telecles learnt the Egyptian canon of proportion for the human figure [Diodorus, i 98]. He was considered by the Greeks as one of the inventors of casting in bronze [Pausanias, viii 14 § 8]. He wrote a work on the temple of Hera at Samos, which was begun by his father [Herodotus, iii 60; Vitruvius, vii, pref. 12].
THEODORUS Son of Telecles, and nephew of (1). He flourished in the time of Croesus and Polycrates, whose ring he made [Herodotus, i 51, iii 41]. [J. E. S.]
THEOGNIS A Greek elegiac poet, born about 540 B.C., of a rich and noble family in Megara. He lived at a time when bitter feuds had broken out in his native town between the nobles and the other citizens. On the fall of his party, having espoused the cause of the aristocracy, he as despoiled of his fortune and driven into exile. It was not until many years later that he was able to return to the home for which he yearned, and he was probably still alive, at the time of the Persian Wars. From the remains of his elegies, which are mostly addressed in a hortatory form to the noble youth Cycnus, it may be seen that they were closely connected with the political fortunes of the poet. They exhibit the pride and rancour of the aristocrat, in whose eyes all his own party are "good" and "noble," as contrasted with the adherents of the popular party, who are denounced as "base" and "cowardly." The loss of the great bulk of his poems was due to their containing an extraordinary abundance of proverbs, which were at an early date extracted from his writings, to serve (especially at Athens) as precepts for the conduct of youth. Under his name we still possess a dreary collection of all kinds of proverbial couplets and precepts, which are strung together without coherence or plan, being connected by means of merely casual catchwords, and including adventitious elements, such as sayings of Tyrtaeus, Mimnermus, Solon, and others.
THEON Of Samos. A Greek painter who flourished in the second half of the 4th century B.C. His pictures were celebrated for their powerful effect on the imagination, which caused those who looked at them to forget that they were only counterfeits of reality. The picture of a young hoplite charging the enemy was especially celebrated for this effect of illusion [Aelian, Var. Hist. ii 44].
THEON Of Smyrna. A Platonist living in the first half of the 2nd century A.D. He was the author of a work of great value in connexion with ancient Greek arithmetic: on the principles of mathematics, music, and astronomy required for the study of Plato.
THEON Of Alexandria. One of the last members of the Alexandrian Museum, born about 365 A.D. He is the author of a commentary on Euclid and on the astronomical tables of Ptolemaeus.
THEON Aelius. A rhetorician of Alexandria. He wrote, in the 5th century A.D., a book on rhetoric, to which were appended exercises on style, called progymnasmata, deserving of much commendation both for their conciseness and lucidity of exposition, and for their criticisms on the style of the Attic orators.
THEOPHRASTUS A Greek philosopher, born 371 B.C. at Eresus, in Lesbos. At Athens, he was at first the pupil of Plato, and then of Aristotle, who, on account of his fascinating powers of language, is said to have given him the name of Theophrastus ("divine speaker"), instead of his original name Tyrtamus. Appointed by Aristotle guardian of his son and heir to his library, and designated by him as his successor in the leadership of the Peripatetic school, he continued at its head, and pursued, in an independent spirit, the philosophy of his master. After long enjoying the highest esteem, he died in the eighty-fifth year of his age, in 287. Like Aristotle, he succeeded in combining with his philosophical studies (of which only the fragment of a work on metaphysics has been preserved), various investigations in natural science, especially in botany, of which science he may be said to be the founder, just as Aristotle is considered to be the originator of zoology. Of his botanical works we still possess a Natural History of Plants, in ten books, and six books of the eight On the Origin (or physiology) of Plants. A small pamphlet, containing an outline of mineralogy, has also been preserved, together with other scientific works. His Characters are probably an abridgment of a larger work. They consist of thirty sections, descriptions of various types of character, and are remarkable for the knowledge of life and keenness of observation which they display, and for the intuitive skill and vivacity of expression with which they are written.
THEOPOMPUS A Greek historian, born at Chios about 380 B.C. He left home, probably about 361, with his father, who was banished by the democratic party on account of his predilection for the Spartans, and, having been trained in oratory by Isocrates, spoke with great success in all the larger towns of Greece. Be distinguished himself so greatly in the rhetorical contest instituted (351) by queen Artemisia, wife of Mausolus, in honour of her deceased husband, that he obtained a brilliant victory over all competitors. He afterwards travelled, with the object of acquiring material for his historical works. The favour shown him by Alexander the Great induced him to return to Chios at the age of forty-five; but on the death of his patron he found himself again obliged to flee from his opponents, whose hatred he had incurred by his vehement adoption of the sentiments of the aristocracy. He took refuge with king Ptolemy I at Alexandria about 305. Here he did not, however, meet with a favourable reception, and was compelled to withdraw, as his life was in danger. Of his subsequent fate nothing is known. Besides numerous orations, he composed two large histories, founded on the most careful and minute research: (a) Hellenica, in twelve books, a continuation of Thucydides, covering the period from 411-394; and (b) Philippica, in fifty-eight books, treating of the life and times of Philip of Macedon. Of these works only fragments remain. The charge of malignity, which was brought against him by the ancients, seems to have originated in the reckless manner in which, on the testimony of Dionysius of Halicarnassus [Ep. ad Cn. Pompeium], he exposed the pettiness and baseness of the politics of those times, especially those of the Macedonian party. There seems to be better foundation for the charge brought against him of being too fond of digressions; for when, in later times, the digressions in the Philippica were omitted, the work was thereby reduced to sixteen books.
THEOPOMPUS A Greek poet of the Old Comedy, a younger contemporary of Aristophanes; he is known to have been engaged in composition as late as about 370 B.C. Only fragments remain of his twenty-four dramas, which prepared the way for the transition to the Middle Comedy.
THEORIAE The Greek name for the sacred embassies, which were sent by individual States to the great national festivals, as well as to those of friendly States; for instance, that sent by the Athenians to the festival of Apollo at Delos. A number of important men were appointed to this office, the principal of whom was known as the architheoros. Part of the cost, which was considerable, was borne by the State and part by the architheoros, on whom, as also on his companions (syntheori), devolved the honourable and patriotic duty of appearing with the utmost splendour. In Athens the architheoria was one of the liturgioe undertaken by the wealthier citizens. (See LEITOURGIA.) The members of the sacred embassy were treated as honoured guests by the State to which they were deputed.
THEORICON A distribution of two obols (about 3d.) a head, granted from the time of Pericles to the poorer Athenian citizens, from the common warchest (see HELLENOTAMIAe), to enable them to attend the representations at the theatre, two obols being the entrance fee levied by the lessees of the theatre. By degrees this grant was distributed to citizens who laid claim to it in the case of other entertainments. It was abolished towards the end of the Peloponnesian War, but again introduced after the restoration of the democracy; and a special fund, to which, by a decree of the people, the whole surplus of the revenue was to be devoted, was set apart for this purpose, under a special board, who had even for a time the management of the finances of the State. Demosthenes first succeeded, shortly before the battle of Chaeronea (338 B.C.), in putting an end to this system, which so severely taxed the resources of the State in time of war.
THEOXENIA A festival celebrated in many parts of Greece in honour, not only of the principal local divinity, but of many others who were considered as his guests. Such was the feast held at Delphi in honour of Apollo in the month hence called Theoxenios (August). Of the manner of its celebration nothing is known. Distinguished men, such as Pindar and his descendants, were also invited to the sacrificial feast. Elsewhere other gods appeared as hosts at the feast, as the Dioscuri, the patrons of hospitality, in Paros and Agrigentum.
THERITAS A name given at Sparta to Ares (q.v.).
THERMAE The name given by the Romans to the public buildings, founded in and after the time of Agrippa, which combined, with warm baths, the arrangements of a Greek gymnasium. These included open and covered colonnades for conversation, instruction, and different exercises, especially the game of ball. The most extensive and splendid establishments of the sort were to be found in Rome, and are still to be seen, though, for the greater part, in ruins. Of the existing remains the most important are those of the Thermoe of Caracalla. (Cp. ARCHITECTURE, fig. 14, p. 56; and see BATHS.)
THERSANDER Son of Polynices and Argeia, husband of Demonassa the daughter of Amphiaraus, and king of Thebes after the taking of that city by the Epigoni (q.v.). According to post-Homeric traditions he took part in the expedition against Troy, but was killed on first landing by Telephus. In Vergil ["Thessandrus," Aen. ii 261], on the other hand, he is one of the heroes of the wooden horse. His son and successor was Tisamenus. His grandson, Autesion, at the bidding of the oracle, went over to the Dorians who had settled in Lacedaemon ; and his greatgrandson Theras founded a colony in the island of Calliste, which from that time was called Thera. It was from him that Theron, the tyrant of Agrigentum in Sicily, traced his descent.
THERSITES The most ill-favoured of the Greeks assembled before Troy, and also a man of evil tongue. He was severely chastised by Odysseus [Il. ii 212-277] for speaking evil of Agamemnon. According to later tradition, Achilles slow him with a blow of his fist for stabbing in the eye the Amazon Penthesilea, whom he had himself laid low, and also for falsely accusing Achilles [Quintus Smyrnaeus, i 768-823].
THESAURUS The Greek term for a room in which all kinds of objects, provisions, jewels, etc., were stored; hence a " treasury" or "treasure house." In ordinary life the underground store-chambers, circular vaulted rooms with an opening above, similar to our cellars, were thus named. The same name was given to treasure-houses which each State maintained within the precincts of Panhellenic sanctuaries, as repositories for their offerings to the gods. Such were those at Olympia and Delphi. The subterranean tombs, shaped like beehives, and of a construction dating from remote Greek antiquity, which have been found in various places, have been wrongly described as "treasure houses." The most celebrated of these are the so called thesaurus of Atreus at Mycenae (see ARCHITECTURE, fig. 3), and that of Minyas at Orchomenus (see TROPHONIUS). The latter is only partly, the former wholly preserved. The ground-plan of these structures is circular, and consists of one enclosed room with a domed roof, constructed of horizontal layers of massive stone blocks, projecting one over the other. This circular chamber was used probably for services in honour of the dead. The actual restiug-place of the body was a square room adjoining. The large room at Mycenae is fifty feet in diameter, and about the same in height. It consists of thirteen courses, the uppermost of which was only a single stone. It was decorated with hundreds of bronze plates, the holes for the nails being still visible.
THESMOPHORIA A festival to Demeter, as the foundress of agriculture and of the civic rite of marriage, celebrated in many parts of Greece, but especially at Athens. It was held at Athens from the 9th to 13th of Pyanepsion, the beginning of November, and only by married women of genuine Attic birth and of blameless reputation. Two of the wealthiest and most distinguished women were chosen out of every district to preside over the festivals; their duty was to perform the sacred functions in the name of the others, and to prepare the festal meal for the women of their own district. Even the priestess who had the chief conduct of the whole festival had to be a married woman. On the first day of the feast the women went in procession, amid wanton jests and gibes, to the deme of Halimus, on the promontory of Colias, where nightly celebrations were held in the temple of Demeter and her daughter Core. After their return in the early morning of the third day, a festival lasting for three days was held in Athens. No sacrifices were offered on the last day but one, which was spent amid fasting and mourning. On the last day, on which Demeter was invoked under the name of Kalligeneia (or goddess of fair children), a feast was held amid mimic dances and games, which probably referred to the mythical stories of the goddess and her daughter.
THESMOTHETAE The six junior archons at Athens, on whom devolved, specially, the administration of certain branches of the law. For further details, see ARCHON.
THESPIS Of Icaria; the founder of Greek tragedy (q.v.).
THESTIUS Son of Ares and Demonice; king of Aetolia, father of Althaea and Leda (q.v.).
THETES The lowest of the four property-classes instituted by Solon. (See SOLONIAN CONSTITUTION and EISPHORA.)
THETIS Daughter of Nerens and Doris, wife of Peleus, and mother of Achilles. On many occasions she proved herself of assistance to the gods. When Zeus was threatened by Hera, Athene, and Poseidon, she called Briareus (or Aegaeon) to his aid. When Hephaestus was cast out of heaven by Zeus, she took him and hid him for nine years. Again, when Dionysus was fleeing before Lycurgus, she afforded him protection in the sea. Brought up by Hera, she was wooed by Zeus and Poseidon. But when Themis foretold that Thetis would bear a son who would be greater than his father, she was married against her will to a mortal, Peleus (q.v.). This marriage was the source of the greatest sorrow to her. Her attempt to make her only son Achilles immortal was frustrated by her husband, and caused an estrangement between them, and she was fated to see her glorious and godlike son cut off in the prime of life.
THIASUS The Greek designation of a society which had selected some god for its patron, and held sacrifices, festal processions, and banquets at stated times in his honour. Frequently the members of such societies, which took their name either from their divine patron or else from the days of festal celebration, pursued other common ends, sometimes of business, sometimes of social life. The name thiasus was specially applied to the festivals in honour of Dionysus, and, in the representations of poetry and art, to the mythical retinue of the god, which consisted of Sileni, Satyrs, Nymphs, Maenads, etc.
