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"The maiden's chamber," particularly a temple of Athene Parthenos (the virgin goddess), especially that on the Acropolis of Athens, distinguished by the grandeur of its dimensions, the beauty of its execution, and the splendour of its artistic adornment. [There was an earlier temple of Athene immediately to the south of the Erechtheum (see plan of ACROPOLIS), and the foundations of a new temple were laid after the Persian War, probably in the time of Cimon. This temple was never completed; on the same site there was built a temple of less length, but greater breadth, which is usually called the Parthenon.] It was built at the command of Pericles by the architects Ictinus and Callicrates. It took about five years in building, and was finished in 438 B.C. (fig. 1). Its further adornment with sculptures in the pediments, and with metopes and frieze was completed under the direction of Phidias, who himself took part in the work. The temple, built wholly of Pentelic marble, is 65 feet high. The stylobate, or platform, on which the columns stand (fig. 2, C), is 228 feet in length, and 101 feet in breadth [= 225 x 100 in Attic feet, giving 9 : 4 as the ratio of length to breadth]. Under the stylobate is the crepidoma, or basis proper, formed of three steps (fig. 2, B B B) resting on a massive substructure, 250 feet long and 105 feet broad, and founded on the rock at the highest part of the plateau of the Acropolis (fig. 2, C). The temple is peripteral, its walls being entirely surrounded by a colonnade of forty-six Doric columns, about 35 feet high, eight at each end, and fifteen on each side. The architrave from the first was adorned with 92 metopes sculptured in high relief (see, for the position of the metopes, fig. 2, G). Shields and votive inscriptions were subsequently placed there by Alexander the Great, in 338 B.C. [Plut.,Alex. 16]. The subjects were: on the E. the battle of the gods and giants; on the S., that of the Centaurs and Lapithae (fig. 3); on the W., the victory of the Athenians over the Amazons; and on the N., the destruction of Troy. The sculptures of the eastern pediment (D) represented the birth of the goddess, those of the western the strife of Athene with Poseidon for the possession of Attica. These pediments are 93 feet long, and 11 feet 4 inches high. The cella, or temple proper, is 194 feet long, and 69 1/2 feet wide, with six columns at each end, 33 feet in height. Opposite the outermost columns at each end are antoe, formed by the prolongation of the side walls of the cella (see plan of ACROPOLIS). Along the top of the outer wall of the cella ran a continuous frieze, 524 feet in length, with representations of the Panathenaic procession carved in very low relief (fig. 2, F, and figs. 4 and 5). At the east end of the cella, the pronaos, or portico, leads into the eastern chamber, which was 100 Greek feet in length, and was therefore called the hecatompedos. It was divided longitudinally into three parts by two rows of nine columns each, and above these was a second row of columns forming an upper story. The central space was open to the sky (hypaethral). At its western end, under a protecting canopy, stood the statue of the goddess, wrought in gold and ivory, the masterpiece of Phidias (cp. ATHENE, near the end). The western chamber of the cella was fronted by a portico, and was called by the special name of the Parthenon. [Within this smaller chamber were kept vessels for use in the sacred processions, with various small articles of gold or, silver. Modern writers have hitherto generally identified this small chamber with the opisthodomos (lit. back-chamber), which was used as the treasury, or State bank, of Athens; but it is held by Dorpfeld that this term should be confined to the corresponding chamber of the early temple south of the Erechtheum.] In the Middle Ages the temple was converted into a church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and then into a mosque, and remained in good preservation till 1687. In that year, during the siege of Athens by the Venetians, the building was blown up by the explosion of a powder magazine that the Turks had stored in it, and, with the exception of the two pediments, was almost completely destroyed. Most of the sculptures preserved from the pediments and metopes, and from the frieze of the temple chamber, are now among the Elgin Marbles in the British Museum.
A Greek architect who, together with Ictinus, built the Parthenon (q.v.).
A name given in the Doric frieze to surfaces which, projecting over every column and between every two columns, are ornamented with three parallel channels, two complete ones in the middle and two halves at the corners. Between the triglyphs are the metopes(q.v.). (Cp. ARCHITECTURE, ORDERS OF; and PARTHENON, fig. 2.)
TAMIAS 39.25%
A treasurer; a title borne by several officials in Athens. (1) The most important of these was the treasurer (epimeletes) of the revenue, elected by show of hands every four years. He received from the apodectoe (general collectors) all the money which was to be disbursed for public expenses, and he paid away into the treasuries of the several authorities what was necessary for purposes of administration in their respective departments. He also provided the funds voted by the people for extraordinary purposes. (2) The same name was also borne by the ten treasurers of the goddess Athene, who had the care of the treasure of the goddess which was kept in the inner chamber of the Parthenon, besides the State treasure which (according to the ordinary account) was kept in the same place. They were elected annually by lot, one from each of the phyloe. (3) Similarly, we have a board of ten regularly constituted treasurers to the rest of the gods. Their duty was to manage the sacred treasures, which in earlier times were kept in the separate temples, but in 418 B.C. were transferred to the Parthenon. [(4) Under the title of tamias ton stratiotikon, we read of a financial officer of the war department. He was probably appointed after the Peloponnesian War in place of the hellinotamioe (q.v.). Besides his duties in connexion with the war department, he had a share in the management of the Panathenaic festival (Aristotle, Constitution of Athens, 49).]
The room which in many Greek temples adjoined the temple chamber itself at the rear, and which often served for the preserving of the temple treasure, and indeed even of the State moneys. For the latter purpose the Athenians used the opisthodomus [of the old temple of Athene, and afterwards (according to the ordinary view) the western chamber] of the Parthenon at Athens [Aristoph. Plutus, 1192; Dem. Syntax. 14; Timocr. 136]. (See TEMPLE, and plan of ACROPOLIS.)
ICTINUS 36.26%
One of the most famous architects of Greece; he flourished in the second half of the 5th century B.C. and was a contemporary of Pericles and Phidias. His most famous works were the Parthenon on the Acropolis at Athens, and the temple of Apollo at Bassae, near Phigalia in Arcadia. Of both these edifices important remains are in existence. Most of the columns of the temple at Bassae are still standing. In the judgment of the ancients, it was the most beautiful temple in the Peloponnesus, after the temple of Athene at Tegea, which was the work of Scopas. [Pausanias, viii 41 Section § 8.]
PHIDIAS 34.96%
The famous Greek artist, born about 500 B.C. at Athens, pupil of Ageladas, and eminent as architect, bronze founder, sculptor, and painter. His great powers were displayed in the buildings erected under the administration of his intimate friend Pericles on the Acropolis at Athens, and at Olympia, where he was commissioned to execute the statue of Zeus for the temple there. Returning to Athens in 432, he was accused, by intriguers against Pericles, of misappropriating the gold supplied him for the drapery of Athene's statue in the Parthenon. From this he could readily clear himself, having so contrived the drapery that it could easily be taken off and weighed [Plut., Pericles 31]. But being afterwards accused of impiety, on the ground that he had introduced portraits of himself and Pericles on the goddess' shield, he was thrown into prison, where he died of an illness in the same year (ib.). Among all his works, the foremost rank was taken, according to the testimony of antiquity, by the statue of Zeus at Olympia, and three statues of Athene on the Acropolis at Athens; viz. the statue in the Parthenon constructed, like the Zeus, of ivory and gold, and two others, Athene Promachus and the "Lemnian Athene," of bronze. These works (for which see ATHENE and<smallCapsZUES</smallCaps) have perished; but of the marble sculptures of the Parthenon (q.v.), which were probably constructed from his designs, and certainly under his direction, the greater part still remains. Most of them are in the British Museum. They fully substantiate the judgment of antiquity, which looked on him as the representative of artistic perfection, as the one man who in his art combined perfect sublimity with perfect beauty. It was said of him that he alone had seen the exact image of the gods and revealed it to men. He fixed for ever the ideal types of Zeus and of Athene, the gods who, in the spiritual dignity of their attributes , are foremost of all the divinities of Greece.
METOPES 22.64%
[Metopoe, either " the intervening openings," or (Vitruv. iv 2, 4) " the spaces between the sockets " (Gr. opai). In Doric architecture the spaces between the triglyphs (q.v.) in the frieze. They were originally left open. Thus, Orestes manages to make his way into the Tauric temple of Artemis through one of these openings (Eur., Iph. T. 113). They were afterwards filled with panels of wood, which were in course of time superseded by plain slabs of marble, as in the temples at Paestum, etc. These slabs were sometimes slightly ornamented with around shield in low relief, as in the frieze of the temple of Zeus at Olympia. More frequently they were filled with figures in relief, as in those of Selinus (see SCULPTURE, fig. 1), and of the Theseum and the Parthenon (q.v.). The term is also applied to similarly sculptured slabs not placed between the triglyphs, but on the wall of the cella, as in the temple of Zeus at Olympia. See OLYMPIAN GAMES, fig. 3.]
