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MIRRORS
For mirrors the ancients used round or oval, also square, plates of melted and polished metal, generally of copper, mixed with tin, zinc, and other materials, often silvered and gilded. In later times they were also made of massive silver. They were often provided with a decorated handle and ornamented on the back with engravings, mostly of mythological objects (see cuts). The Etruscan mirrors are in this respect remarkably fine [the finest of all is represented in fig. 4]. Besides these hand-mirrors, there were also in the time of the emperors mirrors as high as a man [Seneca, N. Q. i 17; cp. Quintilian xi 3, § 68], which were either permanently fixed in the wall or [as in vitruv.ix 8 § 2] let up and down like a sash. [Greek mirrors were unknown to archaeologists until 1867, when the first specimen was discovered at Corinth. In design they are even more beautiful than those of Etruria. They are of two kinds: (a) Like the Etruscan mirrors, they are generally round, consisting of a single disc with a polished convex front, to reflect the face, and a concave back, ornamented with figures traced with the engraver's burin. This variety had a handle in the form of a statuette resting on a pedestal. (b) Another variety, especially frequent in Greece, consists of two metallic discs, one inclosed within the other, and sometimes held together by a hinge. The cover was externally ornamented with figures in low relief, and was internally polished and silvered to reflect the face. The second disc, forming the body of the case, was decorated internally with figures engraved with a sharp point. See Collignon's Greek Archaeology, fig. 136, Leukas and Corinthos personified, on an engraved mirror; and fig. 137, a fine relief of Ganymede and the eagle. In the British Museum we have a mirror from Corinth, representing Pan playing at the game of "Five Stones" with a Nymph attended by Eros (Bronze Room, table-case D).]

Pictures and Media
POMPEIAN MIRRORS. (Overbeck's Pompeii, p. 404, 1875.)
POMPEIAN MIRRORS. (Overbeck's Pompeii, p. 404, 1875.)
POMPEIAN MIRRORS. (Overbeck's Pompeii, p. 404, 1875.)
BACK OF ETRUSCAN MIRROR. (Berlin Museum.) Apollo with bay tree and Satyr on left; Semele and Dionysus on on right; with border of ivy-leaves.
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PLACE HOLDER FOR COUNTER
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