THOLUS A term applied by the Greeks to any round building with a conical roof or cupola. At Athens it indicated the Rotunda used for the official head-quarters of the Prytanes (see BOULE), who also dined here at the public expense. It was situated near the Senate-house (bouleuterion). [Aristotle, Constitution of Athens, 43.]
THORAX The Greek term for a cuirass, either of metal (usually bronze) or of leather. The metal cuirass consisted of two separate pieces, one covering the chest and stomach, and the other the back, attached to one another by means of clasps or buckles. They terminated with a curved edge just above the hip, and at this part were often covered with a leathern belt (zoster), fastened with buckles, to bind both pieces more firmly together. Another belt (mitra), lined with leather, was worn under the armour and above the chiton. This was fitted with a plate of metal growing broader towards the middle, and serving to protect the belly. In later times the front plate of the cuirass was extended downwards, so as to cover the belly as far as the navel. As an additional protection to the belly and the upper part of the legs, there was on the inner side of the lower edge of the cuirass a series of short strips of leather or felt, covered with plates of metal, often in several layers. They resembled a kilt, and were called pteryges (lit. "feathers"). Smaller strips of the same kind were worn under the arms to protect the arm-pits. The leather cuirass (spolas) was a kind of shirt reaching over the navel and hips, and fringed with flexible strips along its lower edge. It was open either in front or on one side (usually the left), and was there fastened together by means of clasps or buckles. It was also provided with an upright piece protecting the neck, and with two shoulder-straps. it was frequently covered, either completely, or only under the arms, with metal, especially in the form of scales. Linen cuirasses are also mentioned, even in ancient times. These were probably either thickly quilted or strongly woven corselets. (See cuts, and cp. cut under HOPLITES.)
THRENOS The Greek term for a dirge sung by a chorus to the accompaniment of flutes, either at the burial, or at the funeral feast.
THRESHING The Greeks and Romans practised in early times the same method of separating the corn from the ear as other ancient nations. A threshing-floor, carefully prepared for the purpose, was constructed in the open air, and the corn trodden out by oxen, mules, or horses, driven round in a circle. Sometimes it was beaten out with sticks. The Romans sometimes used machines. One of these was the tribulum, a board or beam with a sharp edge of stone or iron underneath, loaded with weights on the top and drawn by oxen, which were driven by a man sitting on the handle. Another was the plostellum Poenicum, borrowed from the Carthaginians. This consisted of several rollers or cylinders fitted with iron spikes.
THRINACIA A mythical island, on which the herds of the Sun-god grazed [ Od. xi 107, xii 127, xix 275; afterwards identified with Sicily, Trinacria]. (Cp. HELIOS and ODYSSEUS.)
THUCYDIDES The celebrated Greek historian, son of O1orus, an Athenian, probably descended from the Thracian prince Olorus, whose daughter Hegesippe was the wife of Miltiades and mother of Cimon. He was born about 471 B.C., and is said to have been the pupil of the rhetoricians Antiphon and Gorgias, and of the philosopher Anaxagoras. The earliest trustworthy notice we have of him belongs to the year 421 B.C., when we find him at the head of an Athenian fleet stationed at the island of Thasos at the time when the Spartan Brasidas was besieging Amphipolis in Thrace. He was summoned to the help of the besieged, but, on his arrival, found the place already in the hands of the enemy, and had to content himself with garrisoning the neighbouring town of Eion, and securing it against Brasidas. On account of his delay in coming, he was put on his trial for treason, and banished. For twenty years he remained away from Athens. Part of this time he spent in Thrace, where he owned valuable gold-mines opposite Thasos, and part in the Peloponnesus. He probably lived for sometime in Sicily. In 404, when the exiles were recalled to Athens, he returned to his native town, but only to be murdered either at Athens or in Thrace, a few years later (not later than 395 B.C.). At the very beginning of the Peloponnesian War Thucydides foresaw, as he himself says, that the struggle would surpass all earlier wars in magnitude and importance, and accordingly at once resolved to write its history, and began his preparations for his narrative without delay. His banishment afforded him the opportunity of calmly observing the course of events, of making inquiries from both parties, and ascertaining the truth with the greatest accuracy. At all events, at this time he was already beginning the composition of certain parts of his work. He proceeded to elaborate the whole directly after his return from banishment, but had only reached the twenty-first year of the war (411), when death prevented the completion of his task. The existing history was published by another hand, and was continued by Xenophon as well as by Theopompus. Its general plan is simple and artless in the highest degree. After a critical examination of early Greek history and an exposition of the internal and external causes of the war, the history follows the succession of events, with a strict division of each year into summer and winter. This arrangement, while it supplies us with the chronological sequence of events in an accurate form, sometimes prevents our obtaining a general view of the whole, and leads to facts which are intimately connected with one another becoming separated by the course of the narrative. The matter falls into three great divisions: (1) the Archidamian war down to the peace of Nicias, 421 B.C. (books i-v 24); (2) the interval of disquiet, together with the great Sicilian expedition, down to 413 (v 25-vii); (3) the Decelean war, of which the first two years alone are included in the eighth book. The first four books alone are marked by even and uniform execution. Next to this part in excellence comes the history of the Sicilian expedition (vi and vii). Far inferior to the rest of the work are books v and viii. The latter presents us with only a sketchy collection of historical materials. In writing the history of the Peloponnesian War, his aim (as he himself states at the beginning of his work) was to produce a possession for all time, and not only a showy declamation for the listeners of the moment. This object he has attained, since he founds his work on the most careful investigation of facts, carried out with most conscientious criticism. Endued with the most penetrating insight, he searches into the connexion and causes of events. His narrative is characterized with an unswerving love of truth, calmness, and impartiality of judgment, without the incidental digressions with which the history of Herodotus is interwoven, and is marked by an abstinence from all personal reflexions. The speeches, which are inserted in accordance with the universal custom of ancient historians, are in no author so far from being mere displays of rhetorical skill. In no history are they distinguished by such depth of philosophy and richness of thought as in that of Thucydides, who uses them exclusively with the object of unfolding the motives of actions and expounding the sentiments of the speakers. He displays a marvellous skill in lucid description, as in the harrowing account of the plague of Athens; equally striking is his vivid portraiture of the characters of distinguished personages. In accordance with his personal character, his style is grave and elevated. It does not exhibit the easy flow and charming grace of a Lysias, Isocrates, Xenophon, or Plato. On the contrary, it is often harsh and rugged, interspersed with archaic and poetical phrases, and is concise to the verge, of obscurity and unintelligibility. This is especially the case in the speeches, which, with their fulness of thought and their effort to express as much as possible in the fewest words, are among the most difficult portions of Greek literature.
THYESTES Son of Pelops, brother of Atreus (q.v.).
THYIADES Women who celebrated wild orgies in honour of Dionysus.
THYMELE The altar of Dionysus which stood in the centre of the orchestra in the Greek theatre (q.v.).
THYONE The name of the deified Semele (q.v., and cp.DIONYSUS).
THYONEUS Another name of Dionysus (q.v.).
THYRSUS A staff carried by Dionysus and his attendants, and wreathed with ivy and vine-leaves, terminating at the top in a pinecone. (See cut, and cp.DIONYSUS, fig. 3.)
TIBERINUS The god of the river Tiber; according to tradition, an old king of the country, who is said to have been drowned while swimming across the river Albula, which thenceforth was named Tiber (Tiberis) after him. The Roman legends represented him as raising the mother of Romulus and Remus, Rhea Silvia, who had been thrown into the Tiber, to the position of his consort and of goddess of the stream. As the river was of great importance to Rome, the river-god was highly bonoured, and was invoked by the pontifices and augurs in their prayers for the welfare of the State. His shrine was on the island of the Tiber, where offerings were made to him on Dec. 8th. On June 7th fishermen celebrated special games in his honour (ludi piscatarii) on the opposite bank of the Tiber. Under the name of Volturnus, i.e. "the rolling stream," or "river" generally, he appears to have had a flamen (Volturnalis) and a feast, the Volturnalia, on Aug. 27th. Of extant representations of the god the finest is a colossal figure in the Louvre, representing him in a reclining posture, as a victor crowned with bay, holding in one band a rudder, and in the other a cornucopia, with the she-wolf and Romulus and Remus by his side.
TIBULLUS A Roman elegiac poet, born about 55 B.C., of a wealthy and ancient equestrian family, which had lost a considerable part of its property in the Civil Wars. However, he still owned an estate at Pedum, between Tibur and Praeneste, and was able to lead a comfortable life. He obtained the favour of Messala Corvinus, whom he accompanied on his Aquitanian campaign in 31 B.C. Messala's invitation to accompany him to Asia be at first declined, being captivated by love for Delia, a freed-woman whose proper name was Plania. Afterwards, when he had determined to make the journey, he fell ill, and was compelled to remain behind at Corcyra. He returned to Rome, and there received the sad tidings that Delia was faithless to him, and had given her affections to a rich suitor. The poems which refer to his relations with Delia are contained in the first book of his elegies. The second book has as its subject his mistress Nemesis, who likewise embittered his love by her faithlessness. According to an epigram by a contemporary poet, he died soon after Vergil, in the year 19 B.C. or early in 18. Four books of elegies have come down to us under his name, but of these only the first two can be assigned to him with certainty. The whole of the third book is the work of a feeble imitator, who represents himself as called Lygdamus, and as born in the year 43. It treats of the love-passages between the poet and his mistress Neoera. Of the fourteen poems of the fourth book, the first, a panegyric in 211 hexameters, on Messala, composed during Messala's consulship in 31, is so poor a production that it cannot be assigned to Tibullus; especially as he already enjoyed the full favour of Messala, which is solicited by the author of the poem. Moreover, poems 8-12, short love-letters of a maiden to a lover named Cerinthus, possibly Tiberius' friend Cornutus, are from the pen of a poetess, Sulpicia, probably the grand-daughter of the famous jurist, Servius Sulpicius. There is no ground for not attributing the remaining poems to Tibullus. The spurious works owe their preservation among those of Tibullus to the fact that they are the production of the circle of Messala; and were published with the genuine works as part of the literary remains either of Messala or of Tibullus, who himself, at the very most, published the first book only during his lifetime. Among the ancients, Tibullus was considered the first master of elegiac composition. The two themes of his poetry are love and country life. Within this narrow range the poet moves with considerable grace and truthfulness of feeling, expressing his homely thoughts in correspondingly homely and natural language, without any of the obscure erudition characteristic or Propertius, but also without that poet's versatility and artistic skill.
TIMAEUS A Greek philosopher, an adherent of the Pythagorean school; the alleged author of works on the nature of the world and the soul of the universe. (See PYTHAGORAS.)
TIMAEUS A Sophist, probably born 3 A.D. He compiled a Platonic dictionary, a part of which is still extant.
TIMANTHES A Greek painter, from the island of Cythnus, flourished about 400 B.C.; celebrated by the ancients for his genius no less than for his art. The most admired of his works was his painting of the Sacrifice of Iphigenia, in which the expression of the different degrees of sympathetic grief and mourning was brought out in a masterly manner. The face of Agamemnon was hidden in a mantle; a striking way of representing the father's untold anguish. [Cicero, Orator 74; Pliny, H. N. xxxv 73; Quintilian, ii 13 § 12; Valerius Maximus, viii 11 § 6. The same device is adopted in the mural painting from Pompeii reproduced under IPHIGENIA.]
TIMEMA The value at which an Athenian citizen's property was rated for taxation. Cp. Lat. census. (See SOLONIAN CONSTITUTION and EISPHORA).
TIMEMA In legal language, a fine. Cp. litis aestimatio. (See JUDICIAL PROCEDURE.)
TIMOCRACY The name given among the Greeks to that form of government in which, while the citizens were equal in other respects, their share in the government was regulated by a certain gradation corresponding to the amount of their property. Thus those whose property entailed the greater expenditure in public services possessed proportionately greater privileges. The Solonian constitution (q.v.) was founded on this principle.
TIMOCREON A Greek lyric poet, of Ialysus in Rhodes, who flourished about 480 B.C. He was a renowned athlete, and a friend of Themistocles. Suspected of treasonable intrigues with the Persians, he was banished from his home; and, not obtaining his recall by aid of Themistocles, he attacked him, as well as his rival Simonides, the friend of Themistocles, with scurrilous lampoons in the form of Aeolian and Dorian lyrics. He also composed scolia. Of his writings only a few fragments have come down to us, which show him to be a man of ability and of vehement passion. [Plutarch, Themistocles, 21.]
TIMOMACHUS Of Byzantium. The last Greek artist of note; he probably flourished in the 3rd century B.C. Amongst his most celebrated pictures were his Ajax aroused from his Madness and his (unfinished) Medea. The latter was represented in the act of deliberating whether she is to slay her children. For these paintings Caesar afterwards paid the sum of eighteen talents. Of his Medea we have several copies, as in two of the mural paintings of Herculaneum and Pompeii [Baumeister's Denkmaler, No. 948 and 155. Pliny, N. H. xxxv § § 26, 136, 145; vii 126].
TIMON A Greek philosopher and poet, of Phlius, who flourished about 250 B.C. He composed three books of Silloi (q.v.), in which, in the form of a parody of the epic poetry of Homer, he wittily ridiculed the dogmatic philosophers from the Sceptic point of view. As the chief representative of this style of writing he was styled simply the Sillographer. We only possess fragments of his works.
