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PELEIADES 100.00%
Priestesses at Dodona (q.v.).
 
DODONA 100.00%
In Epirus. The ancient seat of the oracle of Zeus and Dione, who was worshipped here as his wife instead of Hera. The oldest sanctuary of the god was an oak tree, with a spring at its foot, sacred to Zeus, and probably mephitic. The will of Zeus was ascertained from the rustling of the oak leaves by the priests, whom Homer calls Selloi, and their grey- headed priestesses called Peleiades. In later times oracles were taken at Dodona from lots, and from the ringing of an iron basin. In front of this basin there stood an iron statue of a boy, with a whip formed of three chains, from which hung some buttons which touched the basin. If the whip moved in the breeze, the buttons sounded against the basin. The oracle of Dodona had in early times the greatest name of all; but in later times, though it never lost its reputation, it was eclipsed by that of Delphi. It was still consulted, mainly indeed by the neighbouring populations, but sometimes also by the states of Athens and Sparta. It was in existence in the 2nd century A.D., and does not seem to have disappeared before the 4th.
 
DIONE 63.66%
In Greek mythology, the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, or, according to another account, of UrInus and Gaia. By Zeus she was mother of Aphrodite, who was herself called Dione. At Dodona she was worshipped in Hera's place as the wife of Zeus. Her name, indeed, expresses in a feminine form the attributes of Zeus, just as the Latin Juno does those of Jupiter, When the oracle of Dodona lost its former importance, Dione was eclipsed by Hera as the wife of Zeus, and came to be regarded as a nymph of Dodona.
 
HYADES 21.90%
Daughters of Atlas and of Aethra, and sisters of the Pleiades their number varies between two and seven. Being Nymphs who supplied nourishment by means of moisture, they were worshipped at Dodona as nurses of Zeus or of the infant Dionysus. As a reward for this they were placed in the sky as stars. At their rising about the same time as the sun, between May 7 and 21, rainy weather usually began. Hyades is naturally derived from the verb "to rain"; but the Romans, wrongly supposing it came from the Greek for "a pig," called the constellation" the little pigs" (suculoe).
 
ACHELOUS 19.03%
The god of the river of that name between Aetolia and Acarnania; eldest of the 3000 sons of Oceanus and Tethys, and father of the Sirens by Sterope, the daughter of Porthaon. As a water-god he was capable of metamorphosis, appearing now as a bull, then as a snake, and again as a bull-faced man. In fighting with Heracles for the possession of Deianeira, he lost one horn, but got it back in exchange for the horn of Amaltheia (q.v.). As the oldest and most venerable of river-gods, he was worshipped all over Greece and her colonies, especially Rhodes, Italy, and Sicily. The oracle of Dodona, in every answer which it gave, added an injunction to sacrifice to Achelous; and in religious usage his name stood for any stream or running water.
 
HYPERBOREI 16.63%
lit. "dwellers beyond the north wind" (Boreas). A people of Greek legend, whose existence was denied by some of the ancients, while others endeavoured to define their position more precisely. They were said to dwell far away in the north, where the sun only rose and set once a year, a fancy due, perhaps, to some dim report of the long arctic summer day. The fruits of the earth ripeued quickly with them; they lived in unbroken happiness, knowing no violence or strife, and reached the age of 1,000 years; any who were weary of life casting themselves from a sacred rock into the sea. The myth is connected with the worship of the god of light, Apollo, who during the dark winter was supposed to visit them, as his priestly people, in a chariot drawn by swans; returning to Delphi for the summer. There was a tradition in Delos, that in earlier times they used to send to that island the first fruits of their harvests by way of Dodona, Thessaly, and Eubcaea.
 
AMMON 13.02%
A god native to Libya and Upper Egypt. He was represented sometimes in the shape of a ram with enormous curving horns, sometimes in that of a ram-headed man, sometimes as a perfect man standing up or sitting on a throne. On his head was the royal emblems, with two high feathers standing up, the symbols of sovereignty over the upper and under worlds; in his hands were the sceptre and the sign of life. In works of art his figure is coloured blue. Beside him stands the goddess Muth (the "mother," the "queen of darkness," as the inscriptions call her), wearing the crown of Upper Egypt or the vulture-skin (see cut). His chief temple, with a far-famed oracle, stood in an oasis of the Libyan desert, twelve days' journey from Memphis. Between this oracle and that of Zeus at Dodona a connexion is said to have existed from very ancient times, so that the Greeks early identified the Egyptian god with their own Zeus, as the Romans did afterwards withtheir Jupiter; and his worship found an entrance at several places in Greece, at Sparta, Thebes, and also Athens, whence festal embassies were regularly sent to the Libyan sanctuary (see THEORIA). When the oracle was consulted by visitors, the god's symbol, made of emerald and other stones, was carried round by women and girls, to the sound of hymns, on a golden ship hung round with votive cups of silver. His replies were given in tremulous shocks communicated to the bearers, which were interpreted by a priest.