The most ancient and most important of Athenian festivals. It was celebrated in honour of Athene, the patron deity of Athens. Claiming to have been founded as early as by Erichthonius, it is said to have been originally named only Athenaea, and to have first received the name of Panathenaea at the time when Theseus united all the inhabitants of Attica into one body. In memory of the union itself was kept the festival of the Synaecia, or Synaecesia, on the 16th of Hecatombaeon (July-August), which may be regarded as a kind of prepatory solemnity to the Panathenaea. There was a festival of the ordinary or lesser Panathenaea celebrated every year, and from the time of Pisistratus, the great Panathenaea held every fifth year, and in the third year of every Olympiad, from the 24th to the 29th of Hecatombaeon. Pisistratus, in the year 566 B.C., added to the original chariot and horse races athletic contests in each of the traditional forms of competition. He, or his son Hipparchus, instituted the regulation, that the collected Homeric poems should be recited at the feast of Rhapsodi. In 446 Pericles introduced musical contests, which took place on the first day of the festival, in the Odeum, which he had built. Competitions of cyclic choruses and other kinds of dances, torch races and trireme races, added to the splendour of the festival. The care and direction of all these contests were committed to ten stewards (athlothetae), who were elected by the people for four years, from one great Panathenaic festival to the next. In the musical contests, the first prize was a golden crown; in the athletic, the prize was a garland of leaves from the sacred olive trees of Athene, together with large and beautiful vases filled with oil from the same trees. Many specimens of these Panathenaic vases have been found [in Italy, Sicily, Greece, and at Cyrene. They have the figure of Athene on one side, and a design indicating the contest for which they are awarded on the other. Most of them belong to the 4th century B.C., 367-318; the "Burgon Vase," in the British Museum, to the 6th century. Cp. Pindar, Nem. x 35]. The tribe whose ships had been victorious received a sum of money, part of which was destined for a sacrifice to Poseidon. The culminating point of the festival was the 28th day of the month, the birthday of the goddess, when the grand procession carried through the city the costly, embroidered, saffron-coloured garment, the peplus (q.v.). This bad been woven in the preceding nine months by Attic maidens and matrons, and embroidered with representations from the battle of the gods and Giants. It was carried through the city, first of all as a sail for a ship moving on wheels, and was then taken to the Acropolis, where it adorned one of the statues of Athene Polias. The procession is represented in a vivid manner in the well-known frieze of the Parthenon. It included the priests and their attendants, leading a long train of animals festally adorned for sacrifice; matrons and maidens bearing in baskets the various sacrificial implements (see CANEPHORI); the most picturesque old men in festal attire, with olive branches in their hands, whence came their name, thallophorae; warriors, with spear and shield, in splendid array; young men in armour; the cavalry under the command of both the hipparchi; the victors in the immediately preceding contests; the festal embassies of other states, especially of the colonies ; and, lastly, the aliens resident in Athens. Of these last, the men bore behind the citizens trays with sacrificial cakes, the women waterpots, and the maidens sunshades and stools for the citizens' wives; while on the freedmen was laid the duty of adorning with oak-leaves the market-places and streets through which the procession moved. The feast ended with the great festal sacrifice of a becatomb of oxen, and with the general banqueting which accompanied it. At the yearly minor Panathenaea, on the 28th and 29th of Hecatombaeon, contests, sacrifices, and a procession took place, but all in a more simple style. In later times the festival was removed to spring, perhaps in consequence of Roman influence, in order to make it correspond to the Quinquatrus of Minerva. [All the ancient authorities are collected by Michaelis, Der Parthenon, pp. 318-333.]
Properly = Upper Town. The Greek name for the citadel or stronghold of a town. The Acropolis of Athens was situated on a plateau of rock, about 200 feet in height, 1,000 in breadth from east to west, and 460 in length from north to south. It was originally called Cecropia, after Cecrops, the ancestor of the Athenians, whose grave and shrine were shown on the spot. On the north side of the Acropolis was the Erechtheum, the common seat of worship of the ancient gods of Athens, Athene Polias, Hephaestus, Poseidon, and Erechtheus himself, who vias said to have founded the sanctuary. His house was possibly N.E. of the Erechtheum. Pisistrâtus, like the ancient kings, had his residence on the Acropolis, and may have added the stylobate to the temple of Athene recently identified, S. of the Erechtheum. The walls of the fortress proper were destroyed in the Persian wars, 480 and 479 B.C., and restored by Cimon. But the wall surrounding the foot of the hill, called the Pelasgikon or Felargikon, and supposed to be a relic of the oldest inhabitants, was left in ruins. Cimon also laid the foundation of a new temple of Athene on the south side of the hill. This temple was begun afresh and completed in the most splendid style by Pericles, and called the Parthenon. (See PARTHENTON.) Pericles at the same time adorned the approach to the west side of the Acropolis with the glorious Propylaea, and began to rebuild the Erechtheum in magnificent style. (See ERECHTHEUM, PROPYLAeA.) There were several other sanctuaries on the Acropolis, that, for instance, of Artemis Brauronia, on the S.E. side of the Propylaea; the beautiful little temple of Athene Nike to the S.W.; and the Pandroseum adjoining the temple of Erechtheus. There were many altars, that of Zeus Hypatos for example, and countless statues, among them that of Athene Promachos, with votive offerings. Among the numerous grottos in the rock, one on the north side was dedicated to Pan, another to Apollo.
ATHENE 11.33%
A Greek goddess, identified with the Roman Minerva. According to the story most generally current, she was the daughter of Zeus, who had swallowed his first wife Metis (" Counsel "), the daughter of Oceanus, in fear that she would bring forth a son stronger than himself. Hephaeestus (or, according to another version, Prometheus) clave open the head of Zeus with an axe, on which Athene sprang forth in full armour, the goddess of eternal virginity. But her ancient epithet Tritogeneia ("born of Triton," or the roaring flood) points to water (that is, to Oceanus); as the source of her being. Oceanus was, according to Homer, the origin of all things and of all deities. The worship of Athene, and the story of her birth, were accordingly connected with many brooks and lakes in various regions, especially in Boeotia, Thessalia, and Libya, to which the name Triton was attached. From the first, Athene takes a very prominent place in the Greek popular religion. The Homeric hymns represent her as the favourite of her father, who refuses her nothing. When solemn oaths were to be taken, they joined her name with those of Zeus and Apollo, in a way which shows that the three deities represent the embodiment of all divine authority. With the exception of the two gods just mentioned, there is no other deity whose original character as a power of nature underwent so remarkable an ethical development. Both conceptions of Athene, the natural and the ethical, were intimately connected in the religion of Attica, whose capital, Athens, was named after Athene, and was the most important seat of her worship. Athens was originally the maiden daughter of the god of heaven; the clear, transparent aether, whose purity is always breaking forth in unveiled brilliancy through the clouds that surround it. As a deity of the sky she, with Zeus, is the mistress of thunder and lightning. Like Zeus, she carries the aegis with the Gorgon's head, the symbol of the tempest and its terrors. In many statues, accordingly, she is represented as hurling the thunder-bolt. But she also sends down, from sky to earth, light and warmth and fruitful dew, and with them prosperity to fields and plants. A whole series of fables and usages, belonging especially to the Athenian religion, represents her as the helper and protector of agriculture. The two deities Erechtheus and Erichthonius, honoured in Attica as powers of the fruitful soil, are her foster-children. She was worshipped with Erechtheus in the temple named after him (the Erechtheum), the oldest sanctuary on the Athenian Acropolis. The names of her earliest priestesses, the daughters of Cecrops, Aglaurus, Pandrosus, and Herse, signify the bright air, the dew, and the rain, and are mere personifications of their qualities, of such value to the Athenian territory. The sowing season was opened in Attica by three sacred services of ploughing. Of these, two were in honour of Athene as inventress of the plough, while the third took place in honour of Demeter. It was Athens, also, who had taught men how to attach oxen to the yoke; above all, she had given them the olive-tree, the treasure of Attica. This tree she had made to grow out of the rock of the citadel, when disputing the possession of the land with Poseidon. Several festivals, having reference to these functions of the goddess, were celebrated in Attica; the Callynteria and Plynteria, the Scirophoria, the Arrhephoria or Hersephoria, and the Oschophoria, which were common to Athens with Dionysus. (See DIONYSIA.) Even her chief feast, the Panathenoea, was originally a harvest festival. It is significant that the presentation of the peplos or mantle, the chief offering at the celebration, took place in the sowing season. But afterwards more was made of the intellectual gifts bestowed by the goddess. Athens was very generally regarded as the goddess of war; an iaea which in ancient times was the prevailing one. It was connected with the fact that, like her father Zeus, she was supposed to be able to send storms and bad weather. In this capacity she appears in story as the true friend of all bold warriors, such as Perseus, Bellerophon, Jason, Heracles, Diomedes and Odysseus. But her courage is a wise courage, not a blind rashness like that of Ares; and she is always represented, accordingly, as getting the better of him. In this connection she was honoured in Athenian worship mainly as a protector and defender; thus (to take a striking example) she was worshipped on the citadel of Athens under the name of Promachos ("champion," "12 protector.") But she was also a goddess of victory. As the personification of victory (Athene Nike) she had a second and especial temple on the Athenian Acropolis. (See Plan of ACROPOLIS.) And the great statues in the temples represented her, like Zeus, with Nike in her outstretched hand. The occupations of peace, however, formed the main sphere of her activity. Like all the other deities who were supposed to dispense the blessings of nature, she is the protectress of growing children; and as the goddess of the clear sky and of pure air, she bestows health and keeps off sickness. Further, she is (with Zeus) the patroness of the Athenian Phratrioe, or unions of kinsfolk. At Athens and Sparta she protects the popular and deliberative assemblies; in many places, and especially at Athens, the whole state is under her care (Athene Polias, Poliachus). Elsewhere she presides over the larger unions of kindred peoples. The festival of Athene Itonia at Coronea was a confederate festival of all Boeotia. Under the title of Panachais she was worshipped as the goddess of the Achaean League. Speaking broadly, Athene represents human wit and cleverness, and presides over the whole moral and intellectual side of human life. From her are derived all the productions of wisdom and understanding, every art and science, whether of war or of peace. A crowd of discoveries, of the most various kinds, is ascribed to her. It has been already mentioned that she was credited with the invention of the plough and the yoke. She was often associated with Poseidon as the inventress of horse-taming and ship-building. In the Athenian story she teaches Erichthonius to fasten his horses to the chariot. In the Corinthian story she teaches Bellerophon to subdue Pegasus. At Lindus in Rhodes she was worshipped as the goddess who helped Danaus to build the first fifty-oared ship. In the fable of the Argonauts it is she who instructs the builders of the first ship, the Argo. Even in Homer all the productions of women's art, as of spinning and weaving, are characterized as "works of Athene." Many a Palladion or statue of Pallas bore a spindle and distaff in its left hand. As the mistress and protectress of arts and handiwork, she was worshipped at the Chalkeia (or Feast of Smiths) under the title of Ergane. Under this name she is mentioned in several inscriptions found on the Acropolis. Her genius covers the field of music and dancing. She is inventor of the flute and the trumpet, as well as of the Pyrrhic war-dance, in which she was said to have been the earliest performer, at the celebration of the victory of the Gods over the Giants. It was Phidias who finally fixed the typical representation of Athens in works of art. Among his numerous statues of her, three, the most celebrated, were set up on the acropolis of Athens. These were (1) The colossal statue of Athene Parthenos, wrought in ivory and gold, thirty feet in height (with the pedestal), and standing in the Parthenon. (See PARTHENON.) The goddess was represented wearing a long robe falling down to the feet, and on her breast was the aegis with the Gorgon's head. A helmet was on her head; in one hand she bore a Victory, six feet in height, in the other a lance, which leaned against a shield adorned with scenes from the battles of the Amazons with the Giants. (2) The bronze statue of Athene Promachos, erected from the proceeds of the spoils taken at Marathon, and standing between the Propylaea and the Erechthteum. The proportions of this statue were so gigantic, that the gleaming point of the lance and the crest of the helmet were visible to seamen, on approaching the Piraeus from Sunium. (3) The Lemnian Pallas, so named because it had been dedicated by the Athenian Cleruchi in Lemnos. The attractions of this statue won for it the name of "the Beautiful." Like the second, it was of bronze; as a representation of Athene as the goddess of peace, it was without a helmet. Throughout the numerous and varying representations of her, Athene has an imposing stature, suggesting a masculine rather than a feminine form; an oval face, with a brow of great clearness and purity; thoughtful eyes, compressed lips, firm chin, and hair carelessly thrown back. (See cut.) Her ordinary attributes are the helmet, the aegis covering the breast or serving as a shield for the arm, the lance, the round shield with the Gorgon's head, the olive branch, and the owl. (On her identification with Minerva, see</italics MINERVA.)