TIMOTHEUS A Greek dithyrambic poet. (See DITHYRAMBOS).
TIRO The learned freedman and friend of the orator Cicero. He wrote the life of his master, whom he long survived, edited his speeches and letters, and collected his witty sayings. Besides this he composed grammatical and encyclopaedical works. He is especially famous as the inventor of Roman shorthand writing, and his name is assigned to, a large collection of stenographical symbols (notoe Tironianoe). He lived to the age of 100.
TIROCINIUM The Roman term for the interval between the assumption of the toga virilis (in the 16th or 17th year) which marked the beginning of independence and of liability to compulsory military service, and the entrance on a military career or official activity in general. Under the Republic this time was fixed at a year. It was looked upon as the last stage of education, and in this a youth qualified himself either in the army for service in war or in the Forum for a political life. In the latter instance the young man was handed over to the care of a man of proved experience in public affairs, whom he attended in the Forum and in the law-courts. In the former case he followed in the train (cohors) of a general, where, without performing the service of a common soldier, he fitted himself for the position of an officer.
TISIPHONE One of the Greek Furies. (See ERINYES.)
TITAN Another name of the sun-god. (See HELIOS.)
TITANS The children of Uranus and Gaea, six sons and six daughters: Oceanus and Tethys, Hyperion and Theia (parents of Helios, Se1ene, Eos), Coeus and Phoebe (parents of Leto and Asteria), Cronus and Rhea (parents of the Olympian deities), Crius (father by Eurybia of Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses), Iapetus (father of Atlas, Menoetius, Prometheus, and Epimetheus, by the Ocean-nymph Clymene), Themis (mother of the Hours and Fates), and Mnemosyne (mother of the Muses). Like the parents, the children and grandchildren bear the name of Titan. Incited to rebellion by their mother Gaea, they overthrew Uranus (q.v.) and established as sovereign their youngest brother Cronus. He was dethroned in turn by his son Zeus, whereupon the best of the Titans and the majority of their number declared for the new ruler, and under the new order retained their old positions, with the addition of new prerogatives. The rest, namely, the family of Iapetus, carried on from Mount Othrys a long and fierce struggle with the Olympian gods, who fought from Mount Olympus. Finally, by help of their own kindred, the Hecatoncheires and the Cyclopes, whom by Hera's counsel Zeus had set free from their prison, they were conquered and hurled down into Tartarus, where the Hecatoncheires were set to guard them. A later legend represents the Titans as reconciled with Zeus and released from Tartarus, and assigns them a place with Cronus in the Islands of the Blest.
TITHONUS Son of Laomedon of Troy, brother of Priam, carried off by Eos on account of his beauty. She obtained for him from Zeus the gift of immortality, but forgot at the same time to ask for eternal youth. When he afterwards became completely wrinkled and bent by age, and was powerless to move without assistance, and merely chirped like a cicada, she shut him up in a solitary chamber. According to another version, Eos changed him into a cicada. His sons were Emathion and Memnon (q.v.).
TITIES One of the three ancient patrician tribes at Rome. (See PATRICIANS.)
TITINIUS A Roman comic poet, the earliest representative of the fabula togata. (See COMEDY.) He flourished about 150 B.C. Owing to his skill in portraying character, he was ranked next to Terence. Of his comedies we only possess fifteem titles and three fragments of a popular character.
TITYUS Son of Gaea, a giant in Euboea, who offered violence to Leto, and in consequence was killed by the arrows of her children Apollo and Artemis.. He paid the penalty of this outrage in the lower world, where he lay stretched over nine acres of ground, while two vultures perpetually gnawed at his liver (the liver being supposed to be the seat of the passions).
TOGA The distinctive garb of the Roman citizen when appearing in public (see cut). Its use was forbidden to exiles and to foreigners; it was indispensable on all official occasions, even in imperial times, when more convenient garments had been adopted for ordinary use. It consisted of a white woollen cloth of semicircular cut, about five yards long by four wide, a certain portion of which was pressed by the fuller into long narrow plaits. This cloth was doubled lengthways, not down the centre, but so that one fold was deeper than the other. It was next thrown over the left shoulder in such a manner that the end in front reached to the ground, and the part behind was about twice a man's height in length. This end was then brought round under the right arm, and again thrown over the left shoulder so as to cover the whole of the right side from the arm-pit to the calf. The broad folds in which it hung over were thus gathered together on the left shoulder. The part which crossed the breast diagonally was known as the sinus, or bosom. It was deep enough to serve as a pocket for the reception of small articles. In earlier times the Romans wore the toga even in warfare, although one of considerably less width. It was worn on such occasions in a peculiar mode called the cinctus Gabinus (or girding in the Gabian manner, after the town Gabii). In this, the end which, in the other mode, was thrown over the left shoulder, was drawn tightly round the body, so that in itself it formed a girdle, leaving both arms free and preventing the garment from falling off. This garb was subsequently retained only for certain ceremonial rites, as at the founding of towns, at the ambarvalia, during incantations, at the opening of the temple of Janus, and at sacrificial observances of diverse kinds. After the sagum had been introduced as a military garment, the toga served as the exclusive garb and symbol of peace. Women also in olden times used to wear the toga: afterwards this was only the case with prostitutes; and disgraced wives were forbidden to wear the stola, the matron's dress of honour. The colour of the toga, as worn by men (toga virilis), was white: a dark-coloured toga (brown or black, toga pulla or sordida) was only worn by the lower classes, or in time of mourning, or by accused persons. A purple stripe woven in the garment was the distinctive mark of the curule magistrates and censors, of the State priests (but only when performing their functions), and afterwards of the emperors. This, which was called the toga proetexta, was also worn by boys until they attained manhood, and by girls until marriage. The toga picta was a robe adorned with golden stars; it was worn by a general on his triumph, by the magistrate who was giving public games, in imperial times by consuls on entering office, and by the emperor on festal occasions. On the toga candida, seeCANDIDATUS. The foot-gear appropriate to the toga was the calceus (q.v.).
TOGATA [The general term for a play with an Italian plot and surroundings, including proetextatoe (tragedies) and tabernarioe (comedies). See Diomedes, p. 489, Keil, who makes it clear that the term togata is not confined to comedy, and that Horace, De Arte Poetica 288, is wrong in distinguishing togata from proetexta, as comedy from tragedy.] (See COMEDY, 2, andPRAeTEXTA.) [H.N.]
TOLLENO A Roman siege-engine. (See SIEGES.)
TORCH-RACE The torch-race was a contest held at night, especially at Athens, at the Panathenaea and the festivals of Hephaestus, Prometheus, Pan, and the Thracian moon-goddess called Bendis [Plato, Rep. 328 A]. In this contest young men ran, with torches in their hands, from the altar of Prometheus in the Academia (where the torches were lighted) to the city; and whoever reached the goal with his torch alight was the winner. Other young men without torches ran after the torch-bearers; and the latter, if overtaken, had to hand over their torches to the former. To do this without letting the torches go out, required great skill [Pausanias, i 30 § 2]. In the time of Socrates the torchbearers sometimes rode on horseback [Plato, above quoted]. The contest was attended with considerable cost, as the scene of the race had to be illuminated; and at Athens the duty of providing for it was one of the public services incumbent on the wealthier citizens. (See LEITOURGIA.) [The torchrace is sometimes represented on vases, e.g. in Gerhard's Ant. Bildw. Taf. 63, 1, copied in Baumeister's Denkmaler, fig. 563. A rider carrying a torch may be seen in the accompanying cut.]
TOREUTIC ART The art of embossing metal, or working it in ornamental relief or intaglio (Pliny, N.H. xxxiv 54, 56; xxxv 77). The Greek verb toreuein means "to work in relief or repoussé," and also "to chase" in metal; toreutos is an epithet of cups that are "chased" or "worked in relief"; toreia is need of a "carving in relief"; the artist is called a toreutes; and his characteristic tool the toreus (Lat. coelum). The corresponding Latin term is coelatura, which, as defined by Quintilian (ii 21 § 9), auro, argento, oere, ferro operaefficit ; while scalptura eliam lignum, ebur, marmor, vitrum, gemmas complectitur. While sculpture in bronze is primarily concerned with designing the work of art which has to be cast in the mould, the toreutic art has to do with the elaboration and finish of the metallic form when it is already cast. In the case of large works in bronze, the task of the toreutes is simply to remove slight flaws and to add a few finishing touches; in that of smaller works, his art becomes of paramount importance. The term toreutes, is virtually confined to artists who produce for ordinary use articles in metal, which owe their value as works of art solely to the adornment bestowed upon them. In the best times of Greek art, the favourite metal for this purpose was silver; but gold and bronze and even iron were also used. The art was often applied to the embellishment of armour, especially shields; and even chariots were sometimes ornamented with embossed silver (Pliny, xxxiii 140, carrucoe argento coelatoe). Articles of plate, especially large silver platters, were occasionally adorned with ferns or ivy-leaves (lances filicatoe, pateroe hederacioe); and goblets were decorated with mythological subjects in relief (anaglypta), such as figures in gold riveted on vessels of silver, or in silver on bronze. These figures were either in high or low relief (emblemata, or crustoe). The art was also put into requisition for ornamenting furniture, for embossing plates of gold, and for making wreaths of that metal. In the Homeric age, copper, gold, silver, iron, tin, and lead were in use in different degrees. Copper, especially when mixed with tin to form bronze, was the ordinary material for armour and for all kinds of utensils; gold is named in connexion with articles of furniture, armour, and jewellery, but is generally described as imported from abroad; silver is less frequently mentioned. Iron was rare, in comparison with copper; but was used for implements of agriculture as well as for armour and tools. A block of iron is given as a prize at the funeral games in honour of Patroclus (Il. xxiii 826). Copper being the commonest metal, a worker in any kind of metal is called in Homer a coppersmith (chalkeus); thus, in Od. iii 425, it is applied to one who in the same context is described as a goldsmith (chrysochoos, ib. 432). The hammer and anvil sufficed for the manufacture of armour and the simpler varieties of household utensils. The process of beating out the metal and fashioning it with the hammer was called elaunein (Il. vii 223, xii 295); and a derivative of this verb, sphyrelatos, "wrought with the hammer," was afterwards used as an epithet of statues made of plates beaten out with the hammer, as opposed to those of cast metal (Herodotus, vii 69). It was in fact applied to all kinds of products of hammering, and to work in repoussé, large or small. The same process was used in making plates of metal to cover tripods and candelabra, as well as shields, scabbards, chariots, and also images of the gods. In such cases the plate of beaten metal was applied to a core of wood by what was termed empaistike techne (Athenaeus, 488 B). The chair of Penelope is thus covered with ivory and silver (Od. xix 56), and the bed of Odysseus, with ivory, silver, and gold (xxiii 200). The cuirass of Agamemnon (Il. xi 24 ff.) has twenty-one alternate stripes of various kinds of inlaid metal, both before and behind, the metals mentioned being gold and tin and kyanos, which is now identified as an imitation of lapis lazuli stained blue with carbonate of copper. The golden belt of Heracles is adorned with figures of bears, boars, and lions, and battle-scenes, in relief (0d. xi 609). The brooch of Odysseus represents a stag attacked by a dog (Od. xix 226). The cup of Nestor is pierced with rivets of gold, has four handles with two golden doves to each handle, and two supports running from the base of the cup to the lower part of the bowl, designed to strengthen the central stem (Il. xi 632, with Dr. Leaf's note). The structure of this singular cup was the theme of learned disquisitions in ancient times (Athenaeus, 489); it has now been made intelligible by the early cups discovered at Mycenae and Caere (Helbig, Das Homerische Epos aus den Denkmalern erlautert, p. 272). In the cup from Mycenae (Schliemann's Mycenae, fig. 346; Schuchhardt, Schliemann's Excavations, fig. 240), we see the supports continued into the handles above them, and even two doves as ornaments on the top of the handles. Elsewhere in Homer a lebes (in Il. xxiii 885, Od. iii 440), and a crater (in Od. xxiv 275), are described as "adorned with flowers," i.e. with the lotus-flowers and rosettes characteristic of archaic decoration (Schliemann, Mycenae, fig. 344). The shield of Achilles, as wrought by Hephaestus, is an elaborate work, including numerous figures distributed over separate compartments and inlaid in various kinds of metal. The metal facing has apparently a bronze ground, inlaid with gold, silver, and kyanos; and the designs may be best regarded as resembling the peculiar combination of Egyptian and Assyrian styles which was introduced into Europe by the Phoenicians (Il. xviii 478-607, ed. Leaf ; op. Helbig, l.c., chap. xxxi, and Murray's Greek Sculpture, chap. iii). In the Homeric age the articles in metal which were most highly prized are generally described as imported from abroad. Thus the silver crater given as a prize at the funeral games of Patroclus is the work of Sidonian craftsmen (Il. xxiii 743). It is the king of the Sidonians