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BOREAS 100.00%
In Greek mythology, thd North Wind, son of Astraea and Eos, brother of Zephyrus, Eurus, and Notus. His home was in the Thracian Salmydessus, on the Black Sea, whither be carried Orithyia from the games on the Ilissus, when her father, Erechtheus king of Athens; had refused her to him in marrage. Their children were Calays and Zetes, the so-called Boreadae, Cleopatra, the wife of Phineus, and Chione, the beloved of Poseidon (see EUMOLPUS). It was this relationship which was referred to in the oracle given to the Athenians, when the fleet of Xerxes was approaching, that "they should call upon their brother-in-law." Boreas answered their prayer and sacrifice by destroying a part of the enemy's fleet on the promontory of Sepias; whereupon they built him an altar on the banks of the Ilissus.
ZETES 100.00%
Son of Boreas and Orithyia, and brother of Calais (q.v.).
Daughter of Boreas and Orithyia, and wife of Phineus. (See PHINEUS.)
CHIONE 69.63%
Daughter of Boreas and Oreithyia, mother of Eumolpus by Poseidon. (See EUMOLPUS.)
son of the Titan Crius and Eurybia, father by Eos of the winds Argestes, Zephyrus, Boreas and Notus, as well as of Heosphorus and the other stars. In the later legend he is also represented as father of Astraea.
A Greek elegiac poet of the Alexandrine period. He celebrated in erotic elegies the loves of beautiful boys. A considerable fragment remaining describes the love of Orpheus for Calais, the beautiful son of Boreas, and his death ensuing there from. The language is simple and spirited, and the versification melodions.
BUTES 42.93%
A Thracian, the son of Boreas. His brother Lycurgus, whose life he had attempted, banished him, and he settled on the island of Strongyle or Naxos. Finding here no wives for himself and his companions, he carried off some women from Thessaly, while they were celebrating a sacrifice to Dionysus. One of these, Coronis, whom he had forced to be his wife, prayed to Dionysus for vengeance. The god drove him mad, and he threw himself into a well.
WILLS 34.72%
Amongst the ROMANS the most ancient form of will is the testamentum comitiis calatis, called thus, because it was drawn up in the patrician comitia calata (q.v.) at which the pontifex was present. Besides this form, of which only patricians could avail themselves, one which plebeians could we was introduced in the time of the kings, the testamentum in procinctu. This consisted in a verbal declaration made by a soldier, who was a citizen, in the presence of three or four of his comrades, while the general was taking the auspices before joining battle. Both these forms were superseded by the testamentum per as et libram or per familiae mancipationem, called mancipatio (q.v.), on account of the proceedings observed on the occasion. By means of a feigned sale the testator handed over his fortune (familia) to a feigned purchaser (familiae emptor fiduciarius) in the presence of six witnesses, on condition that he divided it among those nominated as the testator's heirs on his death. This process was simplified in later times, although, for the sake of form, the familiae emptor was retained; but a single person was appointed heir, and charged with the duty of paying the individual legacies. If the testamentary disposition was delivered in writing, as was regularly the case, the witnesses sealed the will, and each one signed his name near the seal. The deed was deposited with a friend or in a temple, or with the Vestal Virgins, and, after it had been opened in due course, a copy was made and the original placed in the public archives. The form of the praetorian will was still simpler. It was sealed before the praetor in the presence of seven witnesses. In the time of the emperors, soldiers enjoyed the privilege of making wills in any form they pleased, which were perfectly valid if the soldier died in the service or within the first year of leaving it. The testamentum per as et libram was abolished in 439 A.D. by Theodosius II, and the form of the praetorian will was changed to the simple one of the Justinian law, by which a man could legally register his will. The right of making a will (ius testamenti factionis) was only possessed by independent Roman citizens and Vestal. Virgins, and only those women besides who, by the death of the person in authority over them, bad come into the possession of legal rights (sui iuris) though only With the approval of their guardians. (See TUTOR.) Sons Who were under parental control were granted the privilege under Augustus as a reward for their services in the field (peculium castrense). Under Constantine it was granted as a reward to persons holding a civil office. Slaves and those who were not Romans (peregrini) had not the right of making a will, yet the former might be testamentary heirs, if they received their freedom at the same time, and the latter might receive a bequest in trust. In order to prevent the accumulation of property in the hands of women, the Lex Voconia (169 B.C.) forbade women being appointed heirs [in cases where the testator's property exceeded £1,000], but permitted them in to receive a legacy that did not exceed half the amount of the inheritance. In the