The origin of painting as an art in Greece is connected with definite historical personages. That of sculpture is lost in the mists of legend. It was regarded as an art imparted to men by the gods; for such is the thought expressed in the assertion that the earliest statues fell from heaven. The first artist spoken of by name, DAeDALUS, who is mentioned as early as Homer, is merely a personification of the most ancient variety of art, that which was employed solely in the construction of wooden images of the gods. This is clearly proved by his name (= "the cunning artificer"). To him were attributed a series of inventions certainly separated far from each other in respect of time and place, and embracing important steps in the development of wood-carving and in the representation of the human form. Thus he is said to have invented the saw, the axe, the plummet, the gimlet, and glue [Pliny,N. H. vii 198], to have been the first to open the eyes in the statues of the gods, to separate the legs, and to give freer motion to the arms, which had before hung close to the body [Diodorus iv 76]. After him the early school of sculptors at Athens, his reputed native city, is sometimes called the school of Daedalus [Pausanias v 25 § 13]. During a long residence in Crete he is said to have instructed the Cretans in making wooden images (xoana) of the gods [ib. viii 53 § 8]. The invention of modelling figures in clay, from which sculpture in bronze originated, is assigned to the Sicyonian potter BÜTÄDES at Corinth [Pliny, xxxv 151]. The art of working in metals must have been known early in Greece, as appears from the Homeric poems [esp. ll. xviii 468-608, "the shield of Achilles "]. An important step in this direction was due to GLAUCUS of Chios, who in the 7th century B.C. invented the soldering of iron [Herodotus, i 25; Pausanias, x 16 § 1], and the softening and hardening of metal by fire and water [Plutarch, De Defectu Orac. 47]. The discovery of bronze-founding is attributed to RHOECUS and THEODORUS of Samos about 580 [Pausanias, viii 14 § 8]. The high antiquity of Greek sculpture in stone may be inferred from a work of the very earliest period of Greek civilization, the powerful relief of two upright lions over the gate of the castle at Mycenae. (See ARCHITECTURE, fig. 2.) Sculpture in marble, as well as in gold and ivory, was much advanced by two famous "pupils of Daedalus," DIPOENUS and SCYLLIS of Crete, who were working in Argos and Sicyon about 550 B.C. [Pliny, xxxvi §§ 9, 14; Pausanias, ii 15 § 1, 22 § 5], and founded and influential school of art in the Peloponnesus. [This school included Hegylus and Theocles (Pausanias, vi 19 § 8, 17 § 2); Dontas and Dorycleidas (ib., vi 19 § 12, v 17 § 1); Clearchus of Rhegium (iii 17 § 6); Tectaeus and Augelion (ii 32 § 5, ix 35 § 3).] Among their works are recorded not only statues of gods, but also of heroes, often united in large groups. Some conception of the artistic productions of this period may be, formed from scattered monuments still extant, originating in different parts of the Greek world; e.g. the rude and more primitive metopes of Selinus Sicily (fig. 1); the statues of Apollo from the island of Thera and from Tenea, near Corinth (fig. 2); the reliefs on the Harpy Monument from the acropolis of Xanthus in Lycia (figs. 3 and 4), etc. These works, in spite of their archaic stiffness, show an effort after individual and natural expression, though the position of the foot in striding, with the sole completely touching the ground, and the unemotional and stony smile on the mask-like face, are common to all. Even after Greek sculpture had mastered the representation of the human body, not only at rest, but also in the most violent movement, it still continued unable to overcome the lifeless rigidity of facial expression. This is seen in the Trojan battle-scenes (date about 480) on the Aeginetan pediments. Here the figures are represented in every variety of position in the fight, and depicted, not indeed with any ideality, but with perfect mastery even to the smallest detail; whereas the faces are entirely destitute of any expression appropriate to their situation. (See fig. 5, and the (West Pediment under AeGINETAN SCULPTURES.) The athletic forms in which the Aeginetan heroes are represented indicate another important extension of the sphere of artistic representation. From about 544 B.C. it had become usual to erect statues of the victors in the athletic contests, Olympia especially abounding in these. [Ol. 59; Pausanias, vi 18 § 7 ; the statues there mentioned are of wood.] By this innovation the art was freed from the narrow limits to which it had been confined by the traditions of religion, and led on to a truer imitation of nature. In this department the school of Aegina was specially active, attaining its highest perfection in the bronze statuary of GLAUCIAS, CALLON, and above all ONÄTÄS (500-460). Sculpture in bronze flourished simultaneously in the Peloponnesus at Sicyon under CÄNÄCHUS [for a supposed copy of his Apollo see CANACHUS] and his brother ARISTÖCLES, the founder of a school which lasted long after, and at Argos under AGELADAS, the teacher of Phidias, Myron, and Polyolitus. The transition to the period of the finest art is represented by CÄLÄMIS of Athens, PYTHÄGÖRÄS of Rhegium, and especially MYRON, another Athenian, in whom the art attained the highest truth to nature, with perfect freedom in the representation of the human body, and was thus prepared for the development of ideal forms. This last step was taken at Athens, in the time of Pericles, by PHIDIAS. In his creations, particularly in his statues of the gods, whether in bronze or in ivory and gold, he succeeded in combining perfect beauty of form with the most profound ideality, fixing for ever the ideal type for Zeus and Athene, the two deities who were pre-eminently characterized by intellectual dignity. (See ATHENE, ZEUS, and PARTHENON, figs. 4 and 5.) For one of his heroic subjects see fig. 7. Of the pupils of Phidias the two who worked most nearly in the same spirit were AGÖRÄCRITUS and ALCAMENES, the author of the sculpture of the western pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, part of which still remains. The perfection of Attic art at this time can be realized when we consider that, with all their beauty of execution, the extant marble sculptures of the Parthenon, Theseum, Erechtheum, and the temple of "Wingless Victory" must be regarded as mere productions of the ordinary workshop [as compared with the lost masterpieces of Phidias]. The school of Phidias had rivals in the naturalistic school which followed Myron, including his son LYCIUS and CRESILAS of Cydonia. [For a supposed copy of his Pericles, see CRESILAS.] Independent of both schools stood PAeONIUS of Mende, whose Victory, as well as part of his sculptures on the east pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, are still extant [see PAeONIUS and OLYMPIAN GAMES (fig. 1)]; and CALLIMÄCHUS, the "inventor" of the Corinthian order of architecture [Vitruvius, iv 1 § 10] and of the application of the auger to working in marble [Pausanias, i 26 § 6]. Another school of sculpture in opposition to that of Athens was founded at Argos by Phidias' younger contemporary POLYCLITUS, whose colossal gold and ivory statue of the Argive Hera directly challenged comparison with the works of Phidias in its materials, its ideality, and its artistic form, and established the ideal type of that goddess. He mainly devoted himself, however, to work in bronze, the department in which Argos had long been pre-eminent; and made it his aim to exhibit the perfection of beauty in the youthful form (fig. 8). He also established a canon or scheme of the normal proportions of the body. Of his pupils the chief was Naucydes of Argos. As in the first period of Greek sculpture, represented by Myron, Phidias, and Polyclitus, the schools of Athens and Argos held the first rank beyond dispute, so it was also in the second period, which embraces the 4th century down to the death of Alexander the Great. Athens, moreover, during this period remained true to the traditions of Phidias, and still occupied itself mainly with the ideal forms of gods and heroes, though in a spirit essentially altered. The more powerful emotions, the more deeply stirred passions, of the period after the Peloponnesian War were not without their influence on art. The sculptors of the time abandoned the representation of the dignified divinities of the earlier school, and turned to the forms of those deities whose nature gave room for softer or more emotional expression, especially Aphrodite and Dionysus and the circle of gods and daemons who surrounded them. The highest aim of their art was to pourtray the profound pathos of the soul, to give expression to the play of the emotions. With this is connected the preference of this school for marble over bronze, as more suited for rendering the softer and finer shades of form or expression. The art of executing work in gold and ivory was almost lost, the resources of the States no longer sufficing, as a rule, for this purpose. The most eminent of the New Attic school were SCÖPÄS of Paros and PRAXITELES of Athens. Scopas, also famous as an architect, was a master of the most elevated pathos. Praxiteles was no less masterly in regard to the softer graces in female or youthful forms, and in the representation of sweet moods of dreamy reverie. In his statues of Aphrodite at Cnidus and Eros at Thespiae he established ideal types for those divinities. The Hermes with the infant Dionysus, found at Olympia, remains as a memorial of his art (fig. 9). Of the productions of this school (in which the names of BRYAeUS, LEOCHARES, and TIMOTHEUS, who was joined with Scopas in his work on the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, ought also to be mentioned) an opinion may be formed from the spirited reliefs on the choragic monument of Lysicrates (q.v.) at Athens. We have also extant, in a copy, the Niobid group (see NIOBE), concerning the original of which it was much disputed, even in ancient times, whether the author were Scopas or Praxiteles [Pliny, xxxvi 28]. In contrast to the ideal aims of Attic art, the Sicyonian school still remained true to its early naturalistic tendencies and to the art of sculpture in bronze, of which Argos had so long been the home. At the head of the school stood one of the most influential and prolific artists of antiquity, LYSIPPUS of