who sends a crater to Menelaus (Od. iv 616; Il. xxiii 741). The tripods and basket of Helen are said to have been brought by Menelaus from Egypt (Od. iv 126). The cuirass, as well as the chariot, of Agamemnon, are described as a present from the king of Cyprus (Il. xi 24). According to Greek mythology, the first blacksmiths were the Idoean Dactyli (q.v.); the first goldsmiths, the Telchines (q.v.). The legends about the latter imply that the forms and processes of the art were transmitted to Greece from the East. They are described as dwelling in turn in Crete, Rhodes, Cyprus, Cos, Lycia, and in various cities of Greece, especially at Sicyon, which, according to Pliny (xxxvi 4), was long the home of all kinds of manufacture in metals. Working in metal was afterwards much advanced by two important inventions, (1) that of casting in moulds, attributed to a Samian artist Rhoecus, son of Phileas, and his son Theodorus; and (2) that of soldering, ascribed to Glaucus of Chios (Pausanias, x 16 § 1), who was also famed for his skill in hardening and softening iron (Plutarch, De Def. Orac. 47). The toreutic art is described by Pliny as having been founded by Phidias (xxxiv 54) and brought to perfection by Polyclitus (56). For the former, it is sufficient to refer to the chryselephantine statue of Zeus at Olympia, and that of Athene in the Parthenon. Among other sculptors who were also toreutoe may be mentioned Calamis, Myron, Euphranor, Boethus, Stratonicus, Ariston, Eunicus, Hecataeus, Posidonius, Pasiteles, and Zenodorus. The artists who excelled in the chasing of silver (argento coelando) are enumerated by Pliny (xxxiii 154-157), who observes that no one had attained renown by the chasing of gold. The first named is Mentor, the most celebrated of all, and with him Acragas, Boethus (Cicero, Verr. 2 iv 32, hydriam Boethi manu factam proeclaro opere et grandi pondere), and Mys (q.v.). The last of these executed in bronze, from the designs of Parrhasius, the battle of the Centaurs and Lapithae which adorned the shield of the Athene Promachos of Phidias (Pausanias, i 28, 2). Pliny's second group includes Calamis and Antipater, who is probably mentioned by mistake for Diodorus (Anthologia Groeca i 106,16). His third group consists of Stratonicus and Tauriscus, both of Cyzicus; Ariston and Eunicus of Mytilene; and lastly Hecatoeus. In the next we have Pasiteles (in the time of Pompey); also Posidonius of Ephesus, with Hedystrachides, Zopyrus, and Pytheas. After these, he adds, there was an artist named Teucer, famous as a crustarius, a worker of plaques in low relief. Thereupon, he continues, art fell into abeyance, and only works ascribed to the old masters were of any account, even when the design had been almost worn out by use. The age of imitations and forgeries followed. The work of Calamis was skilfully opied by Zenodorus (Pliny, xxxiv 47), the sculptor of the colossal bronze statue of Nero (ib. 45). In the above list Pliny is probably following the order of fame rather than that of time. Stratonicus, Ariston, Eunicus, and Posidonius, all belong to Asia, and possibly to the age of the Diadochi. To the same age may be ascribed Pytheas and two artists remarkable for their skill in the most minute and delicate kinds of work, Callicrates of Lacedaemon and Myrmecides of Athens, who inscribed an elegiac couplet in letters of gold on a grain of sesame, and carved a quadriga of ivory which a fly could cover with its wings (Aelian, Var. Hist. i 17; Cicero, Acad. ii 120; Pliny, vii 85, xxxvi 43). Some of the technical processes of working in metal can be illustrated from the remains of ancient art. Thus on a cylix in Berlin (fig. 1) exhibiting scenes from a foundry, we have (1) two workmen, one attending to the fire in a furnace, the other resting on a hammer, and a boy blowing the bellows; on the wall hang two hammers and a saw, and a number of metal plaques with heads and figures in relief; (2) a workman putting together a bronze statue, the head of which lies a part on the ground; (3) two workmen scraping the excrescences off a statue of a warrior by means of a hooked instrument resembling a strigil. The first of the above scenes is closely similar to the design on a vase in the British Museum (B 458) representing the forge of Hephaestus at Lemnos. Again, a mural painting from Pompeii shows us one of the attendants of Hephaestus seated at his work; in his right hand he holds a hammer, and in his left a sharp graving-tool (Gr. toreus; Lat. coelum), with which he is tracing the ornament on the helmet of Achilles (fig. 2). According to the ornament required, tools were used of different kinds, with the extremity blunt, round, or square; as well as punches for repoussé work. Among the extant specimens of the art a foremost place in point of time must be given to those discovered by Schliemann at Hissarlik in the Troad, especially the bracelets, earrings, diadems, and discs of gold, figured in Ilios, and in Schuchhardt, Schliemann's Excavations (figs. 35, 54, 56-58). Those of a more advanced type, found at Mycenae in and after 1874, include plaques and golden studs in repoussé, bowls and diadems; also sepulchral masks of gold, imitating the human countenance and placed on the faces of the dead; arms and other objects in gold, copper, and bronze. The blade of a short, two-edged sword (Schliemann's Mycenae, fig. 446), when set free from the incrustations on its surface revealed a spirited representation of a hunt with five armed men pursuing three lions. The bronze ground is covered with dark enamel, the lions and the limbs of the huntsmen are inlaid with gold of different hues; their clothing and their shields with silver, and other details with black (fig. 3). Still more interesting in respect to artistic design are the two prehistoric gold cups found in 1889 at Vaphio, the ancient Pharis near Amyclae, adorned with remarkable reliefs representing men hunting wild bulls (Ephem. Arch. 1889, pl. 7-10; Gazette des Beaux Arts, 1890, pp. 428 and 434). We must also mention the small bronzes which abound in museums of ancient art. These may be divided into (a) Greek bronzes of archaic style, such as those of the 6th century B.C. discovered at Dodona (e.g. the flute-player, fig. 4). Many such bronzes are votive; e.g. the Naxian statuette in the Berlin Museum, inscribed as "dedicated by Deinagoras to Apollo the Far-darter," and the Apollo dedicated by Polycrates, probably as Argive of that name, now in the Museum at St. Petersburg. (b) Bronzes of later style, such as those of Pompeii and Herculaneum, preserved in large numbers in the Naples Museum. Earlier Italo-Greek statuettes are rare; e.g. the bronze from Tarentum representing a general in the act of addressing his troops (Collignon, Gr. Arch., fig. 134). Among objects for ornament we have numerous bronze reliefs in repoussé work, which are often perforated with holes for the purpose of attaching them to some other material, whether to strips of leather or articles of furniture. Some of the finest of them are pieces of armour, such as the cheek-guard of a helmet with the combat between Pollux and Lynceus found at Dodona (Collignon, fig. 135), and the Bronzes of Siris, two shoulder-pieces of Greek armour found in Southern Italy and now in the British Museum (Second Bronze Room, table-case D; Baumeister's Denkmaler, fig. 2204-5). In the same museum is the Castellani cista, a cylindrical casket in wood, covered with bands of silver fixed with rivets, and representing lions and winged animals, with lotuses and palmettes of an oriental character (fig. 5). Another group of examples includes the Greek and Etruscan Mirrors, with their metal backs or cases ornamented with figures traced by the engraver's burin (fig. 6); and the cistoe Proenestinoe (of the 3rd century B.C.). The finest of these is the Ficoroni cista, in the Museo Kircheriano at Rome, with figures in outline representing a scene from the Argonautic expedition and with the archaic inscription, Novios Plautios med Romai fecid (Daremberg and Saglio, fig. 1544). There are several others in the First Bronze Room of the British Museum, one with the Judgment of Paris, another with Bellerophon and Sthenoboea. Among silver vases of various ages may be mentioned the archaic patera of Amathus in Cyprus, with concentric bands of besieging warriors and winged sphinxes showing the influence of Assyrian and Egyptian art (Cesnola's Cyprus, p. 277; Daremberg, fig. 927); the Munich vase, with representations of captive Trojans, in low relief; the magnificent amphora of the 4th century B.C., found at Nicopol in South Russia in the tomb of a Scythian king with a frieze in high relief running round the upper part, representing Scythians taming and tending their horses, while the body of the vase is covered with ornaments in repoussé, including large birds and flowers (Daremberg, fig. 975); the Corsini cup, found at the ancient Antium, aná sometimes supposed to be copied from a Greek original by Zopyrus (ib., fig. 976); the pateroe of Hildesheim (q.v.), about the time of Augustus; that of Rennes, of the 3rd century A.D., in the Paris Cabinet des Antiques (ib. 972); and the vases from Bernay in the same collection. Further, in the British Museum we have a number of embossed and chased caskets, vases, or ornaments, found at Rome in 1793, and ascribed to the end of the 5th Century A.D. As a late Roman specimen of opus interrasile, or open work in which part of the silver is cut away on the same general principle as in fig. 5, we have a cantharus of dark red glass mounted in silver gilt, found near Tiflis in 1871, and now in the Museum of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg (fig. 7). One of the richest collections of Greek jewellery, that of the Hermitage Museum, comes from the ancient Panticapaeum. (Kertch). The Vatican and the Louvre contain remarkable specimens of Etrusco-Greek jewels, mainly found at Vulci and Caere. Modern ingenuity has at present failed to recover the secret of the process of "granulation" employed in many of these jewels, a kind of decoration in which the surface of the gold leaf is covered with minute and almost invisible globules of gold (see frontispiece to Martha's L'Art Etrusque). The Antiquarium of Munich possesses a votive crown of gold, superbly executed, with sprays of oak-leaves and festoons of flowers with winged figures among them (fig. 8). Lastly, in the British Museum we have specimens of Phoenician art, ascribed to the 8th century B.C., in the gold jewellery from Camirus in Rhodes. In the same museum "the Melos necklace, and the sceptre from the tomb at Tarentum, are admirable specimens of that fine combination of filagree and vitreous enamels which characterizes the Greek goldsmith's art in the middle of the 4th century B.C., and the bracelet and earrings from Capua, ornamented with lions' heads, are still more precious, as examples of repoussé work in its perfection" (Newton's Essays, p. 393). Authorities. Brunn, Gr. Kunstler, ii 397-412; Marquardt, Das Privatleben der Romer, pp. 669-718 2; Saglio, article on Coelatura in Daremberg and Saglio's Dict. des Antiquités; and Blumner's Technologie, vol. iv, pp. 228-413. Cp. the short sketch in the last chapter of Collignon's Manual of Greek Archoeology.] [J.E.S.]
TORMENTA The heavy Roman engines of war. (See ARTILLERY.)
TOWER OF THE WINDS An interesting example of the later Attic architecture, still standing in Athens. It was built by Andronicus Cyrrhestes [Vitruvius, i 6 § 4] about the middle of the 1st century B.C., and it served at once as the public clock and weather-cock of Athens. It is an octagonal tower of marble, with prominent porches, each supported by two simple Corinthian columns, on the north-east and north-west. On the south it has a kind of turret, to contain the cistern for the water-clock. The eight sides correspond to the directions from which the eight winds blow. The figures of these are represented in beautiful reliefs on the frieze, and beneath them on the marble walls are engraved the lines of the sundial. The culminating point of the sloping roof was once surmounted by a bronze Triton, placed on a Corinthian capital, so as to revolve and point with his staff to the figure of the wind which was blowing at the time (see cut).
TRAGEDY ROMAN TRAGEDY was founded entirely on that of the Greeks. In early times there existed crude dramatic productions (see SATIRE), which provided an opening for the translation from the Greek dramas brought on the stage by Livius Andronicus. He was a Greek by birth, but was brought to Rome as a captive about 200 B.C. It is to him that Roman tragedy owes its origin. His dramas and those of his successors were more or less free versions of Greek originals. Even the tragedies, or historical plays, drawn from national Roman materials, called fabuloe proetextoe or proetextatoe, (see PRAeETEXTA), the first writer of which was his immediate successor Noevius (about 235 B.C.), were entirely modelled on the Greek. The most noteworthy representatives of tragedy under the Republic were Ennius (B.C. 239-170), Pacuvius (220-130), and Accius (170-104), besides whom only a few other poets produced any works about this time. It is true that the scanty fragments we possess of these dramas admit of no positive judgment as to their merit, but there is no doubt that they rank far below the original creations of the Greeks. It may also be clearly inferred from the fragments, that declamation and pathos formed a characteristic attribute of Roman tragedy, which was intensified by a studied archaism of expression. Moreover, the titles of their plays that have come down to us show that preference was given to subjects relating to the Trojan epic cycle; this is to be explained by the Trojan origin claimed by the Romans. Next to this the most popular were the myths of the Pelopidae, of the Theban cycle, and of the Argonauts. Euripides was the favourite model; after him Sophocles: rarely Aeschylus. Roman tragedy, like Greek, was made up of spoken dialogue in iambic trimeters and musical portions called cantica (q.v.). On the chorus in Roman tragedy see CHORUS (near the end). In the time of Augustus the representatives of tragedy were Asinius Pollio, Varius, and Ovid; under Tiberius, Pomponius Secundus; under Nero and Vespasian, Curiatius Maternus, of whose works scarcely a line has been preserved. The only tragedies of Roman antiquity which we possess are those of the philosopher Seneca, which show great mastery of form and a fertile imagination, but suffer from an intolerable excess of rhetorical declamation. It is doubtful whether they were intended for the stage at all, and not rather for public recitation and for private reading.
