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WAR GODS Greek. See ARES and ENYO (1).
WAR GODS Roman.See MARS and BELLONA (1).
WARFARE Greek. The distinctively warlike people among the Greeks were the Spartans, whose whole life from early youth to advanced age was spent in the continual practice of martial exercises. Even the meals shared in common by all Spartans who had attained the full rights of citizens, were arranged with reference to military service. (See SYSSITIA.) Owing to constant practice in military exercises of every possible kind, the Spartan army possessed a dexterity in the handling of weapons, and a tactical education, which, combined with their lofty sentiment of military honour, for a long period ensured their supremacy over the other Greek races. The duty of service, which began with the twentieth year, and admitted of no exceptions, did not terminate until capacity for service came to an end; but with his sixtieth year the soldier became exempt from foreign service. Originally the heavy-armed infantry, or hoplites, consisted solely of Spartans; but even at the time of the Persian Wars, side by side with the Spartans, whose troops in their larger divisions were termed lochoi, the periaeci also served as soldiers, but in separate divisions. The helots who accompanied the army served as personal attendants to the hoplites (see HYPASPISTAe), and as light-armed troops in battle. A picked corps of the hoplites, specially employed as a royal body-guard, were those known as hippeis (horsemen) composed of 300 Spartans under thirty years of age, who were selected by the three hippagretae, and commanded by them. A peculiar corps of lighter infantry was formed from the Sciritae (the inhabitants of the district of Scirits), who were specially employed on the out-post service of the camp; they were used as scouts on the march, and in battle had their position assigned them on the left wing. The Spartans also kept up a fleet, in which the helots were employed as marines and oarsmen; in cases of great emergency they were transformed into heavy-armed soldiers and served in the army, after which they received their freedom. (See NEODAMODEIS.) From the end of the 5th century B.C. the Lacedaemonian army was divided into six moroe, each commanded by a polemarch. Owing to their steadily decreasing numbers the Spartans only formed the nucleus of the battalions, which were brought up to their full complement by the addition of periaeci. The officers, however, were exclusively Spartans, and the place of honour was always reserved for that body. In military expeditions the troops often consisted of periaeci, neodamodeis, allies, and mercenaries, while the Spartans acted only as officers (see XENAGOS) and members of the royal staff. On the cavalry, which only played a subordinate part among the Spartans, see HIPPEIS. The ephors had the command of the veterans in time of war. In the earlier times the kings divided the supreme authority; but after 512 B.C. one alone commanded, unless the circumstances of the case required more than one general. The fleet was commanded by nauarchoi. Among the Athenians the citizens of the first three classes were alone eligible as hoplites, and they were chosen, according to Solon's law, from the pentacosiomedimni, hippeis, and zeugitae; the fourth class, the thetes, were freed from service, and were only exceptionally employed at sea, but sometimes as light-armed troops on land. They were very rarely heavily armed, and were always remunerated at the expense of the State. The age of military service extended from the eighteenth to the sixtieth year; there were thus forty-two classes of age, and every man was mustered in a certain list (katalogos) under the name of the archon eponnymus under whom he had first attained the age of service.[1] The first two of these classes were only employed (as peripoloi) to patrol the frontiers. Foreign service began in the twentieth year. From these classes, which were on each occasion called out by a special vote of the people, only so many as were absolutely necessary were taken out of each of the ten phylae or tribes. The members of the Council and probably all other officials, were exempt from service. The men who were levied were enrolled, according to their phylae, in ten battalions, taxeis (see TAXIARCHUS), which are sometimes called phylae, while their subdivisions are called lochoi. On the occasion of a levy the troops were sometimes equipped by the aid of the aliens resident in Attica (see METOECI), and also, in the days of the earlier Attic confederation, by means of the contingents contributed by the allies. It was the hoplites who