Sicyon. His efforts were directed to represent beauty and powerful development in the human body (fig. 11). Hence Heracles, as the impersonation of human physical strength, was pourtrayed by him oftener, and with more success, than any other deity, and his type fully established. Lysippus was most prolific as a portrait sculptor, a branch of art which bad been much advanced in the invention by his brother Lysistratus of the method of taking plaster casts of the features [Pliny, xxxv 153]. After Alexander the Great the practice of the art, which had thus developed to perfect mastery of technique, began to deteriorate with the general decay of the countries of Greece proper, and to give place to the flourishing artistic schools of Asia Minor and the neighbouring islands. The characteristic of this period is the rise of a method of treatment which strives after effect. Instead of the naivete of earlier times we get a certain deliberate calculation of a theatrical type, a tendency to make the exhibition of technical skill an end in itself. The most productive school was that of Rhodes, at the head of which stood a pupil of Lysippus, CHARES of Lindus, who designed the famous Colossus of Rhodes, the largest statue of ancient times. Two well known extant works in marble proceeded from this school, the group of Laocoon (q.v.) and his sons, by AGESANDER, ATHENODORUS, and POLYDORUS, found at Rome in 1506, now one of the chief treasures of the Vatican Museum, and the Farnese Bull at Naples. This last group, by APOLLONIUS and TAURISCUS of Tralles, represents the revenge of Zethus and Amphion on Dirce (see cut under DIRCE), and is the largest extant antique work which consists of a single block of marble. Both these are admirable in skill and technique, embodying with the greatest vividness the wild passions of a moment of horror; but the theatrical effect and the exhibition of technical skill are unduly exaggerated. [To the Rhodian school is conjecturally assigned the fine group representing Menelaus bearing the body of Patroclus, several imperfect copies of which are still extant (fig. 12). It is sometimes, however, regarded as one of the later products of the same school as the group of Niobe, and assigned to the early part of the 3rd century B.C. (Friederichs - Wolters, Gipsabgusse, no. 1397.) The Pasquino at Rome is probably the original of the copy in the Vatican and of both of those in Florence.] The second in rank of the schools of this period was that at Pergamon, where the sculptors Isogonus, Phyromachus, Stratonicus, and Antigonus celebrated in a series of bronze statues the victories of the kings Eumenes I (263-241) and Attalus I (241-197) over the Gauls. There are still extant, at Venice, Rome, and Naples, single figures from a magnificent offering of Attalus, which stood on the Acropolis at Athens, and consisted of groups of figures illustrating the conflict between the gods and the Giants, the battle of the Athenians and Amazons , the fight at Marathon, and the destruction of the Gauls by Attalus. Other masterpieces of the school are the work popularly called the Dying Gladiator, now identified as a Gallic warrior, who has just stabbed himself after a defeat (fig. 13), and the group in the Villa Ludovisi, called Paetus and Arria, which really represents a Gaul killing his wife and himself. But the most brilliant proof of their powers is furnished by the relief, of the battle of the Giants from the acropolis at Pergamon. This work-brought to light by Humann in 1878, and now at Berlin -is among the most important artistic products of antiquity. (See PERGAMENE SCULPTURES.) To this period may also be referred with certainty the original of the celebrated Belvedere Apollo, which probably had reference to the rescue of the temple of Delphi from the Gallic army in B.C. 280, which was supposed to be the work of the god (fig. 14). To Greek art in Egypt belong the types of Isis and Harpocrates, and the fine reclining figure of the river-god Nilus, with sixteen charming boys playing round him. The artistic activity of the kingdom of the Seleuecidae in Syria is represented by Eutychides, a pupil of Lysippus, and his famous Tyche, a work in bronze representing the presiding destiny of the city of Antioch on the Orontes [Pausanias, vi 2 § 6; see fig. 15]. After the subjugation of Greece by the Romans in the middle of the 2nd century, Rome became the headquarters of Greek artists, whose work, though without novelty in invention, had many excellences, especially in perfect mastery of technique. Of the artists of the 1st Century B.C. and the early imperial times the following are worthy of mention: APOLLONIUS of Athens (Belvedere torso of Hercules at Rome), GLYCON (Farnese Hercules at Naples, see cut, art. HERACLES), and CLEOMENES (Venus de' Medici at Florence), though the works of all these are more or less free reproductions of the creations of earlier masters; also AGASIAS of Ephesus, sculptor of the Borghese Gladiator in the Louvre at Paris, a very fine work in the spirit of the Pergamene school (see cut under AGASIAS). In the same period PASITELES, an Italian Greek of great versatility, attempted a regeneration of art on the basis of careful study of nature and of earlier productions. This movement in favour of an academic eclecticism was continued by Pasiteles' pupil,STEPHÄNUS, who has left us a youthful figure (Villa Albani), and Stephanus' pupil MENELAUS, the artist of the fine group called Orestes and Electra (fig. 16). There was a revival of Greek art in the first half of the 2nd century A.D. under Hadrian, when a new ideal type of youthful beauty was created in the numerous representations of the imperial favourite Antinous (see cut under ANTINOUS). The artistic work of the Romans before the introduction of Greek culture was under Etruscan influence. The art of that people was chiefly displayed in pottery and the closely connected craft of bronze-founding, which they developed with great technical skill and for which they had a special predilection. They not only filled their towns with quantities of bronze statues, Volsinii alone containing about 2,000 at the time of its conquest by the Romans in 265 B.C. [Pliny, xxxiv 34], but provided Rome also for a long time with works of the kind. Judging from the extant monuments, such as the Mars of Todi at the Vatican, the Boy with a Goose under his Arm at Leyden, and the Robed Statue of Aulus Metellus at Florence, the character of their art seems wanting in freedom of treatment and in genuine inspiration. After the conquest of Greece, Greek art took the place of Etruscan at Rome; and, thanks to the continually increasing love of magnificence among the Romans, which was not content with the adornment of public buildings and squares, but sought artistic decoration for private dwellings, a brisk activity in art was developed, whereof numberless extant works give evidence. Beside the Greek influence, to which we owe many copies of the masterpieces of Greek art gradually accumulated in Rome, a peculiarly Roman art arose. This was especially active in portrait sculpture. Portrait statues were divided, according as they were in civil or military costume, into togatae and loricatae or thoracatae (lorica=thorax, a coat of mail). To these were added in later times the so-called Achilleae, idealized in costume and pose [Pliny, xxxiv §§ 8, 118]. It was customary to depict emperors in the form of Jupiter or other gods, and their wives with the attributes of Juno or Venus. Of the innumerable monuments of this description special mention is due to the statue of Augustus in the Vatican (fig. 17); the marble equestrian statues of Balbus and his son at Naples (found at Herculaneum); the bronze equestrian statue of M. Aurelius on the square of the Capitol at Rome; the seated statues of Agrippina the elder in the Capitoline Museum, and the younger at Naples. Hand in hand with portrait sculpture went the art of historical reliefs. In accordance with the realistic spirit of Rome, as opposed to the Greek custom of idealizing persons and events, this department strove to secure the greatest possible accuracy and truth. The most important works of the kind are the reliefs on the Arch of Titus (see cut under TRIUMPH); those on the Arch of Constantine, taken from the Arch of Trajan (see cut under TRIUMPHAL ARCHES); and those on the columns of Trajan and M. Aurelius (see cut under ARCHITECTURE, ORDERS OF, p. 58 b). Roman historical sculpture is seen already on its decline in the reliefs of the Arch of Septimius Severus (203 A.D.), and the decline is complete in those of the Arch of Constantine. A Subordinate branch of relief sculpture was employed on the sarcophagi common from the 2nd century A.D. The subjects of these reliefs are rarely taken from events in the man's actual life, they are most usually scenes from legends of Greek gods or heroes, often after compositions of an earlier period, and accordingly showing a Greek character in their treatment. (See out under MUSES.) Materials. White marble was the material chiefly employed: in the earlier times of Greek art, the local kinds, in Attica particularly the Pentelic, which is "fine in grain and of a pure white" (Middleton's Rome in 1888, pp. 11, 12). From the 4th century on that of Paros was preferred. [This is a very beautiful marble, though of a strongly crystalline grain; it is slightly translucent.] It was used in Roman times in preference to the similar marble of Luna (Carrara), a " marble of many qualities, from the purest white and a fine sparkling grain like loaf sugar, to the coarser sorts disfigured with bluish-gray streaks" (ib). It was sometimes used for columns in Rome. The marble of Hymettus "appears to have been the first foreign marble introduced into Rome. It resembles the inferior kind of Luna marble, being rather coarse in grain and frequently stained with gray striations" (ib.). Coloured marble first became popular under the emperors; e.g. black for Egyptian subjects (statues of Isis), red for Dionysus, Satyrs, and others in his train. To the same period belongs the use of striped and spotted kinds of marble, coloured alabaster, porphyry, and granite. Different colours of stone were also combined (e.g. drapery of black marble or porphyry). A noteworthy peculiarity of ancient sculpture, as also of architecture, is the habit of embellishing all kinds of marble work by the application of colours (Polychromy), which is known from references in ancient writers. [Plato, Rep. 420 C, speaks of "painting statues." Plutarch, De Gloria Athen. 