TRAGEDY Tragedy in GREECE originated in the lyric dithyramb; i.e. in the song of a chorus at the rites held in honour of Dionysus. This song, in accordance with the cult of the god, expressed at one time exuberant joy, at another deep sorrow. The cult of Dionysus is also indicated by the very name of tragedy, signifying goat-song; i.e. (according to the usual explanation) the hymn sung by the chorus in their dance round the altar at the sacrifice of the goat, which was dedicated to Dionysus. Others derive the name from the fact that, to represent Satyrs, the chorus were clad in goat-skins, and hence resembled goats. These choral songs seem to have received a certain dramatic form as early as the time of Arion, to whom the dithyramb owes its artistic development. The true drama, including tragic and satyric plays, was evolved subsequently in Athens. Tradition ascribes the origin of tragedy to a contemporary of Solon named Thespis, of Icaria, which was a chief seat of the cult of Dionysus. The date assigned to this is 540 B.C. Thespis was at the same time poet, leader of the chorus, and actor. According to the testimony of the ancients, his pieces consisted of a prologue, a series of choral songs, standing in close connexion with the action, and dramatic recitations introduced between the choruses. These recitations were delivered by the leader of the chorus, and were partly in the form of monologues, partly in that of short dialogues with the chorus, whereby the action of the play was advanced. The reciter was enabled to appear in different roles by the aid of linen or wooden masks. These also are said to have been contrived by the poet himself. The invention of Thespis, whose own pieces soon lapsed into oblivion, won the favour of Pisistratus and the approval of the Athenian public. Tragedy thus became a substantial element in the Attic festival of Dionysus. Thespis' immediate followers were Choerilus, Pratinas (the inventor of the satyric drama), his son Aristias, and Phrynichus. Phrynichus especially did good service towards the development of tragedy by introducing an actor apart from the leader of the chorus, and so preparing the way for true dialogue. He further improved the chorus, which still, however, occupied a disproportionate space in comparison with the action of the play. Tragedy was really brought into being by Aeschylus, when he added a second actor (called the deuteragonistes) to the first, or protagonistes, and in this way rendered dialogue possible. He further subordinated the choruses to the dialogue. Sophocles, in whom tragedy reaches its culminating point, added to Aeschylus' two actors a third, or tritagonistes; and Aeschylus accepted the innovation in his later plays. Thenceforward three actors were regularly granted by lot to each poet, at the public expense. Only rarely, and in exceptional cases, was a fourth employed. Sophocles also raised the number of the chorus from twelve to fifteen. The only other important innovation due to him was, that he gave up the internal connexion, preserved by Aeschylus, among the several plays of a tetralogy which were presented in competition by the tragic poets at the festival of Dionysus. (See TETRALOGIA.) The third great master of tragedy is Euripides, in whom, however, we already observe a decline in many respects from the severe standard of his predecessor. During and after the age of these masters of the art, from whom alone have complete dramas come down to us, many other tragic poets were actively employed, whose works are known to us by name alone, or are only preserved in fragments. It is remarkable that, in the case of the great tragic writers, the cultivation of the Muse of tragedy seems to have been hereditary among their descendants, and among those of Aeschylus in particular, for many generations. His son Euphorion, his nephew Philocles, his grand-nephews Morsimus and Melanthius, his grandson Astydamas, and his great-grandsons Astydamas and Philocles, were poets of more or less note. In the family of Sophocles may be mentioned his son Iophon and his grandson Sophocles; and in that of Euripides, his son or nephew of the same name. Among the tragic poets of the 3rd century, Ion, Achaeus, Aristarchus, and Neophron were accounted the most eminent, Agathon may also be included as the first who ventured to treat a subject of his own invention, whereas hitherto mythical history, especially that of Homer and the cyclic poets, or; in rare instances, authentic history, had furnished the materials of the play. After the Peloponnesian War tragedy shared the general and ever-increasing decline of political and religious vitality. In the 4th century, besides the descendants of Aeschylus, we must mention Theodectes, Aphareus, and Chaeremon, who partly wrote for readers only. The number of tragedies produced at Athens is marvellous. According to the not altogether trustworthy records of the number of plays written by each poet, they amounted to 1,400. The works of the foremost poets were represented over and over again, especially in the theatres of Asia Minor, under the successors of Alexander. During the first half of the 3rd century Ptolemy Philadelphus built a great theatre in Alexandria, where he established competitions in exact imitation of those at Athens. This gave a new impetus to tragic poetry, and seven poets became conspicuous, who were known as the Alexandrine Pleias, Alexander Aetolus, Philiscus (see cut), Sositheus, Homerus, Aeantides, Sosiphanes, and Lycophron. The taste of the Alexandrine critics deemed them worthy to occupy a place beside the five great tragic poets of Athens, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Ion, and Achaeus. Inasmuch as tragedy developed itself out of the chorus at the Dionysiac festivals, so, in spite of all the limitations which were introduced as a result of the evolution of the true drama, the chorus itself was always retained. Hence Greek tragedy consisted of two elements: the one truly dramatic, the prevailing metre of which was the iambic trimeter; the other consisting of song and dance (see CHORUS) in the numerous varieties of Dorian lyric poetry. The dramatic portion was generally made up of the following parts: the proloyos, from the beginning to the first entry of the chorus; the epeisodion, the division between each choral song and the next; and the exodos, or concluding portion which followed the last chorus. The first important choral part was called the parodos; and the song following an epeisodion, a stasimon. There were further songs of lamentation by the chorus and actors together, which were called kommoi. A solo was sometimes sung by the actor alone; this became especially common in the later tragedies.
TRANSVECTIO The festal parade of the Roman knights. (See EQUITES.)
TRESVIRI OR TRIUMVIRI The Roman term for a college or board of three men. For the triumviri capitales, monetales, nocturni, see VIGINTISEXVIRI.
TRIBON A garment worn in Doric states by men and ephebi, generally in a double fold over the chiton. It was considerably shorter than the himation (q.v.). At Athens also there was a tendency to imitate Spartan simplicity, especially amongst the philosophers, among whom this garment was worn chiefly by the Cynics.
TRIBONIANUS A celebrated Roman jurist of Side in Pamphylia, who was at first an advocate, and afterwards held a high official position under Justinian, and, in conjunction with the most distinguished lawyers of his time, made a code of Roman law. (See CORPUS IURIS CIVILIS.)
TRIBULUM The Roman threshing machine. (See THRESHING.)
TRIBUNAL The Roman term for a platform of wood or stone (in the camp, generally of turf), on which magisterial personages sat in their chair of office (see SELLA CURULIS) when discharging their public duties; e.g. the consuls, when presiding at the comilia, and the praetors when sitting in judgment. In Roman theatres this name was given to the two places of honour immediately to the right and left of the stage, the one for the person who gave the play and for the emperor, the other for the Vestal Virgins and the empress.
TRIBUNI AERARII The name given amongst the Romans in earlier times to the wealthy members of the several tribes, who were entrusted with the levying of the war-tax (see TRIBUTUM) and the distribution of pay to the soldiers from the proceeds of it. What position they held after the payment of the troops was handed over to the quaestors is not clear, from want of information on the subject. In the 1st century B.C. they appear as a distinct class, from which, during the years 70-46 B.C., the third decuria of judges was appointed to represent the plebeians, the other two consisting of senators and knights.
TRIBUNI MILITUM The superior officers of the Roman legions, six in number, two of whom always held the command for two months on alternate days. They were appointed before the levy took place, as they themselves had to be in office at that time. Originally they were nominated by the consuls; afterwards partly by them and partly by the people, inasmuch as the people elected twenty-four out of the number of candidates in the comitia tributa for the four legions which were levied regularly every year, while the consuls retained the appointment for the remaining legions. They were not as a rule taken from veteran centurions, but for the greater part from young men of senatorial or equestrian rank, who had served their first campaign in the train or on the staff of a general, and then began their political career with this office. As a mark of distinction, all of them wore the gold ring of the equestrian order. They also wore a narrow or broad purple stripe on their toga, according as they were of equestrian or senatorial rank respectively. In the time of the Empire, they always led the legion on the march and in battle. They did not, however, as under the Republic, rank immediately below the commanders-in-chief, but under the legatus legionis, the commander of the legion and its auxiliary troops.
TRIBUNI PLEBIS The name given among the Romans to the official representatives granted to the plebeians in 494 B.C., as a protection against the oppression of patricians and the consuls. At first they were two in number, then five, and (after 457) ten. Only free-born plebeians were eligible for the office, which was annual. The election took place at first in the comitia curiata, but after 471 in the comitia tributa, under the presidency of any tribune who happened to be in office at the time. At first they were only magistrates of the plebs, and were without any insignia of office, or even lictors, instead of whom they had several attendants (viatores). This continued even after they were fully recognised as public officials. On the other hand, they possessed the privilege guaranteed to them by the plebs under solemn oath, on the institution of their office, of being "sacrosanct" and inviolable; and, under the protection of this right, they extended their originally limited powers by judicious encroachments. Their earliest right, which was at first exercised in favour of the plebs, but soon on behalf of all citizens, was that of protection (auxilium), which they could use against all magistrates with the exception of the dictator. This enabled them to prevent the execution of official orders by a simple veto (intercessio). In face of any opposition they were authorized to have recourse to compulsory measures such as arrest, fines, or imprisonment. Their power only extended over Rome and its immediate neighbourhood, and was further restricted by the right of veto, which they could exercise against one another. For the protection of the individual they only interposed when their aid was asked. For this purpose their house stood open day and night to any who sought their assistance, and they themselves could never be absent from the city a whole day, except during the feriae Latinae, when all business was suspended. Without appeal they could interpose in any measure which affected the whole plebs, such as the levying of troops and the raising of the war-tax (tributum). This right of intercession, which originally was confined to the auxilium, and which could never be exercised except by the tribune in person, and simultaneously with the proceeding that was to be prohibited, was in course of time gradually extended, until finally the veto of the tribunes enabled them to suspend almost all official proceedings; administrative measures, transactions with the Senate, and meetings of the people for the purpose of legislation and election, etc. They had the right of calling meetings of the plebs for the discussion of affairs relating to that body. From the time that the authority of these meetings extended over all State business, and their decrees (called plebiscita), were considered binding on the whole people, this right enabled the tribunes to propose changes in private or public law. It is true that, for carrying out their proposals, they were dependent on the sanction of the Senate; but, as they were safe from the risk of prosecution, they sometimes assumed, in case of need, an authority superior to that body. Originally they had no official relations with the Senate, but afterwards, by virtue of their inviolability, they obtained the right of sitting on their benches (subsellia) at the open door of the senate-house, so as to be present at the deliberations, and in case of need to interfere by virtue of their auxilium. Soon, however, they even obtained a seat in the Senate, and a general right of veto; until finally they acquired the right of summoning a meeting of the Senate, and of making proposals. At the same time they acquired the privilege of entrance into the Senate at the first census after the expiration of their office. The office of tribune, really the highest in the State, was employed by demagogues in the later days of the Republic in the interests of a party and to the injury of the commonwealth. By Sulla, in 80 B.C., its power was cut down to the very narrowest limits, chiefly by the regulation that, after the tribunate, no one was eligible for a curule office. However, as soon as 50 B.C. there came a complete reaction and a return to the old state of things, which finally entailed total anarchy, and, as a natural consequence, the sole rule of Caesar and Augustus. In 48 B.C. Caesar, to secure his position, assumed the tribunician power, at first without limit of time, and afterwards without limit of extent; and in 36 Augustus followed his example. From that time the tribunate became the pivot of the imperial power. Nevertheless, until beyond the time of Constantine, tribunes to the number of ten continued to exist. They were elected by the Senate, and as a rule from among the senators, but were in complete dependence on the will of the emperor. In order to find candidates for the office, which was now but little sought after, Augustus made the candidature in the case of the plebeians for the praetorship dependent on having held the tribunate. The office was also thrown open to sons of freedmen.
TRIBUNUS CELERUM The designation, under the Roman Empire, of the commander of the cavalry, nominated by the emperor for the time being.
TRIBUS Originally the name of each of the three classes of Roman patricians (Ramnes, Tities, and Luceres), who were divided into ten curioe (q.v.). In direct contrast with this was the classification made by king Servius, whereby Roman citizens, together with the whole territory of Rome, were divided into four city (tribus urbanoe) and twenty-six country tribes (tribus rusticae). These were geographical divisions, according to which the census was taken, troops levied, and the war tax imposed and collected. From time to time the number was diminished; but it increased again until 241 B.C., when it was raised to thirty-five (four city and thirty-one country tribes), and this number remained fixed for the future, even under the Empire. The new citizens admitted after 241 were distributed amongst the existing tribes. This was the case with all the Italian communities, which in 89 B.C., by the extension of the citizenship to all dwellers in Italy, were included in the tribes. Every citizen (with the exception of those called oerarii, q.v.) belonged to some special tribe, to which he himself or his ancestors had been assigned, even when he no longer had his home there. Accordingly, in the official designation of a free citizen, the name of his tribe was added to his family names. Originally the country tribes were on an equality with those of the city, but subsequently they were deemed superior, on the ground that they consisted of owners of property in land, whilst the chief part of the city tribes was made up of merchants, workmen, and the proletariate, who possessed no landed property, and amongst whom freedmen were included. The tribes attained political importance on the establishment of the comitia tributa (q.v.), in which those present voted as individuals, and not as members of property-classes, as in the comitia centuriata. The comitia tributa thus had a democratic character. The importance of the tribes was further increased on the reform of the comitia centuriata (q.v.), since each of the thirty-five tribes was thereby divided into five property-classes, each consisting of two centurioe, seniores and iuniores. Under the Empire they lost all political importance; the country-tribes were used merely as geographical subdivisions, while the lists of the whole number of the thirty-five tribes were treated as a register for the distribution of the State doles of corn. Thus the tribes sank at last into corporate groups of pauperized citizens.