were benefited by this equipment. From the time of Pericles, and during the Peloponnesian War, the cavalry received pay and maintenance money, usually amounting in all to 4 obols (5 1/3 d.) a day. The State also allowed pay and maintenance for the horseman's personal attendant. On the Athenian cavalry, which was more important than the Lacedaemonian, see HIPPES. As to the fleet, on which Athens mainly relied in time of war, the Council (see BOULE) had to see that a certain number of vessels of war were built annually. The supervision of the ships in the docks (neoria) was exercised by a special board, the ten epimeletae of the neoria. It was their duty to consign the vessels, with the equipments allowed by the State, to the trierarchs (see LEITOURGIA), wealthy citizens who undertook to complete the equipment of the vessels, to provide sailors and oarsmen, and to take the command over them; while the marines, the epibatai, were under their own commanders. The strategoi (q.v.) held the chief command over the fleet as well as over the land forces. In most of the other Greek states the hoplites, consisting of wealthy citizens, formed the main strength of the army, and generally helped to turn the scale in engagements in which the light-armed troops and the cavalry played a subordinate part. They fought in the phalanx (q.v.), in closely serried lines eight deep. The pick of the troops were stationed on the right wing as the post of honour, to advance to meet the foe amid the singing of the poean. When at a distance of about 200 yards, at the signal of a trumpet, they raised the battlecry (alala) and charged either at a run or at quick march. It was only the Spartans who slowly advanced at an even pace and to the sound of flutes. Requesting permission to bury the dead was the formal admission of defeat. The enduring token of victory was a trophy composed of the armour captured from the defeated side. It was usual to join battle on ground which was suitable for the phalanx. The Peloponnesian War was the means of introducing many innovations, including the formation of a regular force of light infantry, called peltastae (q.v.). Still more decisive in the transformation of the general system of Greek warfare was the famous retreat of the Ten Thousand, the first important mercenary army among the Greeks which tried to make the phalanx of hoplites suit the ground better, and to utilize at the same time the light infantry, or peltasts, and the gymnetes (spearmen, bowmen, and slingers). Iphicrates, the first distinguished general of mercenary troops, introduced a lighter equipment by substituting a small pelta, for the heavy shield, adopting a longer sword and spear, lighter shoes, and a linen corslet. In the course of the 4th century B.C. the army composed of civilians gave way more and more to the mercenary army, which, by its intimate knowledge of the use of its weapons gained an immense advantage in actual war. (See MERCENARIES.) An important novelty was oblique battle-order, the discovery of Epaminondas. In this the great mass and strength of the hoplites was drawn up in considerable depth on one of the two wings, without any expansion of the front. The hoplites could thus make a vigorous attack on the centre of the enemy's wing, whilst the true centre and other wing of the assailants was held in reserve, with a view to advancing later to crush the enemy.
WILLS Amongst the ATHENIANS, a testator was not allowed, in default of legitimate heirs, to bequeath his property to one not of his own family. (See GENNETAe.) It was Solon who first legislated for the removal of this restriction, which custom, however, continued to maintain. Solon, however, granted free testamentary powers only in those cases where there were no legitimate sons. If there were any such sons, a will could only be made in favour of other persons in the event of the sons dying before their majority. If a father had daughters only, he could make a will in favour of other persons only on condition that they married his daughters. Children, born out of wedlock, who had not been legitimized, were only allowed to have a legacy bequeathed them, which was not to exceed 1,000 drachmae (£33) in amount. Besides persons under age or of unsound mind, those who held an official post, and had not yet rendered an account of their administration, were considered incapable of making a will. The will, when drawn up, was sealed in the presence of witnesses and deposited with a responsible person in order that it might be opened, also in presence of witnesses, immediately on the death of the testator, in case he might have given any special directions for his funeral.