348 F, mentions "dyers" of statues side by side with gilders and encaustic painters. Lastly, Pliny, xxxv 133, states that Praxiteles owned he was much indebted to the circumlitio, or touching up, of his works by the painter Nicias.] It is also attested by traces still present on many works. [Thus the straps of the sandal of the Hermes of Praxiteles still show traces of red and gold; and the statues at Pompeii, especially those of late date, are in many cases coloured, especially certain parts of the drapery. The accompanying cut (fig. 18) introduces us into the studio of an artist engaged in embellishing with paint a terminal statue of Hermes. The original sketch in colours lies on the ground, and she is pausing to examine her work, which is also watched with interest by two bystanders. (Cp. Treu, Sollen wir unsre Statuen bemalen? Berlin, 1884.) Wood and pottery were always painted. [It is sometimes supposed that] even sculptures intended for the adornment of buildings, e.g. metopes and friezes, not only had painted backgrounds (generally blue or red), but were themselves richly adorned with colouring. [It is also held that] originally, even the bare parts of stone figures were painted; afterwards a coating of wax was thought enough [Vitruvius, vii9]. In particular statues, many artists coloured only the characteristic parts, fringes of garments, sandals, armour, weapons, snoods or head wrappings, and of the parts of the body the lips, eyes, hair, beard, and nipples. Probably the cheeks, too, received a light reddish tinge; but all was done with discretion. The colours chiefly used were red, blue, and yellow, or gilding. The employment of different materials for the extremities, and for the drapery, also produced the effect of colouring. Similarly metal-sculpture secured variety of colour by the application of gold, silver, and copper to the bronze. The sparkle of the eyes was often represented by inlaid precious stones or enamel. Particular parts in marble statues, such as attributes, weapons, implements, were also made of metal. [There are examples of this in the pediments of Aegina and in the frieze of the Parthenon. Under the Empire metal was sometimes used for the drapery. Thus the Braschi Antinous in the Vatican was formerly draped in bronze.]-On ancient stone-cutting, see GEMS; on terracottas, see POTTERY; on working in metal, see TOREUTIC ART.
of the Greeks. Of the earliest efforts of the Greeks in architecture, we have evidence in the so-called Cyclopean Walls surrounding the castles of kings in the Heroic Age at Tiryns, Argos, Mycenae (fig. 1), and elsewhere. They are of enormous thickness, some being constructed of rude colossal blocks, whose gaps are filled up with smaller stones; while others are built of stones more or less carefully hewn, their interstices exactly fitting into each other. Gradually they begin to show an approximation to buildings with rectangular blocks. The gates let into these walls are closed at the top either by the courses of stone jutting over from each side till they touch, or by a long straight block laid over the two leaning side-posts. Of the latter kind is the famous Lion-gate at Mycenae, so-called from the group of two lions standing with their forefeet on the broad pedestal of a pillar that tapers rapidly downwards, and remarkable as the oldest specimen of Greek sculpture. The sculpture is carved on a large triangular slab that fills an opening left in the wall to lighten the weight on the lintel (fig. 2). Among the most striking relies of this primitive age are the so-called Thesauroi, or treasuries (now regarded as tombs) of ancient dynasties the most considerable being the Treasure-house of Atreus at Mycenae. Theusual form of these buildings is that of a circular chamber vaulted over by the horizontal courses approaching from all sides till they meet. Thus the vault is not a true arch (fig. 3). The interior seems originally to have been covered with metal plates, thus agreeing with Homer's descriptions of metal as a favourite ornament of princely houses. An open-air building preserved from that age is the supposed Temple of Hera on Mount Ocha (now Hagios Elias) in Euboea, a rectangle built of regular square blocks, with walls more than a yard thick, two small windows, and a door with leaning posts and a huge lintel in the southern side-wall. The sloping roof is of hewn flagstones resting on the thickness of the wall and overlapping each other; but the centre is left open as in the hypaethral temples of a later time. From the simple shape of a rectangular house shut in by blank walls we gradually advance to finer and richer forms, formed especially by the introduction of columns detached from the wall and serving to support the roof and ceiling. Even in Homer we find columns in the palaces to support the halls that surround the courtyard, and the ceiling of the banqueting-room. The construction of columns (see ARCHITECTURE, ORDERS OF) received its artistic development first from the Dorians after their migration into the Peloponnesus about 1000 B.C., next from the Ionians, and from each in a form suitable to their several characters. If the simple serious character of the Dorians speaks in the Doric Order, no less does the lighter, nimbler, and more showy genius of the Ionian race come out in the Order named after them. By about 650 B.C. the Ionic style was flourishing aide by side with the Doric. As it was in the construction of Temples (q.v.) that architecture had developed her favourite forms, all other public buildings borrowed their artistic character from the temple. The structure and furniture of private houses (see HOUSE), were, during the best days of Greece, kept down to the simplest forms. About 600 B.C., in the Greek islands and on the coast of Asia Minor, we come across the first architects known to us by name. It was then that Rhaecus and Theodorus of Samos, celebrated likewise as inventors of casting in bronze, built the great temple of Hera in that island, while Chersiphron of Cnosus in Crete, with his son Metagenes, began the temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus, one of the seven wonders of the world, which was not finished till 120 years after. In Greece Proper a vast temple to Zeus was begun at Athens in the 6th century B.C. (see OLYMPIEUM), and two more at Delphi and Olympia, one by the Corinthian Spintharus, the other by the Elean Libon. Here, and in the Western colonies the Doric style still predominated everywhere. Among the chief remains of this period, in addition to many ruined temples in Sicily (especially at Selinus and Agrigentum), should be mentioned the Temple of Poseidon. at Paestum (Poseidonia) in South Italy, one of the best preserved and most beautiful relies of antiquity (figs. 4, 5). The patriotic fervour of the Persian Wars created a general expansion of Greek life, in which Architecture and the sister art of Sculpture were not slow to take a part. In these departments, as in the whole onward movement, a central position was taken by Athens, whose leading statesmen, Cimon and Pericles, lavished the great resources of the State at once in strengthening and beautifying the city. During this period arose a group of masterpieces that still astonish us in their ruins, some in the forms of a softened Doric, others in the Ionic style, which had now found its way into Attica, and was here fostered into nobler shapes. The Doric order is represented by the Temple of Theseus (fig. 6), the Propylaea built by Mnesicles, the Parthenon, a joint production of Ictinus and Callicrates; while the Erechtheum is the most brilliant creation of the Ionic order in Attica. Of the influence of Attic Architecture on the rest of Greece we have proof, especially in the Temple of Apollo at Bassae in South-Western Arcadia, built from the design of the above-mentioned Ictinus. The progress of the Drama to its perfection in this period led to a corresponding improvement in the building of Theatres (q.v.). A stone theatre was begun at Athens even before the Persian Wars; and the Odeum of Pericles served similar purposes. How soon the highest results were achieved in this department, when once the fundamental forms had thus been laid down in outline at Athens, is shown by the theatre at Epidaurus, a work of Polyclitus, unsurpassed, as the ancients testify, by any later theatres in harmony and beauty. Another was built at Syracuse, before B.C. 420. Nor is it only in the erection of single buildings that the great advance then made by architecture shows itself. In laying out new towns, or parts of towns, men began to proceed on artistic principles, an innovation due to the sophist Hippodamus of Miletus. In the 4th century B.C., owing to the change wrought in the Greek mind by the Peloponnesian War, in place of the pure and even tone of the preceding period, a desire for effect became more and more general, both in architecture and sculpture. The sober Doric style fell into abeyance and gave way to the Ionic, by the side of which a new Order, the Corinthian, said to have been invented by the sculptor Callimachus, with its more gorgeous decorations, became increasingly fashionable. In the first half of the 4th century arose what the ancients considered the largest and grandest temple in the Peloponnesus, that of Athena at Tegea, a work of the sculptor and architect Scopas. During the middle of the century, another of the "seven wonders," the splendid tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus was constructed (see MAUSOLEUM). Many magnificent temples arose in that time. In Asia Minor, the temple at Ephesus, burnt down by Herostratus, was rebuilt by Alexander's bold architect Deinocrates. In the islands the ruins of the temple of Athena at Priene, of Apollo at Miletus, of Dionysus at Teos, and others, even to this day offer a brilliant testimony to their former magnificence. Among Athenian buildings of that age the Monument of Lysicrates (q.v.) is conspicuous for its graceful elegance and elaborate development of the Corinthian style. In the succeeding age Greek architecture shows its finest achievements in the building of theatres, especially those of Asiatic towns, in the gorgeous palaces of newly-built royal capitals, and in general in the luxurious completeness of private buildings. As an important specimen of the last age of Attic architecture may also be mentioned the Tower of the Winds (q.v.) at Athens.