 
ZEUS 11.45%
The greatest god in the Greek mythology; according to the common legend the eldest son of Cronus (Kronos) and Rhea, hence called Cronides. According to a myth indigenous to Crete, he was the youngest son, and Rhea in dread of Cronus who had swallowed all is previous children, bore him secretly in a cave of the island, where he was suckled by the goat Amalthea (q.v.), while the Curetes (q.v.) drowned the cries of the child by the clash of their weapons; but Rhea outwitted Cronus by giving him a stone to swallow instead. When he was grown up, Zeus married Metis (q.v.), who, by means of a charm, compelled Cronus to disgorge the children he had swallowed. When with the help of his brothers and sisters, Poseidon, Hades, Hestia, Demeter, and Hera, he had over-thrown Cronus and the Titans, the world was divided into three parts, Zeus obtaining heaven, Poseidon the sea, and Hades the lower world; the earth and Olympus being Appointed for the common possession of all the three. But the king of the gods is Zeus, whose power, as Homer says, is greater than that of all the other gods together. Next to him, but in a subordinate position, stands, as queen of the gods, his sister and consort Hera, the mother of Ares, Hephaestus, and Hebe, who was regarded as pre-eminently his rightful wife. Not incompatible with this however was the idea that the marriage with Hera was the earliest of a series of marriages with other goddesses: first, according to Hosiod, with Metis, whom he swallowed, in order to bring forth Athene from his own head; then with Themis, the mother of the Hours and the Fates; afterwards with Eurynome, the mother of the Graces; Demeter, the mother of Persephone; Mnemoysene, the mother of the Muses; and Leto, the mother of Apollo and Artemis. The fact that still later, in Dodona, Dione, the mother of Aphrodite, was also honoured as the wife of Zeus, shows the origin of the legend. Originally different wives of Zeus were recognised in the different local cults. When the legend of the marriage with Hera had become the predominant one, an attempt was made to harmonize the different versions of the story by the supposition of successive marriages. In the same way the loves of Zeus with half-divine, half-mortal women, of whom Alemene, the mother of Heracles, was said to be the last, were originally rural legends, which derived the descent of indigenous divinities, like Hermes and Dionysus, or of heroes and noble families, from the highest god; and not until they had become the common property of the whole Greek people, which was practically the case as early as the time of Homer, could the love affairs of the greatest of the gods become the theme of those mythical stories which are so repugnant to modern taste. The very name of Zeus (Sanskrit, dyaus, the bright sky) identifies him as the god of the sky and its phenomena. As such he was everywhere worshipped on the highest mountains, on whose summits he was considered to be enthroned. Of all places the Thessalian mountain Olympus (q.v., 1), even in the earliest eges, met with the most general recognition as the abode of Zeus and of the gods who were associated with him. From Zeus come all changes in the sky or the winds; he is the gatherer of the clouds, which dispense the fertilizing rain, while he is also the thunderer, and the hurler of the irresiptible lightning. As by the shaking of his oegis (q.v.) he causes sudden storm and tempest to break forth, so he calms the elements again, brightens the sky, and sends forth favouring winds. The changes of the seasons also proceed from him as the father of the Hours. As the supreme lord of heaven, he was worshipped under the name of Olympian Zeus in many parts of Greece, but especially in Olympia, where the Olympian games (q.v.) were celebrated in his honour. The cult of Zeus at the ancient seat of the oracle at Dodona recognised his character as dispenser of the fertilizing dew. Among the numerous mountain-cults in the Peloponnesus, the oldest and most original was that of the Lycaean Zeus, on Mount Lycaeus in Arcadia, where human beings were actually sacrificed to him in propitiation. (See LYCAeA.) In Attica, again, many festivals refer to the god as a personification of the powers of nature. Various rites of purification and expiation were observed in his honour as the god of wrath (Gr. Maimaktes), in the month Maemacterion (Nov.-Dec.) at the beginning of the winter storms; while towards the end of winter he was worshipped as the gracious god (Gr. Meilichios) at the festival of the Diasia (q.v.). Among the islands, Rhodes and Crete were the principal seats of the worship of the sky-god; not only his birth but also his death was there celebrated, and even his grave was shown, in accordance with the widely spread notion that the annual death of Nature in winter was the death of the god. In Asia, the summit of Mount Ida in the Troad was especially and beyond all other places sacred to Zeus. As he presides over the gods and the whole of nature, so also is be the ruler of men, who all stand in need of his help, and to whom, according to Homer, he weighs out their destinies on golden scales [IL. viii 69, xxii 209], and distributes good and evil out of the two jars which stand in his palace, filled the one with good and the other with evil gifts [xxiv 527]. But his natural attributes are goodness and love; hence Homer calls him "the father of gods and men." He gives to all things a good beginning and a good end: he is the saviour in all distress: to Zeus the saviour (Gr. soter) it was customary to drink the third cup at a meal, and in Athens to sacrifice on the last day of the year. From him comes everything good, noble, and strong, and also bodily vigour and valour, which were exhibited in his honour, particularly at the Olympian and Nemean games. He is also the giver of victory; indeed the goddess of victory (see NICE), and her brothers and sister, Force, Might, and Strife (Gr. Bia, Krotos, Zelos), are his constant companions. From him, as ruler of the world, proceed those universal laws which regulate the course of all things, and he knows and sees, everything, the future as well as the past. Hence all revelation comes in the first instance from him. At times he himself announces to mortals his hidden counsels by manifold signs, thunder and lightning and other portents in the sky, by birds, especially the eagle, which was sacred to him, by prophetic voices (see MANTIKE), and special oracles. (See DODONA and AMMON.) At times he makes use of other deities for this purpose, chiefly of his son Apollo, through whose mouth he speaks at Delphi in particular. Thus the course of the world is ordained by him; he is the author and preserver of all order in the life of men. In conjunction with Themis, Dike, and Nemesis, he watches over justice and truth, the foundations of human society; in particular he is the special god who guards the sanctity of the oath; he is also the avenger of perjury, the keeper of boundaries and of property, the defender of the laws of hospitality and the rights of the suppliant. But nevertheless to him who has offended against the laws of human life, Zeus, as the supreme god of atonement, offers the power of expiating his guilt by rites of purification. As he presides over the family and community of the gods, so also he is the chief patron of the family and of all communal life. In the former relation he was especially worshipped in all branches of the family as protector of house and home (Gr. herkeios), and defender of the domestic hearth (ephestios): in the latter, as the shield of the State, e.g. in Athens at the Diipolid (q.v.); as director of the popular assembly and of the council; as the god of covenants; as the source of kingship, whose, symbol, the sceptre, was traced back to him. From him also proceed both national and personal freedom; hence a sanctuary was dedicated at Athens by freedmen to Zeus the Liberator (eleutherios); and after the battle of Plataea a thanksgiving festival, Eleutheria, was instituted by the allied Greeks, which was still celebrated by the Plataeans in Roman times, and attended by deputies from the