interest of blood relations the Lex Falcidia (40 B.C.) established that only three-quarters of the heritage should be distributed in legacies, and that at least one-quarter should fall to the share of the natural heir. Augustus ordained that unmarried (caelibes) and childless (orbi) persons should only inherit from relations within six degrees. The former in particular were to be deprived of the whole of their bequests, unless they married within a hundred days; the latter were only to receive half; he also laid a tax of five per cent on testamentary property. Not to be mentioned in the will was tantamount to being excluded from the inheritance; it was however the custom to mention disinherited children especially by name, and to add the reason for their being disinherited. All those were considered the principal heirs (heredes), who received shares that could be expressed in terms of a recognised fraction of the as, which was divided into twelve uncioe. The sole heir was called heres ex asse; the co-heirs, on the other hand, were designated according to the share of their inheritance; for instance, heres ex triente, heir to a third part. (See also INHERITANCE.) Winds were regarded by Greeks and Romans alike as divine beings. In Homer, who only mentions the four chief winds, Boreas (North), Zephyrus (West), Eurus (East), and Notus (South), they are, according to one account [Od. x 1-75], committed by Zeus to the charge of Aeolus (q.v., 2). But elsewhere they appear as independent personalities, who, dwelling in Thrace [Il. ix 5, of Boreas and Zephyrus), display their activity at the command of Zeus and other gods, and are invoked by men with prayers and sacrifices [Il. xxiii 195]. Hesiod [Theog. 378] calls these winds children of Astraeus and Eus, and distinguishes them as beneficent beings from the destructive winds, the children of Typhoeus [Theog. 869] Some particular myths speak only of Boreas and Zephyrus (q.v.), from whom, on account of their swiftness, famous horses were Supposed to be descended. Thus [in Il. xvi 150) the horses of Achilles are called the children of Zephyrus and Podarge, one of the Harpies (see HARPYLE.). The latter, in accordance with their original nature, are also deities of the wind, or rather of the storm. In historical times the cult of the winds in general, or that of Boreas or Zephyrus in particular, flourished at special places in Greece. In Italy also they were held in much veneration, particularly the fractifying wind Favonius, which corresponded to Zephyrus. In Rome the tempests (tempestates) had a sanctuary of their own with regular sacrifices at the Porta Capena, which was founded in 259 B.C., in consequence of a vow made for the preservation of a Roman fleet in a storm at sea. Roman generals when embarking usually offered prayers to the winds and storms, as well as to the other gods, and cast offerings and bloody sacrifices into the waves to propitiate them. To the beneficent winds white animals were offered, and those of a dark colour to the malignant equinoctial and winter storms. The victims were generally rams and lambs. In works of art the winds are usually represented with winged head and shoulders, open mouth, and inflated checks. The most noteworthy monument, from an artistic point of view, is the Tower of the Winds (q.v.) still standing in excellent preservation at Athens, on which eight winds are represented (Boreas, N.; Kaikias, N.E.; Apeliotes, E.; Eurus, S.E.; Notus, S.; Lips, S.W.; Zephyrus, W.; Argestes or Sciron, N.W.).
CALAIS 26.85%
The Boreadae, or sons of Boreas and Orithyia. They were both winged heroes, and took part in the Argonautic expedition. Coming in the course of the enterprise to Salmydessus, they Set free Phineus, the husband of their sister Cleopatra, from the Harpies, chasing them through the air on their wings (see PHINEUS). According to one story, they perished on this occasion; according to another, they were slain afterwards by Heraclies on the island of Tenos, on their return from the funeral games of Pellas (see ACASTUS). This was in retribution for the counsel which they bad given to the Argonauts on the coast of Mysia, to leave Heracles behind. Their graves and monuments were shown in Tenos. One of the pillars was said to move when the north wind blew.
lit. "dwellers beyond the north wind" (Boreas). A people of Greek legend, whose existence was denied by some of the ancients, while others endeavoured to define their position more precisely. They were said to dwell far away in the north, where the sun only rose and set once a year, a fancy due, perhaps, to some dim report of the long arctic summer day. The fruits of the earth ripeued quickly with them; they lived in unbroken happiness, knowing no violence or strife, and reached the age of 1,000 years; any who were weary of life casting themselves from a sacred rock into the sea. The myth is connected with the worship of the god of light, Apollo, who during the dark winter was supposed to visit them, as his priestly people, in a chariot drawn by swans; returning to Delphi for the summer. There was a tradition in Delos, that in earlier times they used to send to that island the first fruits of their harvests by way of Dodona, Thessaly, and Eubcaea.