In Greek architecture there were three orders of columns: the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. (I) Doric: Figures 1 and 2 give instances of the Doric style from the temple at Paestum and the Parthenon at Athens. The Doric column consists (a) of the shaft, which increases in diameter almost invisibly up to about one-quarter of its height, and diminishes slightly after that point. It has no base, but rests immediately on the stylobate. It is surrounded with semi-circular flutings, meeting each other at a sharp angle. These were chiselled with a cedar-wood tool after the separate drums had been put together. (b) The capital (Lat. capitulum). This consists of three parts, (a) the hypotrachelion, or neck of the column, a continuation of the shaft, but separated by an indentation from the other drums. It is wider at the top than at the bottom, and is generally ornamented with several parallel and horizontal rings. (b) The echinus, a circular moulding or cushion, which widens greatly towards the top. (c) The abax or abacus, a square slab supporting the architrave or episylion. The height of the shaft is usually 5 1/2 times, the distance between the columns 1 1/2 times the diameter of the base of the column. The architrave is a quadrangular beam of stone, reaching from pillar to pillar. On this again rests the frieze, zophoros, so called from the metopes which are adorned with sculptures in relief. These metopes are square spaces between the triglyphs: the triglyphs are surfaces out into three concave grooves, two whole grooves in the centre, and two half grooves at the sides. One is placed over each pillar, and one between each pair of pillars. The entablature is completed by a projecting cornice, a slab crowned with a simple heading-course, the lower surface of which is ornamented with sloping corbels (Gk. stagones, Lat. mutuli). (II) Ionic Columns. An instance is given in fig. 3 from the temple on the Ilissus at Athens. These are loftier than the Doric, their height being 8 1/2-9 1/2 times the diameter of the, lower part. The enlargement of the lower part is also less than in the Doric columns, the distance between each column greater (two diameters), the flutings (generally 24 in number) deeper, and separated by small flat surfaces. The Ionic column has a base consisting of a square slab (plinthos), and several cushion like supports separated by grooves. The capital, again, is more artistically developed. The neck, instead of fluting, has five leaves worked in relief. The echinus is very small and ornamented with an egg pattern. Over it, instead of the abacus, is a Four-cornered cushion ending before and behind in spiral volutes, supporting a narrow square slab, which is also adorned with an egg pattern. The architrave is divided into three bands, projecting one above the other, and upon it rises, in an uninterrupted surface, the frieze, adorned with reliefs, continuously along its whole length. Finally, the cornice is composed of different parts. (III) The Corinthian column (fig. 4, from the monument of Lysicrates, at Athens). The base and shaft are identical with the Ionic, but the capital takes the form of an open calix formed of acanthus leaves. Above this is another set of leaves, from between which grow stalks with small leaves, rounded into the form of volutes. On this rests a small abacus widening towards the top, and on this again the entablature, which is borrowed from the Ionic order. On the human figures employed instead of columns to support the entablature, see ATLAS, CANEPHORI, CARYATIDES. The Romans adopted the Greek styles of column, but not always in their pure form. They were fondest of the Corinthian, which they laboured to enrich with new and often excessive ornamentation. For instance, they crowned the Corinthian capital with the Ionic, thus forming what is called the Roman or composite capital. The style known as Tuscan is a degenerate form of the Doric. The Tuscan column has a smooth shaft, in height=7 diameters of the lower part, and tapering up to three-quarters of its lower dimensions. Its base consists of two parts, a circular plinth, and a cushion of equal height. The capital is formed of three parts of equal height. In other styles, too, the Romans sometimes adopted the smooth instead of the fluted shaft, as for instance in the Pantheon (fig. 5). Single columns were sometimes erected by the Greeks, and in imitation of them by the Romans, as memorials to distinguished persons. A good example is the Columna Rostrata, or column with its shaft adorned with the beaks of ships, in the Roman Forum. This was set up in commemoration of the naval victory of Duilius over the Carthaginians (261 B.C.). Among the columns which survive, the most magnificent is that of Trajan, erected in the Forum of Trajan 113 A.D. It rises on a quadrangular pediment to the height of 124 feet; its diameter below is about 10 feet, and a little less in the upper part. An interior spiral staircase of 185 steps leads to the summit. The shaft, formed of twenty-three drums of marble, is adorned with a series of reliefs, 3 feet 3 inches high and 200 feet long, in a series of twenty-two spirals. They represent scenes in Trajan's Dacian campaigns, and contain 2,500 human figures, with animals, engines, etc. On a cylindrical pedestal at the summit there once stood a gilded statue of the emperor, which, since the year 1587, has made way for a bronze figure of St. Peter. A similar column is that of Marcus Aurelius, 122 feet high, on the Piazza Colonna. Since 1589 the statue of St. Paul has been substituted for that of the emperor. The reliefs, in twenty spirals, represent events in the emperor's war with the Marcomanni.
In ancient times temples were regarded as the dwelling-places of the gods to whom they were dedicated. They might contain an image or not, but the latter case was exceptional. As they were not houses of prayer intended for the devotion of a numerous community, they were usually of very limited extent. There were, however, temples of considerable size, among which was that of Artemis in Ephesus, 438 feet long by 226 broad; that of Hera in Samos; that begun by Pisistratus and finished by Hadrian, and dedicated to Zeus Olympius in Athens (see OLYMPIEUM); and the temple of Zeus of Agrigeutum, which was never quite completed. All of these were almost as large as the first-mentioned. Only temples like that at Eleusis, in which the celebration of mysteries took place, were intended to accommodate a larger number of people. The great sacrifices and banquets shared by all the people were celebrated in the court of the temple (Gr. peribolos), which included the altars for sacrifice, and was itself surrounded by a wall with only one place of entrance. It was a feature common to all temples that they were not built directly on the surface of the ground, but were raised on a sub-structure which was mounted by means of an uneven number of steps, so that people were able as a good omen to put their right foot on the first and last step. The usual shape of Greek temples was an oblong about twice as long as wide, at the front and back of which was a pediment or gable-roof (Gr.aetos or aetoma; Lat. fastigium). Round temples with dome-shaped roofs were quite the exception. The principal part of the temple was the chamber containing the image of the god. This stood on a pedestal, which was often placed in a small niche, and usually stood facing the east, opposite folding-doors which always opened outwards. Before the image stood an altar used for unbloody sacrifices. This chamber, called in Greek naos, and in Latin cella, generally received its light through the door alone, but sometimes there was also an opening in the roof. There were also temples designated hypoethral (from hypaithros, "in the open air");1 in these there was no roof to the middle chamber of the cella, which was separated from the lateral portions by one or more rows of pillars on each side. Generally each temple belonged to only one god; but sometimes a temple was regarded as the dwelling-place of several deities, either those who were worshipped in groups, as the Muses, or those who were supposed to stand in close alliance or other relationship to each other, such as the twins Apollo and Artemis; and Apollo, as leader of the Muses, together with the Muses themselves. Frequently only one god had an image and altar in the chief cella, while others were worshipped in adjoining chapels. Lastly, there were double temples, with two celloe built in opposite directions. (See ARCHITECTURE, fig. 13.) Many temples had, besides the cella, a kind of "holy of holies" (adyton or megaron) which was only entered by the priests, and only by them at certain times, and which was sometimes under the ground. Usually an open porch or vestibule (pronaos), with pillars in front, stood before the cella, and in it were exposed the dedicatory offerings. There was often also an inner chamber behind the image (opisthodomos) which served for various purposes, the valuables and money belonging to the temple being often kept there. It was surrounded by a wall, and the door was well secured by locks. The various kinds of temples are usually distinguished according to the number and arrangement of the pillars. Thus: (1) A temple in antis (fig. 1) is one in which the pronaos (sometimes also the opisthodomos) was formed by the prolongation of the side walls of the temple (Lat. antoe; Gr. parastades) and by two columns placed between the terminal pilasters of the antoe. (2) Prostylos, with the columns in front (fig. 2), is an epithet descriptive of a temple, the front of whose pronaos was formed in all its breadth by a row of columns quite separate from the walls, and with the columns at the extremities standing in front of the antoe. (3) Amphiprostylos (fig. 3) describes a temple with the columns arranged as in (2) at the back as well as in the front. (4) Peripteros (fig. 4) describes a temple surrounded on all sides by a colonnade supporting the architrave. This is the type most frequently employed by the Greeks. (See PARTHENON, cuts 1 and 2.) (5) Pseudoperipteros ("false peripteros") is an epithet of a temple in which the architrave appears to be carried by pilasters or by "engaged" columns in the walls