other states. Zeus is to the Greeks--as Jupiter (q.v.), who in his principal characteristics exactly corresponds to him, is to the Romans,--the essence of all divine power. No deity received such wide-spread worship; all the others were in the popular belief, subordinated to him at a greater or less distance. The active operations of most of the gods appear only as an outcome of his being, particularly those of his children, among whom the nearest to him are Athene and Apollo, his favourites, who often seem to be joined with their father in the highest union. The eagle and the oak were sacred to Zeus; the eagle, together with the sceptre and the lightning, is also one of his customary attributes. The most famous statue of Zeus in antiquity was that executed by Phidias in gold and ivory for the temple at Olympia. It represented the enthroned Olympian god, with a divine expression of the highest dignity, and at the same time with the benevolent mildness of the deity who graciously listens to prayer. The figure of the seated god was about forty feet high; and since the base was as high as twelve feet, the statue almost touched with its crown the roof of the temple, so as to call forth in the spectator the feeling that no earthly dwelling would be adequate for such a divinity. The bearded head was ornamented with a wreath of olive leaves, the victor's prize at Olympia. The upper part of the body, made of ivory, was naked, the lower part was wrapped in a golden mantle falling from the hips to the feet, which, adorned with golden sandals, rested on a footstool. Beside this lay golden lions. The right hand bore the goddess of victory, the left the sceptre, surmounted by an eagle. Like the base, and the whole space around, the seat of the throne was decorated with various works of art. It was supported by figures of the goddess of victory; and on the back of the throne, which rose above the head of the god, were represented the hovering forms of the Hours and the Graces [Pausanias, v 11; Strabo, p. 353]. This statue was the model for most of the later representatives of Zeus. Among those that are extant the well-known bust of Zeus (fig. 1) found at Otricoli (the ancient Ocriculum in Umbria) and now in the Vatican Museum, is supposed (as well as some others) to be an imitation of the great work of Phidias. In the most direct relation to the latter stand the figures of Zeus on the coins of Elis (fig. 2). Among the standing statues of Zeus the most famous was the bronze colossus, forty cubits (or sixty feet) high, by Lysippus at Tarentum [Pliny, N. H. xxxiv 40].
 
HERA 4.71%
In Greek mythology, the queen of heaven, eldest daughter of Cronus and Rhea, sister and lawful consort of Zeus. According to Homer, she was brought up in her youth by Oceanus and Tethys. But every place in which her worship was localized asserted that she was born there, and brought up by the Nymphs of the district. She is said to have long lived in secret intimacy with Zeus, before he publicly acknowledged her as his lawful consort. Her worshippers celebrated her marriage in the spring time. In the oldest version of the story it took place in the Islands of the Blessed, on the shore of the Ocean stream, where the golden apple tree of the Hesperides sprang up to celebrate it. But this honour, too, was claimed by every place where Hera was worshipped. According to one local story, Zeus obtained the love of Hera by stealth, in the form of a cuckoo. Hera seems originally to have symbolised the feminine aspects of the natural forces of which Zeus is the masculine representative. Hence she is at once his wife and his sister, shares his power and his honours, and, like him, has authority over the phenomena of the atmosphere. It is she who sends clouds and storms, and is mistress of the thunder and the lightning. Her handmaids are the Horae or goddesses of the season, and Iris, the goddess of the rainbow. Like Zeus, men worship her on mountains, and pray to her for rain. The union of sun and rain, which wakes the earth to renewed fertility, is symbolised as the loving union of Zeus and Hera. In the same way a conflict of the winds is represented as the consequence of a matrimonial quarrel, usually attributed to the jealousy of Hera, who was regarded as the stern protectress of honourable marriage. Hence arose stories of Zeus ill-treating his wife. It was said that he scourged her, and hurled Hephaestus from heaven to earth when hurrying to his mother's assistance; that in anger for her persecution of his son Heracles, he hung her out in the air with golden chains to her arms and an anvil on each foot. There were also old stories which spoke of Hera allying herself with Athene and Poseidon to bind Zeus in chains. Zeus was only rescued by the Giant Aegaeon, whom Thetis called to his assistance. The birth of Athene was said to have enraged Hera to such a pitch that she became the mother of Typhon by the dark powers of the infernal regions. In fact, this constant resistance to the will of Zeus, and her jealousy and hatred of her consort's paramours and their children, especially Heracles, becomes in the poets a standing trait in her character. In spite of all this, Homer represents her as the most majestic of all the goddesses. The other Olympians pay her royal honours, and Zeus treats her with all respect and confides all his designs to her, though not always yielding to her demands. She is the spotless and uncorruptible wife of the King of Heaven; the mother of Hephaestus, Ares, Hebe, and Ilithyia, and indeed may be called the only lawful wife in the Olympian court. She is, accordingly, before all other deities the goddess of marriage and the protectress of purity in married life. She is represented as of exalted but severe beauty, and appears before Paris as competing with Aphrodite and Athene for the prize of loveliness. In Homer she is described as of lofty stature, large eyes, white arms, and beautiful hair. On women she confers bloom and strength; she helps them, too, in the dangerous hour of child-birth. Her daughters Hebe and Ilithyia personify both these attributes. In earlier times Hera was not everywhere recognised as the consort of Zeus; at the primitive oracle of Dodona, for instance, Dione occupies this position. The Peloponnesus may be regarded as the earliest seat of her worship, and in the Peloponnesus, during the Homeric period, Argos, Mycenae, and Sparta are her favourite seats. Of these, according to the poet, she is the passionate champion in the Trojan War. In later times the worship of Hera was strongly localized in Argos and Mycenae. At Argos she took the same commanding position as Athene at Athens, and the year was dated by the names of her priestesses. Between these cities was situated the Heraeum (Heraion), a temple held in great honour (see HERAeA). At Corinth she was the goddess of the stronghold. At Elis a garment was offered her every five years by sixteen ladies chosen for the purpose, and the maidens held a race in her honour on the race-course at Olympia. Baeotia had its feast of the Daedala (see DAeDALA); Samos its large and splendid temple, built by the famous Polycrates. The cuckoo was sacred to her as the messenger of spring, the season in which she was wedded to Zeus; so were the peacock and the crow, and among fruits the pomegranate, the symbol of wedded love and fruitfulness. Hecatombs were offered to her in sacrifice, as to Zeus. In works of art she is represented as seated on a throne in a full robe, covering the whole figure. On her head is a sort of diadem, often with a veil; the expression of the face is severe and majestic, the eyes large and wide open, as in the Homeric description. The ideal type of Hera was found in the statue by Polyclitus in the temple at Argos. This was a colossal image, in gold and ivory, representing the goddess on her throne, her crown adorned with figures of the Graces and the Seasons, a pomegranate in one hand, and in the other a sceptre with the cuckoo on the top. The Farnese Juno at Naples, and the Ludovisi Juno in Rome, are copies of this work (see figs. 1 and 2). The Romans identified Hera with their own Juno. (See JUNO.)
