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CENTURIA
Form: "a hundred".
In the Roman army of the regal period the centuria was a division of 100 cavalry soldiers. In the half-military constitution of Servius Tullius the word was applied to one of the 193 divisions into which the king divided the patrician and plebeian popolus according to their property, with the view of allotting to each citizen is due share of civil rights and duties. Of the 193 centuriae 18 consisted of cavalry soldiers (100 each) belong in to the richest class of citizens. The next 170, whose members were to serve as infantry, fell into five classes. The first 80 included those citizens whose property amounted to at least 100,000 asses. The second, third, and fourth, containing each 20 centuries, represented a minimum property of 75,000, 60,000 and 25,000 asses respectively. The fifth, with 30 centuries, represented a minimum of 12,500, 11,000 or 10,000 asses. These 170 centuriae were again divided into 85 centuries of iuniores, or men from 18-45 years of age, who served in the field; and 85 of seniores, citizens from 46 to 60 years of age, who served on garrison duty in the city. Besides these there were 2 centuries of mechanics (fabrum), and 2 of musicians (cornicinum, and tubicinum). The centuriae fabrum were enrolled between the first and second class: the centuriae cornicinum and tubicinum between the fourth and fifth. The 193d centuria consisted of citizens whose income fell below the minimum standard of the rest, and who were called proletarii or capite censi. These last had originally no function beyond that of voting at the assembly of the citizens in the comitia centuriata, and were not liable to military service. But in later times the richer among them were admitted to serve in the army. A fresh division of centuriae was made at every census. The military equipment of each citizen, and his position in battle array, was determined by the class to which his property entitled him to belong. (See LEGION.) On the political position of the different classes see COMITIA (2). In military pariance centuria meant one of the 60 divisions of the legion, each of which was commanded by a centurio.
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