of the cella. This form is seldom used by the Greeks, but often by the Romans. (6) Dipteros (fig. 5) describes a temple surrounded by two ranges of columns. (7) Pseudodipteros ("false dipteros," fig. 6). A temple surrounded with only a single range of columns, but at such a distance that they correspond in position to the exterior range of the dipteral temple. According to the number of columns in front, which must always be an even number, since the entrance was in the middle, it is usual to distinguish temples as tetra-, hexa-, octa-, deca-, or dodeca-stylos (with 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12 columns). The number of columns along each side was usually one more than twice the number along the front, but this was not the invariable rule. For the architrave and for the columns of the different orders, see pp. 57, 58. The frieze resting on the architrave, and (in the Doric order) the metopes in particular (q.v.), as well as the two pediments (Gr. tympana), were decorated with sculptures, and these sculptures, as well as the walls of the temple often had a more life-like and more varied appearance given to them by appropriate colouring. The coping of the roof, as well as the angles of the pediment, were ornamented by acroteria, which consisted of statues, vases, or anthemia (groups of flowers and leaves; cp. cut to AeGINETAN SCULPTURES). In the plan of their temples the ROMANS originally followed the Etruscans (cp.TEMPLUM, below). The ground-plan of the Etruscan temple was nearly a square, the ratio of the depth to frontage being 6:5. Half of the space was taken up by the cella, and the rest by the columns. The architrave was of wood, and without any special frieze. The great temple with three celloe on the Roman Capitol was built in the Etruscan style, the middle and largest cella being sacred to Jupiter, and the smaller ones on either side to Minerva and Juno. (Cp. JUPITER.) Under Greek influence the different forms of the Greek temple began to be imitated at Rome, the most prevalent type being that described as prostylos, which lent itself most easily to the requirements of a templum in the strict sense of the term. An important alteration in the Greek form of temple was brought about by the introduction of vaulted arches or groined ceilings, which were seldom used by the Greeks, and never on a large scale, but were brought to great perfection by the Romans. They took the form of a cylindrical vaulting in the case of a quadrangular cella, and a dome in the case of the round temples, which were frequent with the Romans. The two principal forms of the latter are (1) the monopteros, which consisted of a single circle of columns standing on a platform mounted by steps and supporting the columns which bore a dome on a circular architrave. (2) The peripteros, with the same arrangement of columns, but with a circular cella in the middle which was covered by a dome rising from the surrounding colonnade. In a third variety, of which we have an example in the Pantheon (q.v.), the circular body of the building is not surrounded by columns externally, but only provided on one side with an advanced portico.
The art of embossing metal, or working it in ornamental relief or intaglio (Pliny, N.H. xxxiv 54, 56; xxxv 77). The Greek verb toreuein means "to work in relief or repoussé," and also "to chase" in metal; toreutos is an epithet of cups that are "chased" or "worked in relief"; toreia is need of a "carving in relief"; the artist is called a toreutes; and his characteristic tool the toreus (Lat. coelum). The corresponding Latin term is coelatura, which, as defined by Quintilian (ii 21 § 9), auro, argento, oere, ferro operaefficit ; while scalptura eliam lignum, ebur, marmor, vitrum, gemmas complectitur. While sculpture in bronze is primarily concerned with designing the work of art which has to be cast in the mould, the toreutic art has to do with the elaboration and finish of the metallic form when it is already cast. In the case of large works in bronze, the task of the toreutes is simply to remove slight flaws and to add a few finishing touches; in that of smaller works, his art becomes of paramount importance. The term toreutes, is virtually confined to artists who produce for ordinary use articles in metal, which owe their value as works of art solely to the adornment bestowed upon them. In the best times of Greek art, the favourite metal for this purpose was silver; but gold and bronze and even iron were also used. The art was often applied to the embellishment of armour, especially shields; and even chariots were sometimes ornamented with embossed silver (Pliny, xxxiii 140, carrucoe argento coelatoe). Articles of plate, especially large silver platters, were occasionally adorned with ferns or ivy-leaves (lances filicatoe, pateroe hederacioe); and goblets were decorated with mythological subjects in relief (anaglypta), such as figures in gold riveted on vessels of silver, or in silver on bronze. These figures were either in high or low relief (emblemata, or crustoe). The art was also put into requisition for ornamenting furniture, for embossing plates of gold, and for making wreaths of that metal. In the Homeric age, copper, gold, silver, iron, tin, and lead were in use in different degrees. Copper, especially when mixed with tin to form bronze, was the ordinary material for armour and for all kinds of utensils; gold is named in connexion with articles of furniture, armour, and jewellery, but is generally described as imported from abroad; silver is less frequently mentioned. Iron was rare, in comparison with copper; but was used for implements of agriculture as well as for armour and tools. A block of iron is given as a prize at the funeral games in honour of Patroclus (Il. xxiii 826). Copper being the commonest metal, a worker in any kind of metal is called in Homer a coppersmith (chalkeus); thus, in Od. iii 425, it is applied to one who in the same context is described as a goldsmith (chrysochoos, ib. 432). The hammer and anvil sufficed for the manufacture of armour and the simpler varieties of household utensils. The process of beating out the metal and fashioning it with the hammer was called elaunein (Il. vii 223, xii 295); and a derivative of this verb, sphyrelatos, "wrought with the hammer," was afterwards used as an epithet of statues made of plates beaten out with the hammer, as opposed to those of cast metal (Herodotus, vii 69). It was in fact applied to all kinds of products of hammering, and to work in repoussé, large or small. The same process was used in making plates of metal to cover tripods and candelabra, as well as shields, scabbards, chariots, and also images of the gods. In such cases the plate of beaten metal was applied to a core of wood by what was termed empaistike techne (Athenaeus, 488 B). The chair of Penelope is thus covered with ivory and silver (Od. xix 56), and the bed of Odysseus, with ivory, silver, and gold (xxiii 200). The cuirass of Agamemnon (Il. xi 24 ff.) has twenty-one alternate stripes of various kinds of inlaid metal, both before and behind, the metals mentioned being gold and tin and kyanos, which is now identified as an imitation of lapis lazuli stained blue with carbonate of copper. The golden belt of Heracles is adorned with figures of bears, boars, and lions, and battle-scenes, in relief (0d. xi 609). The brooch of Odysseus represents a stag attacked by a dog (Od. xix 226). The cup of Nestor is pierced with rivets of gold, has four handles with two golden doves to each handle, and two supports running from the base of the cup to the lower part of the bowl, designed to strengthen the central stem (Il. xi 632, with Dr. Leaf's note). The structure of this singular cup was the theme of learned disquisitions in ancient times (Athenaeus, 489); it has now been made intelligible by the early cups discovered at Mycenae and Caere (Helbig, Das Homerische Epos aus den Denkmalern erlautert, p. 272). In the cup from Mycenae (Schliemann's Mycenae, fig. 346; Schuchhardt, Schliemann's Excavations, fig. 240), we see the supports continued into the handles above them, and even two doves as ornaments on the top of the handles. Elsewhere in Homer a lebes (in Il. xxiii 885, Od. iii 440), and a crater (in Od. xxiv 275), are described as "adorned with flowers," i.e. with the lotus-flowers and rosettes characteristic of archaic decoration (Schliemann, Mycenae, fig. 344). The shield of Achilles, as wrought by Hephaestus, is an elaborate work, including numerous figures distributed over separate compartments and inlaid in various kinds of metal. The metal facing has apparently a bronze ground, inlaid with gold, silver, and kyanos; and the designs may be best regarded as resembling the peculiar combination of Egyptian and Assyrian styles which was introduced into Europe by the Phoenicians (Il. xviii 478-607, ed. Leaf ; op. Helbig, l.c., chap. xxxi, and Murray's Greek Sculpture, chap. iii). In the Homeric age the articles in metal which were most highly prized are generally described as imported from abroad. Thus the silver crater given as a prize at the funeral games of Patroclus is the work of Sidonian craftsmen (Il. xxiii 743). It is the king of the Sidonians who sends a crater to Menelaus (Od. iv 616; Il. xxiii 741). The tripods and basket of Helen are said to have been brought by Menelaus from Egypt (Od. iv 126). The cuirass, as well as the chariot, of Agamemnon, are described as a present from the king of Cyprus (Il. xi 24). According to Greek mythology, the first blacksmiths were the Idoean Dactyli (q.v.); the first goldsmiths, the Telchines (q.v.). The legends about the latter imply that the forms and processes of the art were transmitted to Greece from the East. They are described as dwelling in turn in Crete, Rhodes, Cyprus, Cos, Lycia, and in various cities of Greece, especially at Sicyon, which, according to Pliny (xxxvi 4), was long the home of all kinds of manufacture in metals. Working in metal was afterwards much advanced by two important inventions, (1) that of casting in moulds, attributed to a Samian artist Rhoecus, son of Phileas, and his son Theodorus; and (2) that of soldering, ascribed to Glaucus of Chios (Pausanias, x 16 § 1), who was also famed for his skill in hardening and