WILLS Amongst the ROMANS the most ancient form of will is the testamentum comitiis calatis, called thus, because it was drawn up in the patrician comitia calata (q.v.) at which the pontifex was present. Besides this form, of which only patricians could avail themselves, one which plebeians could we was introduced in the time of the kings, the testamentum in procinctu. This consisted in a verbal declaration made by a soldier, who was a citizen, in the presence of three or four of his comrades, while the general was taking the auspices before joining battle. Both these forms were superseded by the testamentum per as et libram or per familiae mancipationem, called mancipatio (q.v.), on account of the proceedings observed on the occasion. By means of a feigned sale the testator handed over his fortune (familia) to a feigned purchaser (familiae emptor fiduciarius) in the presence of six witnesses, on condition that he divided it among those nominated as the testator's heirs on his death. This process was simplified in later times, although, for the sake of form, the familiae emptor was retained; but a single person was appointed heir, and charged with the duty of paying the individual legacies. If the testamentary disposition was delivered in writing, as was regularly the case, the witnesses sealed the will, and each one signed his name near the seal. The deed was deposited with a friend or in a temple, or with the Vestal Virgins, and, after it had been opened in due course, a copy was made and the original placed in the public archives. The form of the praetorian will was still simpler. It was sealed before the praetor in the presence of seven witnesses. In the time of the emperors, soldiers enjoyed the privilege of making wills in any form they pleased, which were perfectly valid if the soldier died in the service or within the first year of leaving it. The testamentum per as et libram was abolished in 439 A.D. by Theodosius II, and the form of the praetorian will was changed to the simple one of the Justinian law, by which a man could legally register his will. The right of making a will (ius testamenti factionis) was only possessed by independent Roman citizens and Vestal. Virgins, and only those women besides who, by the death of the person in authority over them, bad come into the possession of legal rights (sui iuris) though only With the approval of their guardians. (See TUTOR.) Sons Who were under parental control were granted the privilege under Augustus as a reward for their services in the field (peculium castrense). Under Constantine it was granted as a reward to persons holding a civil office. Slaves and those who were not Romans (peregrini) had not the right of making a will, yet the former might be testamentary heirs, if they received their freedom at the same time, and the latter might receive a bequest in trust. In order to prevent the accumulation of property in the hands of women, the Lex Voconia (169 B.C.) forbade women being appointed heirs [in cases where the testator's property exceeded £1,000], but permitted them in to receive a legacy that did not exceed half the amount of the inheritance. In the interest of blood relations the Lex Falcidia (40 B.C.) established that only three-quarters of the heritage should be distributed in legacies, and that at least one-quarter should fall to the share of the natural heir. Augustus ordained that unmarried (caelibes) and childless (orbi) persons should only inherit from relations within six degrees. The former in particular were to be deprived of the whole of their bequests, unless they married within a hundred days; the latter were only to receive half; he also laid a tax of five per cent on testamentary property. Not to be mentioned in the will was tantamount to being excluded from the inheritance; it was however the custom to mention disinherited children especially by name, and to add the reason for their being disinherited. All those were considered the principal heirs (heredes), who received shares that could be expressed in terms of a recognised fraction of the as, which was divided into twelve uncioe. The sole heir was called heres ex asse; the co-heirs, on the other hand, were designated according to the share of their inheritance; for instance, heres ex triente, heir to a third part. (See also INHERITANCE.) Winds were regarded by Greeks and Romans alike as divine beings. In Homer, who only mentions the four chief winds, Boreas (North), Zephyrus (West), Eurus (East), and Notus (South), they are, according to one account [Od. x 1-75], committed by Zeus to the charge of Aeolus (q.v., 2). But elsewhere they appear as independent personalities, who, dwelling in Thrace [Il. ix 5, of Boreas and Zephyrus), display their activity at the command of Zeus and other gods, and are invoked by men with prayers and sacrifices [Il. xxiii 195]. Hesiod [Theog. 378] calls these winds children of Astraeus and Eus, and distinguishes them as beneficent beings from the destructive winds, the children of Typhoeus [Theog. 869] Some particular myths speak only of Boreas and Zephyrus (q.v.), from whom, on account of their swiftness, famous horses were Supposed to be descended. Thus [in Il. xvi 150) the horses of Achilles are called the children of Zephyrus and Podarge, one of the Harpies (see HARPYLE.). The latter, in accordance with their original nature, are also deities of the wind, or rather of the storm. In historical times the cult of the winds in general, or that of Boreas or Zephyrus in particular, flourished at special places in Greece. In Italy also they were held in much veneration, particularly the fractifying wind Favonius, which corresponded to Zephyrus. In Rome the tempests (tempestates) had a sanctuary of their own with regular sacrifices at the Porta Capena, which was founded in 259 B.C., in consequence of a vow made for the preservation of a Roman fleet in a storm at sea. Roman generals when embarking usually offered prayers to the winds and storms, as well as to the other gods, and cast offerings and bloody sacrifices into the waves to propitiate them. To the beneficent winds white animals were offered, and those of a dark colour to the malignant equinoctial and winter storms. The victims were generally rams and lambs. In works of art the winds are usually represented with winged head and shoulders, open mouth, and inflated checks. The most noteworthy monument, from an artistic point of view, is the Tower of the Winds (q.v.) still standing in excellent preservation at Athens, on which eight winds are represented (Boreas, N.; Kaikias, N.E.; Apeliotes, E.; Eurus, S.E.; Notus, S.; Lips, S.W.; Zephyrus, W.; Argestes or Sciron, N.W.).