 
ORACLES 4.30%
The seats of the worship of some special divinity, where prophecies were imparted with the sanction of the divinity, either by the priests themselves or with their co-operation. There were a great many such places in all Greek countries, and these may be divided, according to the method in which the prophecy was made known, into four main divisions: (1) oral oracles, (2) oracles by signs, (3) oracles by dreams, and (4) oracles of the dead. The most revered oracles were those of the first class, where the divinity, almost invariably the seer-god Apollo, orally revealed his will through the lips of inspired prophets or prophetesses. The condition of frenzy was produced for the most part by physical influence: the breathing of earthly vapours or drinking of the water of oracular fountains. The words spoken whilst in this state were generally fashioned by the priests into a reply to the questions proposed to them. The most famous oracle of this kind was that of Delphi (see DELPHIC ORACLE). Beside this there existed in Greece Proper a large number of oracles of Apollo, as at Ab' in Phocis, in different places of Boeotia, in Euboea, and at Argos, where the priestess derived her inspiration from drinking the blood of a lamb, one being killed every month. Not less numerous were the oracles of Apollo in Asia Minor. Among these that of the Didym'an Apollo at Miletus traced its origin to the old family of the Branchid', the descendants of Apollo's son Branchus. Before its destruction by Xerxes, it came nearest to the reputation of the Delphian. Here it was a priestess who prophesied, seated on a wheel-shaped disc, after she had bathed the hem of her robe and her feet in a spring, and had breathed the steam arising from it. The oracle at Clarus near Colophon (see MANTO) was also very ancient. Here a priest, after simply hearing the names and the number of those consulting the oracle, drank of the water of a spring, and then gave answer in verse. The most respected among the oracles where prophecy was given by signs was that of Zeus of Dodona (q.v.), mentioned as early as Homer [Od. xiv 327=xix 296], where predictions were made from the rustling of the sacred oak, and at a later time from the sound of a brazen cymbal. Another mode of interpreting by signs, as practised especially at the temple of Zeus at Olympia by the Iamid', or descendants of Iamus, a son of Apollo, was that derived from the entrails of victims and the burning of the sacrifices on the altar. There were also oracles connected with the lot or dice, one especially at the temple of Heracles at Bura in Ach'a; and prophecies were also delivered at Delphi by means of lots, probably only at times when the Pythia was not giving responses. The temple of the Egyptian Ammon, who was identified with Zeus, also gave oracles by means of signs. Oracles given in dreams were generally connected with the temples of Asclepius. After certain preliminary rites, sick persons had to sleep in these temples; the priests interpreted their dreams, and dictated accordingly the means to be taken to insure recovery. The most famous of these oracular shrines of the healing god was the temple at Epidaurus, and next to this the temple founded thence at Pergamum in Asia Minor. Equally famous were the similar oracles of the seer Amphilochus at Oropus, of Trophonius at Lebadea in Boeotia, and of the seers Mopsus and Amphilochus at Mallus in Cilicia (q.v.). In later times such oracles were connected with all sanctuaries of Isis and Serapis. At oracles of the dead (psychomanteia) the souls of deceased persons were evoked in order to give the information desired. Thus in Homer [Od. xi] Odysseus betakes himself to the entrance of the lower world to question the spirit of the seer Tiresias. Oracles of this kind were especially common in places where it was supposed there was an entrance to the lower world; as at the city of Cichyrus in Epirus (where there was an Acherusian lake as well as the rivers of Acheron and Cocytus, bearing the same, names as those of the world below), at the promontory of T'narum in Laconia, at Heraclea in Pontus, and at Lake Avernus near Cum' in Italy. At most of them oracles were also given in dreams; but there were some in which the inquirer was in a waking condition when he conjured up the spirits whom he wished to question. While oracles derived either from dreams or from the dead were chosen in preference by superstitious people, the most important among oral oracles and those given by means of signs had a political significance. On all serious occasions they were questioned on behalf of the State in order to ascertain the divine will: this was especially the case with the oracle of Delphi (see DELPHIC ORACLE). In consequence of the avarice and partisanship of the priests, as well as the increasing decline of belief in the gods, the oracles gradually fell into abeyance, to revive again everywhere under the Roman emperors, though they never regained the political importance they had once had in ancient Greece. Such investigation of the divine will was originally quite foreign to the ROMANS. Even the mode of prophecying by means of lots (see SORTES), practised in isolated egions of Italy, and even in the immediate neighbourhood of Rome, as at C're, and especially at Pr'neste, did not come into use, at all events for State purposes, and was generally regarded with contempt. The Romans did not consult even the Sibylline verses in order to forecast the future. On the other hand, the growth of superstition in the imperial period not only brought the native oracles into repute, but caused a general resort to foreign oracles besides. The inclination to this kind of prophecy seems never to have been more generally spread among the masses of the people than at this time. Apart from the Greek oracular deities, there were the oriental deities whose worship was nearly everywhere combined with predictions. In most of the famous sanctuaries the most various forms of prophecy were represented, and the stranger they were, the better they were liked. In the case of the oral oracles the responses in earlier times were for the most part composed in verse: on the decay of poetic productiveness, they began to take the form of prose, or of passages from the poets, the Greeks generally adopting lines of Homer or Euripides, the Italians, lines of Vergil. The public declaration of oracles ended with the official extermination of paganism under Theodosius at the end of the 4th century.