softening iron (Plutarch, De Def. Orac. 47). The toreutic art is described by Pliny as having been founded by Phidias (xxxiv 54) and brought to perfection by Polyclitus (56). For the former, it is sufficient to refer to the chryselephantine statue of Zeus at Olympia, and that of Athene in the Parthenon. Among other sculptors who were also toreutoe may be mentioned Calamis, Myron, Euphranor, Boethus, Stratonicus, Ariston, Eunicus, Hecataeus, Posidonius, Pasiteles, and Zenodorus. The artists who excelled in the chasing of silver (argento coelando) are enumerated by Pliny (xxxiii 154-157), who observes that no one had attained renown by the chasing of gold. The first named is Mentor, the most celebrated of all, and with him Acragas, Boethus (Cicero, Verr. 2 iv 32, hydriam Boethi manu factam proeclaro opere et grandi pondere), and Mys (q.v.). The last of these executed in bronze, from the designs of Parrhasius, the battle of the Centaurs and Lapithae which adorned the shield of the Athene Promachos of Phidias (Pausanias, i 28, 2). Pliny's second group includes Calamis and Antipater, who is probably mentioned by mistake for Diodorus (Anthologia Groeca i 106,16). His third group consists of Stratonicus and Tauriscus, both of Cyzicus; Ariston and Eunicus of Mytilene; and lastly Hecatoeus. In the next we have Pasiteles (in the time of Pompey); also Posidonius of Ephesus, with Hedystrachides, Zopyrus, and Pytheas. After these, he adds, there was an artist named Teucer, famous as a crustarius, a worker of plaques in low relief. Thereupon, he continues, art fell into abeyance, and only works ascribed to the old masters were of any account, even when the design had been almost worn out by use. The age of imitations and forgeries followed. The work of Calamis was skilfully opied by Zenodorus (Pliny, xxxiv 47), the sculptor of the colossal bronze statue of Nero (ib. 45). In the above list Pliny is probably following the order of fame rather than that of time. Stratonicus, Ariston, Eunicus, and Posidonius, all belong to Asia, and possibly to the age of the Diadochi. To the same age may be ascribed Pytheas and two artists remarkable for their skill in the most minute and delicate kinds of work, Callicrates of Lacedaemon and Myrmecides of Athens, who inscribed an elegiac couplet in letters of gold on a grain of sesame, and carved a quadriga of ivory which a fly could cover with its wings (Aelian, Var. Hist. i 17; Cicero, Acad. ii 120; Pliny, vii 85, xxxvi 43). Some of the technical processes of working in metal can be illustrated from the remains of ancient art. Thus on a cylix in Berlin (fig. 1) exhibiting scenes from a foundry, we have (1) two workmen, one attending to the fire in a furnace, the other resting on a hammer, and a boy blowing the bellows; on the wall hang two hammers and a saw, and a number of metal plaques with heads and figures in relief; (2) a workman putting together a bronze statue, the head of which lies a part on the ground; (3) two workmen scraping the excrescences off a statue of a warrior by means of a hooked instrument resembling a strigil. The first of the above scenes is closely similar to the design on a vase in the British Museum (B 458) representing the forge of Hephaestus at Lemnos. Again, a mural painting from Pompeii shows us one of the attendants of Hephaestus seated at his work; in his right hand he holds a hammer, and in his left a sharp graving-tool (Gr. toreus; Lat. coelum), with which he is tracing the ornament on the helmet of Achilles (fig. 2). According to the ornament required, tools were used of different kinds, with the extremity blunt, round, or square; as well as punches for repoussé work. Among the extant specimens of the art a foremost place in point of time must be given to those discovered by Schliemann at Hissarlik in the Troad, especially the bracelets, earrings, diadems, and discs of gold, figured in Ilios, and in Schuchhardt, Schliemann's Excavations (figs. 35, 54, 56-58). Those of a more advanced type, found at Mycenae in and after 1874, include plaques and golden studs in repoussé, bowls and diadems; also sepulchral masks of gold, imitating the human countenance and placed on the faces of the dead; arms and other objects in gold, copper, and bronze. The blade of a short, two-edged sword (Schliemann's Mycenae, fig. 446), when set free from the incrustations on its surface revealed a spirited representation of a hunt with five armed men pursuing three lions. The bronze ground is covered with dark enamel, the lions and the limbs of the huntsmen are inlaid with gold of different hues; their clothing and their shields with silver, and other details with black (fig. 3). Still more interesting in respect to artistic design are the two prehistoric gold cups found in 1889 at Vaphio, the ancient Pharis near Amyclae, adorned with remarkable reliefs representing men hunting wild bulls (Ephem. Arch. 1889, pl. 7-10; Gazette des Beaux Arts, 1890, pp. 428 and 434). We must also mention the small bronzes which abound in museums of ancient art. These may be divided into (a) Greek bronzes of archaic style, such as those of the 6th century B.C. discovered at Dodona (e.g. the flute-player, fig. 4). Many such bronzes are votive; e.g. the Naxian statuette in the Berlin Museum, inscribed as "dedicated by Deinagoras to Apollo the Far-darter," and the Apollo dedicated by Polycrates, probably as Argive of that name, now in the Museum at St. Petersburg. (b) Bronzes of later style, such as those of Pompeii and Herculaneum, preserved in large numbers in the Naples Museum. Earlier Italo-Greek statuettes are rare; e.g. the bronze from Tarentum representing a general in the act of addressing his troops (Collignon, Gr. Arch., fig. 134). Among objects for ornament we have numerous bronze reliefs in repoussé work, which are often perforated with holes for the purpose of attaching them to some other material, whether to strips of leather or articles of furniture. Some of the finest of them are pieces of armour, such as the cheek-guard of a helmet with the combat between Pollux and Lynceus found at Dodona (Collignon, fig. 135), and the Bronzes of Siris, two shoulder-pieces of Greek armour found in Southern Italy and now in the British Museum (Second Bronze Room, table-case D; Baumeister's Denkmaler, fig. 2204-5). In the same museum is the Castellani cista, a cylindrical casket in wood, covered with bands of silver fixed with rivets, and representing lions and winged animals, with lotuses and palmettes of an oriental character (fig. 5). Another group of examples includes the Greek and Etruscan Mirrors, with their metal backs or cases ornamented with figures traced by the engraver's burin (fig. 6); and the cistoe Proenestinoe (of the 3rd century B.C.). The finest of these is the Ficoroni cista, in the Museo Kircheriano at Rome, with figures in outline representing a scene from the Argonautic expedition and with the archaic inscription, Novios Plautios med Romai fecid (Daremberg and Saglio, fig. 1544). There are several others in the First Bronze Room of the British Museum, one with the Judgment of Paris, another with Bellerophon and Sthenoboea. Among silver vases of various ages may be mentioned the archaic patera of Amathus in Cyprus, with concentric bands of besieging warriors and winged sphinxes showing the influence of Assyrian and Egyptian art (Cesnola's Cyprus, p. 277; Daremberg, fig. 927); the Munich vase, with representations of captive Trojans, in low relief; the magnificent amphora of the 4th century B.C., found at Nicopol in South Russia in the tomb of a Scythian king with a frieze in high relief running round the upper part, representing Scythians taming and tending their horses, while the body of the vase is covered with ornaments in repoussé, including large birds and flowers (Daremberg, fig. 975); the Corsini cup, found at the ancient Antium, aná sometimes supposed to be copied from a Greek original by Zopyrus (ib., fig. 976); the pateroe of Hildesheim (q.v.), about the time of Augustus; that of Rennes, of the 3rd century A.D., in the Paris Cabinet des Antiques (ib. 972); and the vases from Bernay in the same collection. Further, in the British Museum we have a number of embossed and chased caskets, vases, or ornaments, found at Rome in 1793, and ascribed to the end of the 5th Century A.D. As a late Roman specimen of opus interrasile, or open work in which part of the silver is cut away on the same general principle as in fig. 5, we have a cantharus of dark red glass mounted in silver gilt, found near Tiflis in 1871, and now in the Museum of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg (fig. 7). One of the richest collections of Greek jewellery, that of the Hermitage Museum, comes from the ancient Panticapaeum. (Kertch). The Vatican and the Louvre contain remarkable specimens of Etrusco-Greek jewels, mainly found at Vulci and Caere. Modern ingenuity has at present failed to recover the secret of the process of "granulation" employed in many of these jewels, a kind of decoration in which the surface of the gold leaf is covered with minute and almost invisible globules of gold (see frontispiece to Martha's L'Art Etrusque). The Antiquarium of Munich possesses a votive crown of gold, superbly executed, with sprays of oak-leaves and festoons of flowers with winged figures among them (fig. 8). Lastly, in the British Museum we have specimens of Phoenician art, ascribed to the 8th century B.C., in the gold jewellery from Camirus in Rhodes. In the same museum "the Melos necklace, and the sceptre from the tomb at Tarentum, are admirable specimens of that fine combination of filagree and vitreous enamels which characterizes the Greek goldsmith's art in the middle of the 4th century B.C., and the bracelet and earrings from Capua, ornamented with lions' heads, are still more precious, as examples of repoussé work in its perfection" (Newton's Essays, p. 393). Authorities. Brunn, Gr. Kunstler, ii 397-412; Marquardt, Das Privatleben der Romer, pp. 669-718 2; Saglio, article on Coelatura in Daremberg and Saglio's Dict. des Antiquités; and Blumner's Technologie, vol. iv, pp. 228-413. Cp. the short sketch in the last chapter of Collignon's Manual of Greek Archoeology.] [J.E.S.]
Type: Standard
gutter splint
gutter splint
gutter splint