WINE From the very earliest times wine was the daily beverage of the Greeks, and was made in every Greek country. The best was produced on the coasts and islands of the Egean, such as Thasos, Rhodes, Cyprus, and, above all, Chios and Lesbos. The cultivation of the vine was common in Lower Italy before its colonization by the Greeks, and the Romans had vineyards in very early times. Wine was however long regarded as an article of luxury, and was limited in its use. The regular production of wine (the method of which was imported from Greece, together with the finer varieties of vines) first came in with the decline of the cultivation of cereals. The home-grown wines were of little esteem, as compared with the Greek, and especially the highly prized island wines, until the 1st century B.C. After this date the careful treatment of a number of Italian, and more particularly of Campanian brands (such as the Falernian, Caecuban, and Massie), procured for them the reputation of being the first wines of the world. They formed an important article of export, not merely to the collective provinces of the Roman empire, Greece herself not excepted, but also beyond the Roman frontier. It was to the advantage of Italy that, in the western provinces, down to the 3rd century A.D., the cultivation of the vine was subject to certain limitations. No new vineyards could be added to those already existing, and the Italian vines could not be introduced, although Gaul produced many varieties of wine. Under the Empire wine was the main article of produce and of trade in Italy, Greece, and Asia, and the wine merchants of Rome, who had, from the commencement of the 2nd century, formed two corporations, one for the eastern and another for the western trade, held an important position. In the 1st century there were already eighty famous brands in the Roman trade. Of this number Italy supplied two-thirds. The vine was grown partly on poles or espaliers, partly on trees, especially on elms, which, if the ground between were still used for agriculture, were planted at a, distance of 40, sometimes of 20, feet apart. The grapes intended for manufacture into wine were trodden with naked feet and then brought under the press. The must was then immediately poured into large pitched earthenware jars (Gr. pithos, Lat. dolium; see VESSELS). These were placed under ground in a wine-cellar, facing the north to keep them cool, and kept uncovered for a year in order to ferment thoroughly. The inferior wines which were of no great age were drunk immediately from the jar [de dolio haurire; Cicero, Brutus 228]. The better kinds, which were meant for preservation, were poured into amphorae. These were closed with stone stoppers, sealed with pitch, clay, or gypsum, marked with a brand, furnished with a label giving their year and measure (tessera or nota), and placed in the apotheca. This was a room in the upper story, built by preference over the bath-room in order to catch the smoke from the furnace, and thus to make the wine more mellow. One method of improving the wine which was used in the East and in Greece was to keep the wine in goat-skins, because the leather tended to cause evaporation of the water. In Italy the wine-skins appear to have been only used in transport. To produce flavour, strength, and bouquet, various means were employed, such as adding gypsum, clay, chalk, marble, resin, pitch, and even sea water, the last being especially in use in Greece and Asia Minor. Bad wines were improved by being mixed with fine brands and good lees; adulteration was extremely common. The number of artificial wines was very large; e.g. honey wine, raisin wine, and boiled must (the beverage of the common people and slaves),a poor drink prepared by pouring water on the remains of the pressed grapes. The place of our liqueurs was taken by flavoured wines, of which more than fifty kinds are mentioned. These were simply extracted from herbs, flowers, or sweet smelling woods (thyme, myrtle, sweet rush, rose, hearts-ease, pine-cones and pine-wood, cypress, etc.), or mixed with oils, such as nard or myrrh. There were also wines made from fruits such as apples, pomegranates, pears, dates, figs, or mulberries. In respect of colour three sorts of wine were distinguished: the black or dark red (color sanguineus and niger) which was considered the strongest; the white (albus), which was thought thin and weak; and the brown or amber-coloured (fulvus), which was considered particularly serviceable for promoting digestion. As in its ordinary treatment the wine often retained much sediment, it had to be made clear before it was drunk. This was done either with yolk of eggs or by straining the wine through a cloth or sieve, which was filled with snow to make it cool. Greeks and Romans alike generally drank their wine mixed with water. (Cp. MEALS.)