 
TOREUTIC ART 4.00%
The art of embossing metal, or working it in ornamental relief or intaglio (Pliny, N.H. xxxiv 54, 56; xxxv 77). The Greek verb toreuein means "to work in relief or repoussé," and also "to chase" in metal; toreutos is an epithet of cups that are "chased" or "worked in relief"; toreia is need of a "carving in relief"; the artist is called a toreutes; and his characteristic tool the toreus (Lat. coelum). The corresponding Latin term is coelatura, which, as defined by Quintilian (ii 21 § 9), auro, argento, oere, ferro operaefficit ; while scalptura eliam lignum, ebur, marmor, vitrum, gemmas complectitur. While sculpture in bronze is primarily concerned with designing the work of art which has to be cast in the mould, the toreutic art has to do with the elaboration and finish of the metallic form when it is already cast. In the case of large works in bronze, the task of the toreutes is simply to remove slight flaws and to add a few finishing touches; in that of smaller works, his art becomes of paramount importance. The term toreutes, is virtually confined to artists who produce for ordinary use articles in metal, which owe their value as works of art solely to the adornment bestowed upon them. In the best times of Greek art, the favourite metal for this purpose was silver; but gold and bronze and even iron were also used. The art was often applied to the embellishment of armour, especially shields; and even chariots were sometimes ornamented with embossed silver (Pliny, xxxiii 140, carrucoe argento coelatoe). Articles of plate, especially large silver platters, were occasionally adorned with ferns or ivy-leaves (lances filicatoe, pateroe hederacioe); and goblets were decorated with mythological subjects in relief (anaglypta), such as figures in gold riveted on vessels of silver, or in silver on bronze. These figures were either in high or low relief (emblemata, or crustoe). The art was also put into requisition for ornamenting furniture, for embossing plates of gold, and for making wreaths of that metal. In the Homeric age, copper, gold, silver, iron, tin, and lead were in use in different degrees. Copper, especially when mixed with tin to form bronze, was the ordinary material for armour and for all kinds of utensils; gold is named in connexion with articles of furniture, armour, and jewellery, but is generally described as imported from abroad; silver is less frequently mentioned. Iron was rare, in comparison with copper; but was used for implements of agriculture as well as for armour and tools. A block of iron is given as a prize at the funeral games in honour of Patroclus (Il. xxiii 826). Copper being the commonest metal, a worker in any kind of metal is called in Homer a coppersmith (chalkeus); thus, in Od. iii 425, it is applied to one who in the same context is described as a goldsmith (chrysochoos, ib. 432). The hammer and anvil sufficed for the manufacture of armour and the simpler varieties of household utensils. The process of beating out the metal and fashioning it with the hammer was called elaunein (Il. vii 223, xii 295); and a derivative of this verb, sphyrelatos, "wrought with the hammer," was afterwards used as an epithet of statues made of plates beaten out with the hammer, as opposed to those of cast metal (Herodotus, vii 69). It was in fact applied to all kinds of products of hammering, and to work in repoussé, large or small. The same process was used in making plates of metal to cover tripods and candelabra, as well as shields, scabbards, chariots, and also images of the gods. In such cases the plate of beaten metal was applied to a core of wood by what was termed empaistike techne (Athenaeus, 488 B). The chair of Penelope is thus covered with ivory and silver (Od. xix 56), and the bed of Odysseus, with ivory, silver, and gold (xxiii 200). The cuirass of Agamemnon (Il. xi 24 ff.) has twenty-one alternate stripes of various kinds of inlaid metal, both before and behind, the metals mentioned being gold and tin and kyanos, which is now identified as an imitation of lapis lazuli stained blue with carbonate of copper. The golden belt of Heracles is adorned with figures of bears, boars, and lions, and battle-scenes, in relief (0d. xi 609). The brooch of Odysseus represents a stag attacked by a dog (Od. xix 226). The cup of Nestor is pierced with rivets of gold, has four handles with two golden doves to each handle, and two supports running from the base of the cup to the lower part of the bowl, designed to strengthen the central stem (Il. xi 632, with Dr. Leaf's note). The structure of this singular cup was the theme of learned disquisitions in ancient times (Athenaeus, 489); it has now been made intelligible by the early cups discovered at Mycenae and Caere (Helbig, Das Homerische Epos aus den Denkmalern erlautert, p. 272). In the cup from Mycenae (Schliemann's Mycenae, fig. 346; Schuchhardt, Schliemann's Excavations, fig. 240), we see the supports continued into the handles above them, and even two doves as ornaments on the top of the handles. Elsewhere in Homer a lebes (in Il. xxiii 885, Od. iii 440), and a crater (in Od. xxiv 275), are described as "adorned with flowers," i.e. with the lotus-flowers and rosettes characteristic of archaic decoration (Schliemann, Mycenae, fig. 344). The shield of Achilles, as wrought by Hephaestus, is an elaborate work, including numerous figures distributed over separate compartments and inlaid in various kinds of metal. The metal facing has apparently a bronze ground, inlaid with gold, silver, and kyanos; and the designs may be best regarded as resembling the peculiar combination of Egyptian and Assyrian styles which was introduced into Europe by the Phoenicians (Il. xviii 478-607, ed. Leaf ; op. Helbig, l.c., chap. xxxi, and Murray's Greek Sculpture, chap. iii). In the Homeric age the articles in metal which were most highly prized are generally described as imported from abroad. Thus the silver crater given as a prize at the funeral games of Patroclus is the work of Sidonian craftsmen (Il. xxiii 743). It is the king of the Sidonians who sends a crater to Menelaus (Od. iv 616; Il. xxiii 741). The tripods and basket of Helen are said to have been brought by Menelaus from Egypt (Od. iv 126). The cuirass, as well as the chariot, of Agamemnon, are described as a present from the king of Cyprus (Il. xi 24). According to Greek mythology, the first blacksmiths were the Idoean Dactyli (q.v.); the first goldsmiths, the Telchines (q.v.). The legends about the latter imply that the forms and processes of the art were transmitted to Greece from the East. They are described as dwelling in turn in Crete, Rhodes, Cyprus, Cos, Lycia, and in various