TRIBUTUM Originally an extraordinary means of revenue among the Romans, levied on the burgesses in the proportion of 1-3 per thousand in times of war, when the means of the State treasury were of themselves not sufficient, and more especially after 406 B.C., when the State first took over the payment of the soldiers' wages. When the war was over, the money was generally repaid from contributions or from the booty. Subsequent to the conquest of Macedonia, 167 B.C., the income of the State from the provinces was so considerable, that the burgesses, although not legally exempt, ceased any longer to be subject to this payment. The strictly regulated taxes of the provinces also went by the same name, tributum soli, the ground-tax, and tributum capitis, the personal tax. (See STIPENDIUM.) Italy, up to his time exempt, was also made liable to these taxes by Diocletian, towards the end of the 3rd century A.D. (Cp. TAXES.)
TRICLINIUM The Roman dining-table of four sides, with three low couches (lecti) placed round it so as to leave the fourth side free for the servants (see plan). The lecti, arranged for three persons each, were broad, cushioned places, lower towards the outside and sloping upwards with a side support; on each of the three places was a pillow, on which the diners, as they lay at table, supported themselves with their left arm, their feet being towards the outside. The allotment of the nine places was made in accordance with strict rules of etiquette. The middle couch, lectus medius, and the one on its left, lectus summus (the highest), were appointed for the guests, the former for the most distinguished guests; that on its right, lectus imus (the lowest), was for the host, his wife, and a child or a freedman. On the lectus summus and imus, the place of honour (locus summus) was on the left side, on which was the support of the couch, and consequently the most convenient seat. The place appointed for the chief person of the company, the locus consularis, was, however, on the lectus medius, and not on the left, but on the right and unsupported side, next that of the host, who took the first place of the lectus imus. For the tables of costly citrus-wood with round tops, and similar tables, which were introduced towards the end of the Republic, a peculiar crescent-sbaped couch was used. This was called sigma from its shape C, one of the forms of the Greek letter bearing that name. It was also called stibadium, and as a rule was suitable only for five persons. On the sigma the places of honour were the corner-seats, the first place being that on the "right wing" (in dextro cornu), the second that on the left (in sinistro cornu); the remaining seats were named from this onward, so that the last was on the left side of the first. The dining-room itself was also called triclinium, even when it contained several dining-tables. Romans of distinction in later times had several such rooms for different times of the year; in the winter they dined in the interior of the house by lamp-light, in summer in an arbour attached to the house or in the upper story.
TRIERARCH Originally the commander of a trireme; afterwards of any large war-ship.
TRIERES A Greek ship with three banks of oars. (See SHIPS.)
TRIGLYPHS A name given in the Doric frieze to surfaces which, projecting over every column and between every two columns, are ornamented with three parallel channels, two complete ones in the middle and two halves at the corners. Between the triglyphs are the metopes(q.v.). (Cp. ARCHITECTURE, ORDERS OF; and PARTHENON, fig. 2.)
TRIGON A kind of game with a ball. (See BALL, GAMES OF).
TRILOGY A set of three tragedies which, together with a satyric drama, formed a tetralogy (q.v.). The several tragedies were generally, but not always, connected with each other in subject. The only surviving example is the Oresteia of Aeschylus, consisting of the Agamemnon, Chocphoroe, and Eumenides.
TRIPTOLEMUS Son of Eleusis (or of Celeus, see DEMOPHOON) a favourite of Demeter, who sent him about the world on a car drawn by serpents to extend the cultivation of grain, and with it agriculture. On his return to Attica, Celeus of Eleusis made an attempt upon his life, but, at the bidding of Demeter, was obliged to give up the country to him. He founded the town of Eleusis, and, as first priest of Demeter, instituted the services there held in her honour, as well as the Thesmophoria (q.v.). In various parts of Greece, as well as in Italy and Sicily, he was honoured as the founder and promoter of husbandry, but especially in Eleusis, where, as the local hero, he had a temple dedicated to him, and a spot called the threshing-floor of Trip-tolemus on the Rharian plain. The Argive legend connected him with its local genealogies, and told how, while seeking Io in Tarsus and Antioch, he founded Greek settlements and instituted the cultivation of corn. In the Attic legend of Eleusis, he is also represented as a judge of the dead. (See DEMETER, fig. 1, and VASES, fig. 12.)
TRIRARCHIA The superintendence of the equipment of a war-ship; one of the public burdens imposed on Athenian citizens. (See LEITOURGIA.)
TRIREME A Roman ship with three banks of oars. (See SHIP.)
TRITAGONIST The third actor in the Greek drama, who played in the least important parts.
TRITOGENEIA A special surname of Athene
TRITON Son of Poseidon and Amphitrite. He is described as living with them in a golden palace in the depths of the sea. The mythical lake Tritonis, near the Mediterranean coast of Libya, was regarded as his peculiar abode, especially in the storyof the Argonauts. He was represented as man in his upper parts, terminating in a dolphin's tail; his special attribute is a twisted sea-shell, on which he blows, now violently, now gently, to raise or calm the billows. In the course of time there grew up the notion of a large number of Tritons, all represented as beings of double form and sometimes with the fore-feet of a horse as well as a human body and a fish's tail (called Centauro-tritons or Ichthyo-tauri). They were, however, always regarded as attendants on the other sea-gods while riding or driving over the waves; and they were represented accordingly in works of art (see cuts).
TRIUMPH The Roman festal procession at the head of a victorious host through the city to the Capitol, the highest distinction which could be accorded to a victorious commander. Only the regular holder of the highest command (imperium), a dictator, consul, or praetor, was entitled to this honour, and that too even when the decisive victory had not been fought under his immediate direction. It was also essential that the victory should be an important one gained in a regular war; i.e. not against citizens or rebellious slaves. Permission to celebrate a triumph was granted, with the necessary expenses, by the Senate. Up to the day of the triumph, the general was obliged to remain before the city, because his command expired at the moment he entered it. Accordingly it was outside the city, generally in the temple of Bellona, that the Senate assembled to receive his report. On the day of the triumph, the procession, starting from the Campus Martius, proceeded through the Porta Triumphalis into the Circus Flaminius; then, after entering the city through the Porta Carmentalis, it marched on into the Circus Maximus, and thence to the Via Sacra, and up this across the Forum to the Capitol (see plan under FORUM). The streets were adorned with garlands, the temples opened, and, as the procession passed by, the spectators greeted it with the acclamation, Io triumphe! The procession was headed by the State officials and the Senate. Then followed trumpeters, and after them the captured spoils (see fig. 1); next came painted representations of the conquered country, models of the captured fortresses, ships, etc., either carried on men's shoulders or placed in chariots; then the crowns of honour dedicated to the triumphant general by the towns of the province, originally of bay leaves, later of gold. Then the white bulls intended for sacrifice on the Capitol, with gilded horns, decorated with ribands and garlands, and accompanied by youths and boys in holiday attire, carrying gold and silver chalices. Then followed in chains the distinguished captives who had been spared for the triumph, and whose fate it was, when the triumphal car reached the slope of the Capitol, to be dragged off to prison, there almost invariably to meet with immediate execution. Behind these followed the lictors of the general in purple tunics, with their fasces wreathed in bay leaves; then a body of musicians playing on the lyre, and priests with censers; and lastly the triumphal car, gilded, and garlanded with bay leaves, and drawn by four white horses, which were also wreathed with garlands. On it stood the general; in earlier times his body was dyed with vermilion [Pliny, N. H. xxxiii 111]. His head was wreathed with bay, and he wore the garb of the Capitoline Jupiter, furnished him from the treasury of the Capitoline temple; viz. a purple tunic embroidered with golden palm-shoots (tunica palmata), a toga decorated with golden stars on a purple ground (toga picta), gilded shoes, and an ivory sceptre in his left hand, with an eagle on the top; in his right he carried a branch of bay. Over his head a public slave, standing behind >>>>> 656 TRIUMPHAL ARCHES. him, held the golden crown of Jupiter, and, while the people shouted acclama- tions, called to him, "Look behind you, and remember you are mortal." [Tertullian, Apol. 33.] He also guarded himself against envy and the evil eye by an amulet which he wore either on his person or tied to the car. With him on the car, and some- times on the horses, sat his youngest chil- dren, while his grown up sons rode behind with his lieutenants and officers. The soldiers brought up the rear, all wearing decorations, and shouting Io triumphe! In accordance with ancient custom, they also alternately sang songs in praise of their general, and uttered ribald jests at his expense. On arriving at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter, the general, as a token of his victory, placed on the lap of the god the bay leaves wreathed around the fasces, together with his own branch of bay, or (in later times) a palm-branch, the fasces, and his laurel-shoot. He then offered the sacrifice of thanksgiving (cp. fig. 2). The festival, originally limited to one day, gradually extended itself to several. It concluded with a banquet to the State officials and the Senate, and sometimes also with an entertainment for the soldiers and people. If the permission to celebrate the ordinary triumph were refused to a general, he could undertake one on his own account to the temple of Jupiter Latiaris on the Alban Hill. If the conqueror had not fought under his own auspices, or if his exploits did not appear to merit the highest form of triumph, he was allowed to hold one of an inferior kind called an ovatio. In this the conqueror entered the town either on foot (as in earlier times) or on horseback, clad in the toga proetexta, and with a wreath of myrtle on his brow. Under the Empire, only the emperors triumphed, because the generals commanded as their lieutenants (legati Augusti), under the auspices of the emperors, and not under their own. Victorious generals were then obliged to content themselves with the ornamenta triumphalia; i.e. the right of appearing on holiday occasions in the insignia of triumph, the tunica palmata, or toga picta, and wreath of bay leaves. After Trajan's time, even this kind of military distinction ceased, as all consuls were permitted to wear the triumphal deco- rations during festal processions.
TRIUMPHAL ARCHES A type of monumental architecture peculiar to the Romans. They were erected as memorials in honour of victorious generals, and (in later times) in honour of individual emperors. In architectural design they united the Roman arch with the Greek column. In Rome (not to mention the remains of the Arch of Drusus) there are still extant, (1) the arch which the Senate and people erected after the death of TITUS, in memory of the conquest of Judaea (70 A.D.). This consists of two massive piers of Pentelic marble inclosed by pilasters and joined together by a vaulted arch, and of a lofty entablature, on which the dedication is inscribed. On the inner jambs of the arch are two fine reliefs, representing (i) the emperor on the triumphal car, and (ii)a group of soldiers bearing the spoils of the Jewish War. (See TRIUMPH, fig 1.) (2) The Arch of SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, with three entrances. This is of remarkable dimensions, but the decoration, though far richer, is overcharged; it was erected by the people in 203 A.D. in honour of the emperor after his victories over the Parthians. (3) The Arch of CONSTANTINE, also with three entrances. This was built after 311 A.D. (see cut), by using certain portions (viz. the reliefs on both the fronts and on the inner sides of the middle arch) of one of the triumphal arches of Trajan, which was destroyed for this purpose. Among those not in Rome must be mentioned that at Orange in the south of France. Arches of honour were also erected for other services. Such are that of Augustus at Ariminum. (Rimini) on the occasion of the completion of the road leading to that place from Rome; that of Trajan at Ancona, on the restoration of the harbour. In Rome itself, between the site of the Velabrum and the Forum Boarium, there is a richly decorated, but coarsely sculptured, gateway with a flat lintel, bearing an inscription recording its erection (in A.D. 204) in honour of Septimius Severus and other members of the imperial house by the silversmiths or bankers (argentarii) and other merchants of the Forum Boarium. The arch of the Sergii at Pola in Istria is a family memorial.
TROILUS A younger son of Priam and Hecuba, who was slain by Achilles. According to the later legend, Achilles lay in wait for the boy when he was exercising his horse near a well in front of the city, and slew him as he fled to the temple of Thymbraean Apollo, just by the altar of the god, at the very spot where he himself was destined afterwards to meet his fate. According to another account, Troilus ventured to meet Achilles in open conflict, but was dragged to death by his own horses. (See VASES, fig. 10.)