WONDERS OF THE WORLD Seven ancient buildings or works of art, distinguished either for size or splendour: viz. (1) the Egyptian pyramids; (2) the hanging gardens of Semiramis at Babylon; (3) the temple of Artemis, at Ephesus; (4) the statue of Zeus (q.v.) by Phidias, at Olympia; (5) the Mausoleum (q.v.) at Halicarnassus; (6) the Colossus of Rhodes (see CHARES, 2); and (7) the lighthouse on the island of Pharos, off Alexandria in Egypt.
WRITING MATERIALS From an early date the Greeks employed in the production of books a paper prepared from the Egyptian papyrus plant. This was probably manufactured as follows: as many strips as possible of equal size were cut out of the cellular tissue of the stalk; these were laid side by side, and crossed by a second layer. The layers were firmly fastened together by being damped with size and pressed. The breadth of the scroll depended on the height of the stalk, while its length could be extended at pleasure. After the time of Augustus, the preparation of the papyrus by a process of bleaching was brought to such perfection that the best Egyptian kind took only the third place. Under the Empire eight different kinds were distinguished, the two best of which were called the charta Augusta (only used for letters), and the charta Livia; these were 10 ½ inches broad. The worst kind was only used for packing. As a rule the papyrus-rolls of moderate length were written only on one side, and the writing was divided into columns. [Pliny, N. H. xiii 68-83]. For the binding of the papyrus-rolls, see BOOKS. The use of skins for the purposes of writing was at least as old as that of papyrus. The finer method of preparing them was, however, first discovered during the first half of the 2nd century B.C. at Pergamum, whence the name charta Pergamena, "parchment." But as late as the 1st century A.D. papyrus was more generally employed, probably on account of its greater cheapness; and it was not till the 4th century that parchment came into more general use, as being more durable, and admitting of being written upon on both sides. The pen was a split reed (calamus), the best being supplied by Egypt and Cnidus in Caria. The ink (atramentum) employed was a preparation resembling Indian ink, made of soot and gum, or of the juice of the cuttle-fish. Both of these could be erased with a sponge, whereas ink made of oxide of iron and gallnuts, which appears to have been introduced later, and to have been the only kind capable of being used for parchment, left more or less clear traces behind, even if rubbed out with pumice-stone. In ordinary life people used for letters, notices, and despatches, as also in schools, wooden tablets (tabelloe) with a raised rim, within which was spread a thin layer of wax. On this the characters were scratched with the point of a metal or ivory instrument called a stilus; they could be effaced with the other end of the instrument, which was bent or flattened out like a paper-folder. Two or more such tablets could be fastened together in the form of a book. (See DIPTYCHON.) The writing materials most commonly employed among the Greeks and Romans are shown in our cuts. <picture> <name> INK-STAND WITH REED PEN, ROLL WITH CORNUA AND PARCHMENT LABEL, STILUS, WAX TABLET, AND ACCOUNT BOOK. (Mural Painting from Pompeii; Museo Borbonico i 12, 2.) </name> </picture> <picture> <name> BUNDLE OF REED-PENS, WAX TABLET, AMD STILUS. (Sepnlchral relief from Perret, Catacombes de Rome, lxxiii 6. Xanthus. A Greek historian. (See LOGOGRAPHI.)
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