cities of Greece, especially at Sicyon, which, according to Pliny (xxxvi 4), was long the home of all kinds of manufacture in metals. Working in metal was afterwards much advanced by two important inventions, (1) that of casting in moulds, attributed to a Samian artist Rhoecus, son of Phileas, and his son Theodorus; and (2) that of soldering, ascribed to Glaucus of Chios (Pausanias, x 16 § 1), who was also famed for his skill in hardening and softening iron (Plutarch, De Def. Orac. 47). The toreutic art is described by Pliny as having been founded by Phidias (xxxiv 54) and brought to perfection by Polyclitus (56). For the former, it is sufficient to refer to the chryselephantine statue of Zeus at Olympia, and that of Athene in the Parthenon. Among other sculptors who were also toreutoe may be mentioned Calamis, Myron, Euphranor, Boethus, Stratonicus, Ariston, Eunicus, Hecataeus, Posidonius, Pasiteles, and Zenodorus. The artists who excelled in the chasing of silver (argento coelando) are enumerated by Pliny (xxxiii 154-157), who observes that no one had attained renown by the chasing of gold. The first named is Mentor, the most celebrated of all, and with him Acragas, Boethus (Cicero, Verr. 2 iv 32, hydriam Boethi manu factam proeclaro opere et grandi pondere), and Mys (q.v.). The last of these executed in bronze, from the designs of Parrhasius, the battle of the Centaurs and Lapithae which adorned the shield of the Athene Promachos of Phidias (Pausanias, i 28, 2). Pliny's second group includes Calamis and Antipater, who is probably mentioned by mistake for Diodorus (Anthologia Groeca i 106,16). His third group consists of Stratonicus and Tauriscus, both of Cyzicus; Ariston and Eunicus of Mytilene; and lastly Hecatoeus. In the next we have Pasiteles (in the time of Pompey); also Posidonius of Ephesus, with Hedystrachides, Zopyrus, and Pytheas. After these, he adds, there was an artist named Teucer, famous as a crustarius, a worker of plaques in low relief. Thereupon, he continues, art fell into abeyance, and only works ascribed to the old masters were of any account, even when the design had been almost worn out by use. The age of imitations and forgeries followed. The work of Calamis was skilfully opied by Zenodorus (Pliny, xxxiv 47), the sculptor of the colossal bronze statue of Nero (ib. 45). In the above list Pliny is probably following the order of fame rather than that of time. Stratonicus, Ariston, Eunicus, and Posidonius, all belong to Asia, and possibly to the age of the Diadochi. To the same age may be ascribed Pytheas and two artists remarkable for their skill in the most minute and delicate kinds of work, Callicrates of Lacedaemon and Myrmecides of Athens, who inscribed an elegiac couplet in letters of gold on a grain of sesame, and carved a quadriga of ivory which a fly could cover with its wings (Aelian, Var. Hist. i 17; Cicero, Acad. ii 120; Pliny, vii 85, xxxvi 43). Some of the technical processes of working in metal can be illustrated from the remains of ancient art. Thus on a cylix in Berlin (fig. 1) exhibiting scenes from a foundry, we have (1) two workmen, one attending to the fire in a furnace, the other resting on a hammer, and a boy blowing the bellows; on the wall hang two hammers and a saw, and a number of metal plaques with heads and figures in relief; (2) a workman putting together a bronze statue, the head of which lies a part on the ground; (3) two workmen scraping the excrescences off a statue of a warrior by means of a hooked instrument resembling a strigil. The first of the above scenes is closely similar to the design on a vase in the British Museum (B 458) representing the forge of Hephaestus at Lemnos. Again, a mural painting from Pompeii shows us one of the attendants of Hephaestus seated at his work; in his right hand he holds a hammer, and in his left a sharp graving-tool (Gr. toreus; Lat. coelum), with which he is tracing the ornament on the helmet of Achilles (fig. 2). According to the ornament required, tools were used of different kinds, with the extremity blunt, round, or square; as well as punches for repoussé work. Among the extant specimens of the art a foremost place in point of time must be given to those discovered by Schliemann at Hissarlik in the Troad, especially the bracelets, earrings, diadems, and discs of gold, figured in Ilios, and in Schuchhardt, Schliemann's Excavations (figs. 35, 54, 56-58). Those of a more advanced type, found at Mycenae in and after 1874, include plaques and golden studs in repoussé, bowls and diadems; also sepulchral masks of gold, imitating the human countenance and placed on the faces of the dead; arms and other objects in gold, copper, and bronze. The blade of a short, two-edged sword (Schliemann's Mycenae, fig. 446), when set free from the incrustations on its surface revealed a spirited representation of a hunt with five armed men pursuing three lions. The bronze ground is covered with dark enamel, the lions and the limbs of the huntsmen are inlaid with gold of different hues; their clothing and their shields with silver, and other details with black (fig. 3). Still more interesting in respect to artistic design are the two prehistoric gold cups found in 1889 at Vaphio, the ancient Pharis near Amyclae, adorned with remarkable reliefs representing men hunting wild bulls (Ephem. Arch. 1889, pl. 7-10; Gazette des Beaux Arts, 1890, pp. 428 and 434). We must also mention the small bronzes which abound in museums of ancient art. These may be divided into (a) Greek bronzes of archaic style, such as those of the 6th century B.C. discovered at Dodona (e.g. the flute-player, fig. 4). Many such bronzes are votive; e.g. the Naxian statuette in the Berlin Museum, inscribed as "dedicated by Deinagoras to Apollo the Far-darter," and the Apollo dedicated by Polycrates, probably as Argive of that name, now in the Museum at St. Petersburg. (b) Bronzes of later style, such as those of Pompeii and Herculaneum, preserved in large numbers in the Naples Museum. Earlier Italo-Greek statuettes are rare; e.g. the bronze from Tarentum representing a general in the act of addressing his troops (Collignon, Gr. Arch., fig. 134). Among objects for ornament we have numerous bronze reliefs in repoussé work, which are often perforated with holes for the purpose of attaching them to some other material, whether to strips of leather or articles of furniture. Some of the finest of them are pieces of armour, such as the cheek-guard of a helmet with the combat between Pollux and Lynceus found at Dodona (Collignon, fig. 135), and the Bronzes of Siris, two shoulder-pieces of Greek armour found in Southern Italy and now in the British Museum (Second Bronze