TROJAN WAR The story of the Trojan War, like the story of the Argonauts, underwent, in the course of time, many changes and amplifications. The kernel of the story is contained in the two epic poems of Homer: the Iliad and the Odyssey. The incidents, either narrated or briefly touched upon in these, were elaborated or developed by the post-Homeric poets, partly by connecting them with other popular traditions, and partly by the addition of further details of their own in ation. While in Homer it is simply the rape of Helen which is the occasion of the war, a later legend traced its origin to the marriage of Pelous and Thetis, when Eris threw down among the assembled gods the golden apple inscribed For the fairest. The quarrel that ensued between Hera, Athene, and Aphrodite for the prize of beauty was decided by Paris in favour of Aphrodite, who in return secured him the possession of Helen, while Hera and Athene became, from that time onward, the implacable enemies of the whole Trojan race. According to Homer, after Helen had been carried off by Paris, Menelaus and Agamemnon visited all the Greek chieftains in turn, and prevailed on them to take part in the expedition which they were preparing to avenge the wrong. According to the later account, the majority of the chieftains were already bound to follow the expedition by an oath, which they had sworn to Tyndareos. Agamemnon was chosen commander-in-chief; next to him the most prominent Greek heroes are his brother Menelaus, Achilles and Patroclus, the two Ajaxes, Teucer, Nestor and his son Antilochus, Odysseus, Diomedes,Idomeneus, and Philoctetes, who, however, at the very outset of the expedition had to be left behind, and does not appear on the scene of action until just before the fall of Troy. Later epics add the name of Palamedes. The entire host of 100,000 men and 1,186 ships assembled in the harbour of Aulis. Here, while they were sacrificing under a plane tree, a snake darted out from under the altar and ascended the tree, and there, after devouring a brood of eight young sparrows and the mother-bird himself, was turned into stone. This omen Calchas, the seer of the host, interpreted to mean that the war would last nine years, and terminate in the tenth with the destruction of Troy [Iliad ii 299-332]. Agamemnon had already received an oracle from the Delphian god that Troy would fall when the best of the Greeks quarrelled. In Homer the crossing to Troy follows immediately; but in the later story the Greeks at first land by mistake in Mysia, in the country of Telephus (q.v.), and being dispersed by a storm and driven back to Greece, assemble afresh at Aulis, whence they are only permitted to set out after the sacrifice of Iphigenia (an incident entirely unknown to Homer). On the Greek side the first to fall is Protesilaiis, who is the first to land. The disembarkation cannot take place until Achilles has slain the mighty Cycnus (q.v., 2). After pitching their camp, Odysseus and Menelaus proceed as ambassadors to Troy, to demand the surrender of Helen. But this proposal, in spite of the inclination of Helen herself and the admonition of the Trojan Antenor, falls to the ground, owing to the opposition of Paris, and war is declared. The number of the Trojans, whose chief hero is Hector, scarcely amounts to the tenth part of that of the besiegers; and although they possess the aid of countless brave allies, such as Aeneas, Sarpedon, and Glaucus, in their fear of Achilles they dare not risk a general engagement. On the other hand, the Achaeans can do nothing against the well-fortified and defended town, and see themselves confined to laying ambuscades and devastating the surrounding country, and compelled by lack of provisions to have resource to foraging expeditions in the neighbourhood, undertaken by sea and by land under the generalship, of Achilles. At length the decisive tenth year arrives. The Homeric Iliad narrates the events of this year, confining itself to the space of fifty-one days. Chryses, of Apollo, comes in priestly garb into camp of the Greeks to ransom his daughter Chryseis from Agamemnon. He is rudely repulsed, and Apollo consequently visits the Greeks with a plague. In an assembly of the Greeks summoned by Achilles, Calchas declares the only means of appeasing the god to be the surrender of girl without ransom. Agamemnon assents to the general wish; but, by way of compensation, takes from Achilles, whom he considers to be the instigator of the whole plot, his favourite, slave Briseis. Achilles withdraws in a rage to his tent, and implores his mother Thetis to obtain from Zeus a promise that the Greeks should meet with disaster in fighting the Trojans until Agamemnon should give her son complete satisfaction [Il. i]. The Trojans immediately take the open field, and Agamemnon is induced by a promise of victory, conveyed in a dream from Zeus, to appoint the following day for a battle [ii]. The hosts are already standing opposed to one another, prepared for fight, when they agree to a treaty that the conflict for Helen and the plundered treasures be decided by a duel between Paris and Menelaus. Paris is overcome in the duel, and is only rescued from death by the intervention of Aphrodite [iii]. When Agamemnon presses for the fulfilment of the treaty, the Trojan Pandarus breaks the peace by shooting an arrow at Menelaus, and the first open engagement in the war begins [iv], in which, under the protection of Athene, Diomede performs miracles of bravery and wounds even Aphrodite and Ares [v]. Diomede and the Lycian Glaucus are on the point of fighting, when they recognise one another as hereditary guest-friends. Hector goes from the battle to Troy, and the day ends with an indecisive duel between Hector and Ajax son of Telamon. In the armistice ensuing both sides bury their dead, and the Greeks, acting on the advice of Nestor, surround the camp with a wall and trench [vii]. When the fighting begins afresh, Zeus forbids the gods to take part in it, and ordains that the battle shall terminate with the discomfiture of the Greeks [viii]. On the following night Agamemnon already begins to meditate flight, but Nestor advises reconciliation with Achilles. The efforts of the ambassadors are, however, fruitless [ix]. Here-upon Odysseus and Diomede go out to reconnoitre, capture Dolon, a Trojan spy, and surprise Rhesus (q.v.), king of the Thracians, the newly arrived ally of the enemy [x]. On the succeeding day Agamemnon's bravery drives the Trojans back to the walls of the town; but he himself, Diomede, Odysseus, and other heroes leave the battle wounded, the Greeks retire behind the camp walls [xi], to attack which the Trojans set out in five detachments. The opposition of the Greeks is brave; but Hector breaks the rough gate with a rock, and the stream of enemies pours itself unimpeded into the camp [xii]. Once more the Greek heroes who are still capable of taking part in the fight, especially the two Ajaxes and Idomeneus, succeed with the help of Poseidon in repelling the Trojans, while Telamonian Ajax dashes Hector to the ground with a stone; but the latter soon reappears on the battlefield with fresh strength granted him by Apollo at the command of Zeus [xiii]. Poseidon is obliged to leave the Greeks to their fate; they retire again to the ships, which Ajax in vain defends [xv]. The foremost ship is already burning, when Achilles gives way to the entreaties of his friend Patroclus, and sends him, clad in his own armour, with the Myrmidons to the help of the distressed Greeks. Supposing it to be Achilles himself, the Trojans in terror flee from the camp before Patroclus, who pursues them to the town, and lays low vast numbers of the enemy, including the brave Sarpedon, whose corpse is only rescued from the Greeks after a severe fight. At last Patroclus himself is slain by Hector with the help of Apollo [xvi]; Achilles' arms are lost, and even the corpse is with difficulty saved [xvii]. And now Achilles repents of his anger, reconciles himself to Agamemnon, and on the following day, furnished with new and splendid armour by Hephaestus at the request of Thetis [xviii], avenges the death of his friend on countless Trojans and finally on Hector himself [xxii]. With the burial of Patroclus and the funeral games established in his honour [xxiii], the restoration of Hector's corpse to Priam, and the burial of Hector, for which Archilles allows an armistice of eleven days [xxiv], the Iliad concludes. Immediately after the death of Hector the later legends bring the Amazons to the help of the Trojans, and their queen Penthesilea is slain by Achilles. Then appears Memnon, who is also mentioned by Homer; at the head of his Aethiopians he slays Antilochus son of Nestor, and is himself slain by Achilles. And now comes the fulfilment of the oracle given to Agamemnon at Delphi; for at a sacrificial banquet a violent quarrel arises between Achilles and Odysseus, the latter declaring craft and not valour to be the only means of capturing Troy. Soon after, in an attempt to force a way into the hostile town through the Scaean gate, or, according to later legend, at the marriage of Priam's daughter Polyxena in the temple of Thymbraean Apollo, Achilles falls slain by the arrow of Paris, directed by the god. After his burial, Thetis offers the arms of her son as a prize for the bravest of the Greek heroes, and they are adjudged to Odysseus. Thereupon his competitor, the Telamonian Ajax, slays himself. For these losses, however, the Greeks find some compensation. Acting on the admonition of Helenus, son of Priam, who had been captured by Odysseus, that Troy could not be conquered without the arrows of Heracles and the presence of a descendant of Aeacus, they fetch to the camp Philoctetes, the heir of Heracles, who had been abandoned on Lemnos, and Neoptolemus, the young son of Achilles, who had been brought up on Seyros. The latter, a worthy son of his father, slays the last ally of the Trojans, Eurypylus, the brave son of Telephus; and Philoctetes, with one of the arrows of Heracles, kills Paris. Even when the last condition of the capture of Troy, viz. the removal of the Palladium from the temple of Athene on the citadel, lias been successfully fulfilled by Diomede and Odysseus, the town can only be taken by treachery. On the advice of Athene, Epeius, son of Panopeus, builds a gigantic wooden horse, in the belly of which the bravest Greek warriorsconceal themselves under the direction of Odysseus, while the rest of the Greeks burn the camp and embark on board ship, only, however, to anchor behind Tenedos. The Trojans, streaming out of the town, find the horse, and are in doubt what to do with it. According to the later legend, they are deceived by the treacherous Sinon, a kinsman of Odysseus, who has of his own free will remained behind. He pretends that he has escaped from the death by sacrifice to which he had been doomed by the malice of Odysseus, and that the horse has been erected to expiate the robbery of the Palladium; to destroy it would be fatal to Troy, but should it be set on the citadel, Asia would conquer Europe. The fate of Laocoon (q.v.) removes the last doubt from the minds of the Trojans; the city gate being too small, they break down a portion of the wall, and draw the horse up to the citadel as a dedicatory offering for Athene. While they are giving themselves up to transports of joy, Sinon in the night opens the door of the horse. The heroes descend, and light the flames that give to the Greek fleet the preconcerted signal for its return. Thus Troy is captured; all the inhabitants are either slain or carried into slavery, and the city is destroyed. The only survivors of the royal house are Helenus, Cassandra, and Hector's wife Andromache, besides Aeneas (q.v.; for the fate of the rest see DEIPHOBUS, HECUBA, POLYDORUS, 2, POLYXENA, PRIAM, TROILUS). After Troy has been destroyed and plundered, Agamemnon and Menelaus, contrary to custom, call the drunken Greeks to an assembly in the evening. A division ensues, half siding with Menelaus in a desire to return home at once; while Agamemnon and the other half wish first to appease by sacrifice the deity of Athene, who has been offended by the outrage of the Locrian Ajax (see AIAS, 1). The army consequently sets out on its journey in two parts. Only Nestor, Diomede, Neoptolemus, Philoctetes, and Idomeneus reach home in safety; while Menelaus and Odysseus have first to undergo wanderings for many a long year. Death overtakes the Locrian Ajax on the sea, and Agamemnon immediately after his arrival home.
TROPAEUM The Greek term for a monument of victory, composed of the arms captured as booty, and set up on the spot where the conquered enemy had turned to flight. Representations of the stump of a tree with cross-pieces and armour or weapons suspended from them, are often to be seen on coins (see cut). The Romans borrowed the custom from the Greeks, but generally erected as memorials of victory permanent monuments, with representations of the war carved in relief, and with trophies of arms suspended over the undecorated portions.
TROPHONIUS AND AGAMEDES Sons of Erginus of Orchomedus, legendary heroes of architecture. Many important buildings were attributed to them, among others the temple of Apollo at Delphi [Homeric Hymn to Apollo, 118; Strabo, p. 421; Pausanias x 5 § 13], that of Poseidon at Mantineia [Paus. viii 10 § 2], the thalamos of Alcmene in Thebes [ib. ix 11 § 1], the treasuries of Augeas in Elis [Scholia to Aristophanes, Nubes 508], and Hyrleus in Boeotian Hyria [Paus. ix 37 § 4]. In the last named they inserted one stone so cleverly that it could be easily removed from the outside and the treasure stolen by night. But on one occasion, when Agamedes was caught in the trap laid by Hyrieus to discover the thief, Trophonius, to save himself from being betrayed as his brother's accomplice, cut off the head of Agamedes. Being pursued however by the king, he was swallowed up in the earth at Lebadea, and by the command of Apollo a cult and an oracle were dedicated to him as Zeus Trophonius. The oracle was situated in subterranean chamber, into which, after various preparation tory rites, including the nocturnal sacriface of a ram and the invocation of Agamedes, the inquirers descended, to receive, under circumstance of a mysterious nature, a variety of revelations, which were afterwards taken down from their lips and duly interpreted. The descent into the cave, and the sights which there met the eye, were so awe-inspiring, that the popular belief was that no one who visited the cave ever smiled again [Athenaeus, 614A; cp. Aristophanes, Nubes 508]; and it was proverbially said of persons of grave and serious aspect, that they had been in the cave of Trophonius. According to another story, the brothers, after the completion of the Delphic temple, asked Apollo for a reward, and he promised they should have on the seventh day the best thing that could be given to man; and on that day they both died a peaceful death [Cicero, Tusc. Disp. i 114; Plutarch, Consolatio ad Apollonium 14].
TROS Son of Erichthonius, father of Ilus founder of Troy, and of Assaracus and Ganymedes. (Cp. DARDANUS.)
