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A crown ; among the Romans the highest distinction awarded for service in war. The most coveted were the corona triumphalis (fig. 1) or laurel crown of a general in triumph; and the corona obsidionalis (fig. 2), presented to a general by the army which he had saved from a siege, or from ashameful capitulation. This was woven of grass growing on the spot, and called corona gramineaitalics>. The corona myrtea, or ovalis, was the crown of bay worn by the general who celebrated the lesser triumph (ovatio). The corona civica (fig. 3) was of oak leaves, and was awarded for saving a citizen's life in battle. This secured for its possessor certain privileges, as freedom from taxes for himself, his father and paternal grandfather. The golden corona muralis (fig. 4), with embattled ornaments, was given for the storming of a wall; the corona castrensis or vallaris (fig. 5), also of gold, and ornamented in imitation of palisades, to the soldier who first climbed the wall of an enemy's camp; the corona navalis (fig. 6), with ornaments representing the beak of a ship, to the man who first boarded a ship. Under the Empire the garland of bay was reserved exclusively for the emperor, and thus came to be regarded as a crown. The rayed crown, the insigne of the deified emperors, was not worn by the emperors of the let and 2nd century A.D. Golden crowns were originally the free offerings of provincials and allies to victorious generals for the celebration of their triumphs. But from this custom there arose, even in republican times, the habit of compelling a contribution of money (aurum coronarium) to the governor of the province. During the imperial age this contribution was on exceptional occasions offered as a present to the emperors, but it was often also made compulsory. Among the Greeks a crown (stephanos) was often an emblem of office. At Athens, for instance, a crown of bay was worn by the archons in office, the senators (bouleutai), and the orators while speaking. It was also the emblem of victory at the games, and a token of distinction for citizens of merit (see THEATRE). Such crowns of honour were made originally of olive branches, but later of gold. The honour of a crown could be conferred by the people or the senate, or by corporations and foreign states. The latter would often present a crown to the whole commonwealth. If the people or senate presented the crown, the presentation took place in the great assembly, or in the senate house, but not in the theatre, except by special decree. Since crowns played a considerable part as ornaments at religious rites and as well at festivals and banquets, the trade of crown-making (mostly in women's hands) was naturally extensive. The art of making what were called winter crowns of dry flowers was also understood. Artificial flowers, made of thin strips of painted wood, were also used.