Room, table-case D; Baumeister's Denkmaler, fig. 2204-5). In the same museum is the Castellani cista, a cylindrical casket in wood, covered with bands of silver fixed with rivets, and representing lions and winged animals, with lotuses and palmettes of an oriental character (fig. 5). Another group of examples includes the Greek and Etruscan Mirrors, with their metal backs or cases ornamented with figures traced by the engraver's burin (fig. 6); and the cistoe Proenestinoe (of the 3rd century B.C.). The finest of these is the Ficoroni cista, in the Museo Kircheriano at Rome, with figures in outline representing a scene from the Argonautic expedition and with the archaic inscription, Novios Plautios med Romai fecid (Daremberg and Saglio, fig. 1544). There are several others in the First Bronze Room of the British Museum, one with the Judgment of Paris, another with Bellerophon and Sthenoboea. Among silver vases of various ages may be mentioned the archaic patera of Amathus in Cyprus, with concentric bands of besieging warriors and winged sphinxes showing the influence of Assyrian and Egyptian art (Cesnola's Cyprus, p. 277; Daremberg, fig. 927); the Munich vase, with representations of captive Trojans, in low relief; the magnificent amphora of the 4th century B.C., found at Nicopol in South Russia in the tomb of a Scythian king with a frieze in high relief running round the upper part, representing Scythians taming and tending their horses, while the body of the vase is covered with ornaments in repoussé, including large birds and flowers (Daremberg, fig. 975); the Corsini cup, found at the ancient Antium, aná sometimes supposed to be copied from a Greek original by Zopyrus (ib., fig. 976); the pateroe of Hildesheim (q.v.), about the time of Augustus; that of Rennes, of the 3rd century A.D., in the Paris Cabinet des Antiques (ib. 972); and the vases from Bernay in the same collection. Further, in the British Museum we have a number of embossed and chased caskets, vases, or ornaments, found at Rome in 1793, and ascribed to the end of the 5th Century A.D. As a late Roman specimen of opus interrasile, or open work in which part of the silver is cut away on the same general principle as in fig. 5, we have a cantharus of dark red glass mounted in silver gilt, found near Tiflis in 1871, and now in the Museum of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg (fig. 7). One of the richest collections of Greek jewellery, that of the Hermitage Museum, comes from the ancient Panticapaeum. (Kertch). The Vatican and the Louvre contain remarkable specimens of Etrusco-Greek jewels, mainly found at Vulci and Caere. Modern ingenuity has at present failed to recover the secret of the process of "granulation" employed in many of these jewels, a kind of decoration in which the surface of the gold leaf is covered with minute and almost invisible globules of gold (see frontispiece to Martha's L'Art Etrusque). The Antiquarium of Munich possesses a votive crown of gold, superbly executed, with sprays of oak-leaves and festoons of flowers with winged figures among them (fig. 8). Lastly, in the British Museum we have specimens of Phoenician art, ascribed to the 8th century B.C., in the gold jewellery from Camirus in Rhodes. In the same museum "the Melos necklace, and the sceptre from the tomb at Tarentum, are admirable specimens of that fine combination of filagree and vitreous enamels which characterizes the Greek goldsmith's art in the middle of the 4th century B.C., and the bracelet and earrings from Capua, ornamented with lions' heads, are still more precious, as examples of repoussé work in its perfection" (Newton's Essays, p. 393). Authorities. Brunn, Gr. Kunstler, ii 397-412; Marquardt, Das Privatleben der Romer, pp. 669-718 2; Saglio, article on Coelatura in Daremberg and Saglio's Dict. des Antiquités; and Blumner's Technologie, vol. iv, pp. 228-413. Cp. the short sketch in the last chapter of Collignon's Manual of Greek Archoeology.] [J.E.S.]
 
DIONYSUS 3.77%
sometimes Dionysus (Greek). The god of luxuriant fertility, especially as displayed by the vine; and therefore the god of wine. His native place, according to the usual tradition, was Thebes, where he was born to Zeus by Semele, the daughter of Cadmus. Semele was destroyed by the lightning of her lover, and the child was born after six months. Zeus accordingly sewed it up in his thigh till ripe for birth and then gave it over to Ino, the daughter of Semele. (See ATHAMAS.) After her death Hermes took the boy to the nymphs of Mount Nysa, or according to another version, to the Hyades of Dodona, who brought him up, and hid him in a cave away from the anger of Hera. It cannot be ascertained where Mount Nysa was originally supposed to be. In later times the name was transferred to many places where the vine was cultivated, not only in Greece, but in Asia, India, and Africa. When grown up, Dionysus is represented as planting the vine, and wandering through the wide world to spread his worship among men, with his wine-flushed train (thiasos), his nurses and other nymphs, Satyrs, Sileni, and similar woodland deities. Whoever welcomes him kindly, like Icarius in Attica, and CEneus in Aetolia, receives the gift of wine; but those who resist him are terribly punished. For with all his appearance of youth and softness, he is a mighty and irresistible god, strong to work wonders. A whole series of fables is apparently based upon the tradition that in many places, where a serious religious ritual existed, the dissolute worship of Dionysus met with a vigorous resistance. (See LYCURGUS, MINYADAe, PENTHEUS, PRCETUS.) This worship soon passed from the continent of Greece to the wine-growing islands, and flourished pre-eminently at Naxos. Here it was, according to the story, that the god wedded Ariadne. In the islands a fable was current that he fell in with some Tyrrhenian pirates who took him to their ship and put him in chains. But his fetters fell off, the sails and the mast were wreathed in vine and ivy, the god was changed into a lion, while the seamen throw themselves madly into the sea and were turned into dolphins. In forms akin to this the worship of Dionysus passed into Egypt and far into Asia. Hence arose a fable founded on the story of Alexander's campaigns, that the god passed victoriously through Egypt, Syria, and India as far as the Ganges, with his army of Sileni, Satyrs, and inspired women, the Maenades or Bacchantes, carrying their wands (thyrsi) crowned with vines and ivy. Having thus constrained all the world to the recognition of his deity, and having, with Heracles, assisted the gods, in the form of a lion, to victory in their war with the Giants, he was taken to