TRUA A kind of ladle. (See VESSELS.)
TRYPHIODORUS A Greek epic writer of Egypt, who composed at the beginning of the 6th century B.C. a Conquest of Ilium in 691 hexameters, a very indifferent poem.
TUBA The Latin name for a straight wind-instrument of deep, clangorous sound, which was used at sacrifices, games, and funerals, and in war among the infantry to give the signal for attack and retreat, and was blown by the tubicen (see cut). (Cp. LITUUS, 2.)
TUBILUSTRIUM A festival in honour of Mars (See SALII).
TUNICA A garment for men and women worn next the person. With men it was a loose shirt of woollen stuff, consisting of pieces sewn together at the sides, and having either no sleeves or only short ones reaching half way down the arm. Longer sleeves were considered effeminate, and first came into general use in the 3rd and 4th centuries A.D. Ordinarily the tunica was girded up over the hip, and reached to the knees only. It was considered unbecoming to allow it to appear beneath the lower part of the toga. It was worn by the Roman at home and at work, and also by slaves and strangers. Senators and patricians were distinguished by a tunica with a broad purple stripe (latus clavus, hence tunica laticlavia) extending from the neck to the under seam; the knights by a narrow one (angustus clavus, hence tunica angusticlavia). The purple tunica, adorned with golden palm-branches (tunica palmata), was, with the toga picta (see TOGA) the dress of a general on the occasion of a triumph (q.v.). It very early became the custom to wear beneath the tunic proper a tunica interior, which was of wool. Linen shirts did not come into use until the 4th century A.D. Women also wore a double tunic, an under one consisting of a garment fitting closely to the body and reaching over the knee, and over this the stola (q.v.).
TURMA A sub-division of the Roman cavalry. The 300 knights originally belonging to each legion were divided into 10 turmoe of 30 men: each of these had 3 decuriones, the first of whom commanded the whole turma, and 3 optiones (adjutants). The divisions of allied cavalry called aloe (see ALA), each consisting of 300 men, contained 6 turmoe of 60 men each. Under the Empire the independent divisions of cavalry of 500 or 1,000 men, which were also called aloe, consisted of 16 or 24 turmoe. The cavalry divisions of 120 horsemen in a cohort of 500 strong, which formed the unit in many cohorts, and of 240 horsemen in a cohort of 1,000 strong, were divided into 6 and 10 turmoe respectively. (See COHORS.)
TURPILIUS A Roman writer of comedies, a younger contemporary of Terence. He died at Sinuessa in 103 B.C. We only possess some of the titles and a few fragments of his plays. He was the last important writer of the fabula palliata (q.v.).
TUTELA The office of guardian among the ROMANS. It affected not only minors, but also widows and grown up daughters up to the time of their marriage, with the exception of the Vestals. In the case of impuberes or pupilli, ordinary minors, the guardian (tutor) managed their property until the time of their majority, which with girls began at twelve, with boys at fourteen. At this age the guardianship determined, and girls became, like widows, possessed of independent power over their property, but still remained so far under guardianship, that they were unable to take legal proceedings without the consent of their guardians. Three kinds of tutores have been distinguished: (1) tutor testamentarius, who was named in the will. By a provision in the will women were sometimes allowed the choice of their guardian, who was then called tutor optivus (" chosen guardian "), to distinguish him from the tutor dativus (or " specified guardian "). If no guardian was named in the will, or the guardian named declined the office, or subsequently resigned it, the next of kin stopped in as (2) tutor legitimus. In the case of a widow, this was the son, if of age, or the husband's brother, and so on. In the case of a daughter, the brother, if of age, the uncle on the father's side, and so on. Among the patricians, if there were no kinsmen, the gentiles undertook the duties. (3) If there were neither a tutor testamentarius nor a tutor legitimus, then the praetor appointed a tutor Atilianus, so called because the lex Atilia (about 188 B.C.) had introduced this kind of guardian. Under the Empire these guardians were named by the consuls, from the time of Marcus Aurelius by a regular proetor tutelaris. Women having three children were exempted from all guardianship by Augustus. Then Claudius abolished guardianship on the part of the agnati in the case of all women. Diocletian extended this abolition to the case of minors. After the time of Diocletian, guardianship over women fell into disuse, and afterwards women were themselves allowed to act as guardians. A guardian found guilty of betraying his trust was punished by infamia (q.v.). (Cp. CURA.) Among the ATHENIANS the guardian (epitropos), if not named by the father in the will, was generally appointed by the archon from the nearest relations. The archon was also the proper authority in suits relating to guardianship, which, during the minority of the ward, could be brought forward in the form of a public prosecution; and, after the ward had attained his majority, in that of a private lawsuit.
TUTOR A guardian. (See TUTELA.).
TUTULUS A kind of Roman head-dress, formed by plaiting the hair high above the forehead. It was characteristic of the flamon and his wife. (See HAIR, MODES OF DRESSING.)
TWELVE TABLES The laws of the Twelve Tables represent the first attempt made by the decemvirs, 451-450 B.C., to reduce to a regular code the older unwritten and imperfectly formulated laws of custom-criminal, civil, and religious (ius publicum, privatum, sacrum) - which had up to that time prevailed in Rome. To this end improvements were adopted which were suggested by the constitutions and laws of other nations. The code thus formed was the source of the whole system of Roman jurisprudence, and, so far as civil law was concerned, survived until the latest times. The importance ascribed to the Twelve Tables by the Romans is clear from their forming a principal part of the education of Roman boys; even in the boyhood of Cicero they were still learnt by heart in the schools of Rome. As in course of time many passages became obscure, through changes in the language and in the state of the laws, various commentaries were added to them, some as early as 204 B.C., by Aelius Catus (see JURISPRUDENCE); some as late as the 2nd century A.D., by Gains. The laws were written on twelve tablets of bronze, but it is doubtful whether the originals survived the capture of Rome by the Gauls in 390 B.C. It was probably copies of these that were still standing in the Roman Forum in the 2nd century after Christ. Only detached fragments, occasionally quoted in other writings, have survived to modern times, yet these give a clear idea of the succinct style in which the laws were written. [The standard critical edition is by R. Schoell, 1866, followed in the main in Wordsworth's Fragments and Specimens of Early Latin, Bruns' Fontes Iuris Romani, and F. D. Allen's Remnants of Early Latin, 1880, §§ 174-207.]
TYCHE In Greek mythology, originally the goddess of chance; only occasionally mentioned in the older poets. In the course of time she came to be extensively worshipped as a goddess of prosperity, who had cities under her special protection. With the general decay of belief in the gods she became one of the mightiest and most commonly named of all supernatural powers. She is generally represented with a cornucopia as the bestower of blessing, with a rudder as the pilot of destiny, and with wings, wheel, and ball, as emblems of her variability. [For the personified Tyche of Antioch on the Orontes, see SCULPTURE, fig. 15.]
TYDEUS Son of CEneus of Calydon and Periboea; father of Diomedes. Being obliged to fly from his home, owing to the murder of his paternal uncle Melas, and of his sons, he took refuge with Adrastus (q.v.) at Argos, and married his daughter Deipyle. Though small of stature, he possessed a bold spirit and great strength, together with the special favour of Athene. As one of the Seven against Thebes, he was sent to Thebes before the commencement of hostilities in the hope of coming to terms with the Theban chiefs. He found them banqueting with their king Eteocles. On their refusal to listen to him, he called them out to combat, and defeated them one after the other. On his return, the Thebans, in revenge, laid an ambuscade, consisting of fifty youths, under two leaders; but with the help of Athene he slew them all, and only suffered one of the leaders, Maeon, son of Haemon, to escape. In the disastrous conflict under the walls of Thebes, he was fatally wounded by the Theban Melanippus, when Athene, with the permission of Zeus, appeared to grant him life and immortality. Then his old antagonist, Amphiaraus, laid before him the head of Melanippus, whom he had just slain; and Tydeus, in savage fury, cleft open his skull and sucked out the brain of his enemy. Outraged by this horrible deed, the goddess recoiled from his presence and delivered him over to death. The corpse was buried by Maeon out of gratitude for having been spared by Tydeus.
TYMPANON A hand-drum, used more especially at the noisy revels of Dionysus and Cybele, a broad rim of wood or metal covered with skin (see cut); sometimes also set round with a concave and semicircular sound-board.
TYNDARIDAE The children of Tyndareos, especially the Dioscuri (q.v.).
TYPHOEUS According to Hesiod [Theog. 869], the youngest son of Gaea by Tartarus; a giant of enormous strength, with one hundred snake-heads, eyes darting fire, and various voices, which sometimes sounded like the voice of the gods, sometimes like the lowing of a bull or the roaring of a lion, or like the howl of a dog, and sometimes like a shrill whistle. He was the symbol of the fire and smoke in the interior of the earth, and of their destructive forces. Hence he was also the father of devastating hurricanes. By Echidna he was the father of the dogs Orthos and Cerberus, and the Lernaean hydra [the Chimaera, the lion of Nemea, the eagle of Prometheus, and the dragon of the Hesperides]. He contended with Zeus for the throne of the lower world, but after some severe fighting was hurled to the ground by lightning, and thrown into Tartarus. In Homer he lies beneath the earth, in the land of the Arimi [Il. ii 783], and Zeus assails that region with his thunderbolts. According to another account Aetna was hurled upon him, and out of it he sends forth streams of flame [Aeschylus, Prometheus 370, Septem contra Thebas 493]. He was afterwards identified with the Egyptian god Set, the god of the sirocco, of death, of blight, of the eclipse of sun and moon, and of the barren sea, the author of all evil, and the murderer of his brother Osiris (q.v.).
TYRANT The word tyrannus originally meant no more than a ruler, and carried no association of blame, but was used subsequently in the special sense of a ruler who exercises unconstitutional, irresponsible, and absolute power. Such tyrannies arose most commonly in the 7th and 6th centuries B.C., in oligarchical states; i.e. in states governed in the interests of their party by an aristocratical minority. Men of courage and ability, not unfrequently themselves members of the aristocracy, availed themselves of the discontent of the people in order to win popularity, and then with their help overthrew the existing authority, and possessed themselves of the government. For this purpose many used the official powers constitutionally delegated to them. The tyrants exercised their authority mostly in their own interests; and, when they did not misuse it, the people on the whole fared better under the new rule than under the old, while it also served to remove existing anomalies, and to make room for fresh developments. Many of the tyrants of this time have earned a high reputation for themselves, partly by the extension of their power abroad, and partly by the impetus they gave to trade, and commerce, and architecture, and by the encouragement of art. Nevertheless, the dynasties of tyrants in this period were seldom of long duration. They generally formed the transition from aristocratic oligarchies to democracies. Under this last form of constitution it was less the actual instances of misconduct on the part of tyrants, than dislike to monarchs in general, that led men to associate with the name of a tyrant the idea of a cruel and arbitrary ruler. When the democracies had reached their furthest limit, tyrannies were developed from them, as in earlier days they had been developed from oligarchies; but unlike those of earlier days, this development was not progress, but only a general dissolution and deterioration. Such tyrannies, so far from working any good for the State, served merely to promote the pleasures and interests of irresponsible rulers and their ministers. [Cp. Aristotle, Politics, iv 10; v, chaps. 5, 6,12.]
TYRO Daughter of Salmoneus, by Poseidon; mother of Neleus (q.v.) and of Pelias, and, by Cretheus, mother of Aeson.
TYRTAEUS A celebrated Greek elegiac poet of the 7th century B.C., son of Archembrotus, born either at Athens or at Aphidna in Attica. He transplanted the Ionian elegy to Dorian Sparta. According to the ordinary story, the Spartans, being hard pressed in the second Messenian War, on the advice of the Delphic oracle, asked the Athenians for a general, and they sent them the lame Tyrtaeus. By the power of his poetry, he healed the divisions among the Spartans, and roused them to such bravery that they won the victory. His poems stood in high esteem at Sparta, and served as a means of education for the youth. In the field they were read at evening after supper. Besides fragments of an elegy entitled Eunomia (lawfulness), by means of which he put an end to the divisions subsisting among the Spartans, and an anapaeestic March, we possess three complete specimens of his war songs, called Hypothekai, or exhortations, in which he encourages young men to take to heart the duty and honour of courage. Their themes are singularly simple and pathetic, and they are among the most beautiful remains of ancient poetry.
TZETZES A Greek grammarian and poet of the second half of the 12th century A.D. He lived in Constantinople, and though for his time he may be called learned, he was a most conceited and superficial personage, as is amply proved by his numerous writings. Besides commentaries on Homer, Hesiod, Aristophanes, Lycophron, and other writers, which are valuable for the authorities quoted in them, he composed, in 1,665 wretched hexameters, an epic poem entitled Iliaca, containing the legend of Troy from the birth of Paris till the opening of the Iliad, the incidents of the Iliad in detail, and the further course of the war up to the return of the Greeks. Besides this he wrote a book of histories of 12,661 "political verses." These are commonly but wrongly called chiliads, from an arbitrary division of the work into books of 1,000 lines each. He is also the author of a collection of stories partly mythical, partly historical, worthless in themselves, but valuable as including numerous items of information which would otherwise have been unknown to us.
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