|Helmets were, in antiquity, made sometimes of metal, sometimes of leather. A metal helmet was in Greek called kranos, in Latin cassis; a leather one in Greek kyne, in Latin galea. Leather helmets were sometimes finished with metal work. (1) Three forms of the Greek helmet may be distinguished. (a) The Corinthian visored helmet, which Athene is represented as wearing on the coins of Corinth. This had a projecting nose-guard, a long or short neck-piece, and two side-pieces to protect the cheeks. An opening, connecting with the two eye-holes, was left for the nose and mouth. The helmet was, except in battle, thrown backwards over the head. (b) the Attic helmet, represented on Attic coins as the only one worn by Athene. The neck-pieee fits close to the head; the cheek-pieces are either fixed immovably to the head-piece, or can be moved up and down by means of joints; in front of the head-piece, extending from ear to ear, was a guard, sometimes arranged for putting up or down, and thus acting as a screen for the face. (c) The simple, cap, worn chiefly by the Arcadians and Lacedaemonians. This sometimes had a projecting brim, sometimes not. The skull was protected either by a cone of varying form, or by a guard running over the top of the helmet. This was often adorned with a plume of horsehair or feathers. (2) Roman. The engravings will give a sufficient idea of the different varieties of Roman helmets. For the visored helmets of the gladiators see GLADIATORES. The standard-bearers, during the imperial period, wore, not a helmet, but a leather cap.