Olympus, where, in Homer, he does not appear. From Olympus be descends to the lower world, whence he brings his mother, who is worshipped with him under the name of Thyone (the wild one), as Leto was with Apollo and Artemis. From his mother he is called Thyoneus, a name which, with others of similar meaning, such as Bacchus, Bromios, Evios, and Iacchos, points to a worship founded upon a different conception of his nature. In the myth with which we have been hitherto concerned, the god appears mainly in the character and surroundings of joy and triumph. But, as the god of the earth, Dionysus belongs, like Persophone, to the world below as well as to the world above. The death of vegetation in winter was represented as the flight of the god into hiding from the sentence of his enemies, or even as his extinction, but he returned again from obscurity, or rose from the dead, to new life and activity. In this conexion he was called Zagreus ("Torn in pieces") and represented as a son of Zeus and his daughter Persephone, or sometimes of Zeus and Demeter. In his childhood he was torn to pieces by the Titans, at the command of the jealous Hera. But every third year, after spending the interval in the lower world, he is born anew. According to the Orphic story, Athene brought her son's heart to Zeus, who gave it to Semele, or swallowed it himself, whereupon the Theban or younger Dionysus was born. The grave of Dionysus was shown at Delphi in the inmost shrine of the temple of Apollo. Secret offerings were brought thither, while the women who were celebrating the feast woke up Licnites; in other words, invoked the new-born god cradled in a winnowing fan, on the neighbouring mountain of Parnassus. Festivals of this kind, in celebration of the extinction and resurrection of the deity, were held by women and girls only, amid the mountains at night, every third year, about the time of the shortest day. The rites, intended to express the excess of grief and joy at the death and reappearance of the god, were wild even to savagery, and the women who performed them were hence known by the expressive names of Bacchae, Maenads, and Thyiades. They wandered through woods and mountains, their flying locks crowned with ivy or snakes, brandishing wands and torches, to the hollow sounds of the drum, and the shrill notes of the flute, with wild dances, and insane cries and jubilation. The victims of the sacrifice, oxen, goats, even fawns and roes from the forest, were killed, torn in pieces and eaten raw, in imitation of the treatment of Zagreus by the Titans. Thrace, and Macedonia, and Asiatic Greece were the scene of the wildest orgies; indeed Thrace seems to be the country of their birth. In Asiatic Greece, it should be added, the worship of Dionysus-Zagreus came to be associated with the equally wild rites of Rhea (Cybele), and Atys, and Sabus or Sabazius. (See SABAZIUS.) In Greece Proper the chief seats of these were Parnassus, with Delphi and its neighbourhood, Baeotia, Argos, and Laconia, and in Baeotia and Laconia especially the mountains Chitaeron and Taygetus. They were also known in Naxos, Crete, and other islands. They seem to have been unknown in Attica, though Dionysus was worshipped at the Eleusinian mysteries with Persephone and Demeter, under the name of Iacchos, as brother or bridegroom of Persephone. But the Attic cycle of national festivals in honour of Dionysus represents the idea of the ancient and simple Hellenic worship, with its merry usages. Here Dionysus is the god who gives increase and luxuriance to vineyard and tree. For he is a kindly and gentle power, terrible only to his enemies, and born for joy and blessing to mankind. His gifts bring strength and healing to the body, gladness and forgetfulness of care to the mind, whence he was called Lyaeos, or the loosener of care, They are ennobling in their effects, for they require tending, and thus keep men employed in diligent labour; they bring them together in merry meetings, and inspire them to music and poetry. Thus it is to the worship of Dionysus that the dithyramb and the drama owe their origin and development. In this way Dionysus is closely related, not only to Demeter, Aphrodite, Eros, the Graces and the Muses, but to Apollo, because he inspires men to prophesy. The most ancient representation of Dionysus consists of wooden images with the phallus, as the symbol of generative power. In works of art he is sometimes represented as the ancient Indian Dionysus, the conqueror of the East. In this character he appears, as in the Vatican statue called Sardanapalus, of high stature, with a luxuriant wealth of hair on head and chin (comp. fig. 1). Sometimes again, as in numerous statues which have survived, he is a youth of soft and feminine shape, with a dreamy expression, his long, clustering hair confined by a fillet or crown of vine or ivy, generally naked, or with a fawn or panther skin thrown lightly over him. He is either reposing or leaning idly back with the Thyrsos, grapes, or a cup in his hand (fig. 2). Often, too, he is surrounded by the fauns of his retinue, Maenads, Satyrs, Sileni, Centaurs, etc., or by Nymphs, Muses, Cupids, indeed in the greatest possible number and variety of situations. (See the engravings.) Besides the vine, ivy, and rose, the panther, lion, lynx, ox, goat, and dolphin were sacred to him. His usual sacrifices were the ox and the goat. In Italy the indigenous god Liber, with a feminine Libera at his side, corresponded to the Greek god of wine. Just as the Italian Ceres was identified with Demeter, so these two deities were identified with Dionysus, or Iakchos, and Persephone, with whom they were worshipped under their native name, but with Greek rites, in a temple on the Aventine. (See CERES.) Liber or Bacchus, like Dionysus, had a country and an urban festival. The country festivities were held, with unrestrained merriment, at the time of grape-gathering and straining off the wine. The urban festival held in Rome on the 17th March, was called Liberalla. Old women, crowned with ivy, sold cheap cakes (liba) of meal, honey, and oil, and burnt them on little pans for the purchasers. The boys took their toga virilis or toga libera on this day, and offered sacrifice on the Capitol. Side by side with this public celebration, a secret worship, the Bacchanalia, found its way to Rome and into the whole of Italy. The Bacchanatia were celebrated by men and women, in Italy outside the cities, in Rome in the sacred enclosure of Stimula or Semele. They were accompanied with such shameless excesses that in 186 B.C. they were put down, with unsparing severity, by a decree of the senate.
 
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