PHINEUS 22.34%
Son of Agenor, reigning at Salmydessus in Thrace; he possessed the gift of prophecy. He put away his first wife Cleopatra, daughter of Boreas and Orithyia, who had borne him two sons, and married Idaea, daughter of Dardanus. She inducead him by slanders to destroy the sight of the sons whom he had by his first wife. For this Zeus punished him, giving him the choice of death or blindness. He chose never more to see the sun, whereat Hellios, enraged by the slight, sent the Harpies, who stole or defiled his food, so that he suffered perpetual hunger. From this plague he was not delivered till the landing, of the Argonauts, when Calais and Zetes, the brothers of his first wife, drove off the Harpies from him for ever. In gratitude, Phineus, by virtue of his prophetic powers, instructed the Argonauts as to the rest of their route. His brothers-in-law sent the wicked step-mother back to her home, freed their sister and her sons from the dungeon in which they were pining, and set the sons, who recovered their sight, on their father's throne.
EOS 22.22%
The Greek goddess of the dawn, daughter of the Titan Hyperion and Theia, sister of Hellos and Selene, by Astraeus, mother of the winds, Argestes, Zephyros, Boreas and Notos, the morning star Heosphoros, and of the stars in general. Her hair is beautiful, her arms and fingers ruddy, her wings are white. She rises early from her couch on the Eastern Ocean, and in a saffron-coloured mantle, on a golden chariot drawn by white horses, she comes forth as her brother's herald to proclaim the rising of day to mortals and immortals, Loving all fresh and youthful beauty, she carries away Clitus, Cephalus, Orion and Tithonus, to whom she bears Memnon and Emathion. She is represented in works of art as hovering in the sky, or riding on her chariot, moving with a torch before Ares, or sprinkling dew from a vase over the earth. See <smappCaps>MEMNON</smappCaps>.
A mythical king of Athens. According to Homer he was the son of Earth by Hephaestus, and brought up by Athene. Like that of Cecrops, half of his form was that of a snake-a sign that he was one of the aborigines. Athene put the child in a chest which she gave to the daughters of Cecrops, Agraulos, Herse, and Pandrosos, to take care of; forbidding them at the same time to open it. The two eldest disobeyed, and in terror at the serpent-shaped child (or according to another version, the snake that surrounded the child), they went mad, and threw themselves from the rocks of the Acropolis. Another account made the serpent kill them. Erechtheus drove out Amphictyon, and got possession of the kingdom. He then established the worship of Athene, and built to her, as goddess of the city (Polias), a temple, named after him the Erechtheum. Here he was afterwards worshipped himself with Athene and Poseidon. He was also the founder of the Panathenaic festival. He was said to have invented the four-wheeled chariot, and to have been taken up to heaven for this by Zeus, and set in the sky as the constellation of the charioteer. His daughters were Orithyia and Procris (see BOREAS and CEPHALUS). Originally identified with Erichthonius, he was in later times distinguished from him, and was regarded as his grandson, and as son of Pandion and Zeuxippe. His twin brother was Butes, his sisters Procne and Philomela. The priestly office fell to Butes, while Erechtheus assumed the functions of royalty. By Praxithea, the daughter of Cephissus, he Was father of the second Cecrops (see PANDION, 2), of Metion (see DAeDALUS); of Creusa (see ION), as well as of Protogoneia, Pandora, and Chthonia. When Athens was pressed hard by the Eleusinians under Eumolpus, the oracle promised him the victory if he would sacrifice one of his daughters. He chose the youngest, Chthonia; but Protogeneia and Pandora, who had made a vow with their sister to die with her, voluntarily shared her fate. Erechtheus conquered his enemies and slew Eumolpus, but was afterwards destroyed by the trident of his enemy's father, Poseidon.
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