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SOMNUS 100.00%
The Roman god of sleep (q.v.).
 
MAGNA MATER 90.67%
A Roman name of the goddess Rhea (q.v.)
 
MEGALESIA 86.39%
A Roman festival in honour of Rhea (q.v.).
 
SISENNA 78.76%
A Roman historian. (See ANNALISTS.)
 
LYGDAMUS 75.14%
A Roman poet. See TIBULLUS.
 
RECOGNITIO 73.39%
of the Roman knights, See EQUITES.
 
OPALIA AND OPECONSIVA 69.81%
Feasts of the Roman goddess Ops (q.v.).
 
ALA 69.13%
A back room in a Roman house. See HOUSE.
 
WAR GODS 68.66%
Roman.See MARS and BELLONA (1).
 
MUNICIPIUM 68.11%
Originally the Roman term for a town the inhabitants of which, called manicipes, only possessed tart of the rights of Roman citizenship, viz. the private rights of commercium and conubium, while they were excluded from the political rights, the ius suffragii and the ius honorum, the right to elect and to be elected to office. As Roman citizens, they did not serve (like the allies) in cohorts under a prefect, but in the legions under tribunes; they were, however, assigned to legions distinct from the others, since they were not inscribed on the lists of the Roman tribes, and therefore could not be levied in accordance with those lists. After the dissolution of the Latin League in B.C. 338, the allied towns were put into the position of municipia. At first there were two classes of municipia, according as they retained an independent communal constitution or not. The second class, which had no senate, magistrates, or popular assembly of its own, and was governed directly by Rome, consisted of the proefecturoe (q.v.). As the municipia gradually obtained the full rights of citizship, their nature changed; all persons were now called municipes, who did not belong to the town of Rome by birth, but were full Roman citizens, and hence belonged to a Roman tribe, were registered at Rome, could elect and be elected to office, and served in the Roman legions. The Lex Iulia of B.C. 90 made all the towns of Italy municipia with full civic rights, and every Italian country-town was now called a Roman municipium. Gradually the towns in the provinces received municipal rights, till finally Caracalla made all towns of the empire municipia. Originally one class of municipia had retained their own laws and their own constitution; this arrangement underwent a change when they were received into the Roman citizenship, inasmuch as the Roman law then became binding upon them, and a regularly organized administration on the Roman model was introduced. The citizens were divided into curice, and at their comitia curiata passed all kinds of decrees, and chose officers; most of these rights, however, passed into the hands of the local senate towards the end of the 1st century. This senate usually consisted of 100 life-members, called decuriones, and in every fifth year the vacancies were filled up from those who had held office or were qualified by their property. The highest officials were the duo viri, who were judges and presided at the assemblies of the people, especially at elections, and in the senate; the two quinquennales, chosen for a year, once in five years, and corresponding to the Roman censors; and qucestores and cediles, officials with similar duties to the Roman officials of the same name. (See MAGISTRATUS.) Besides the decuriones, whose position became hereditary at the end of the Empire, there were, under the heathen emperors, a second privileged class, known as Augustales, chosen by decree of the local senate and next to that body in rank. They made up a collegium, which was originally dedicated to the worship of the Julian family, and in later times seems to have also extended its functions to the worship of the other emperors. The decline of the municipal system, the prosperity of which had depended on the liberty and independence of the administration, set in at the end of the 2nd century after Christ, when the emperors began to transfer to the municipia the burdens of the State, and the decuriones gradually became mere imperial officials, who were more especially responsible for the collection of the tribute imposed.
 
SOSPITA 68.07%
Epithet of several Roman goddesses (e.g. of Juno).
 
PUTEUS 67.82%
The fountain in a Roman house. (See HOUSE.)
 
SACRARIUM 67.00%
The domestic chapel. (See HOUSE, Roman)
 
NONAE 65.99%
The Roman name for the 5th or 7th day of the month (see CALENDAR, 2).
 
PORTICUS 65.56%
The Roman name for a colonnade. (See STOA.)
 
SERIA 65.01%
A cask used by the Romans. (See VESSELS.)
 
CREPIDA 64.99%
A kind of sandal, borrowed by the Romans from the Greeks, and used originally by the Roman soldiers, It had a thick sole, was of the same shape for each foot, and had low leather sides with straps for fastening.
 
RICINIUM 64.53%
A covering for the head worn by the Roman women (See CLOTHING.)
 
DIONYSIUS 64.15%
Dionysius of Hallicarnassus. A Greek scholar and historian. He came to Rome about 30 B.C., and lived there for twenty-two years, probably as a professor of rhetoric, enjoying the society of many men of note. In these circumstances he devoted himself to studying the Roman language and literature, the historical literature in particular. The result of his studies was his Roman Antiquities, finished about 8 B.C., in all probabihty not long before his death. This was a history of Rome from the mythical age to the Punic Wars, with which the work of Polybius begins. There were twenty books, of which we have 1-9 in a complete state, 10 and 11 in great part, but the rest only in fragments. The intention of its author was to give the Greeks a more correct and more favourable idea of the Roman people, and the growth of its power, and thus to reconcile them to the Roman yoke. With this view he sets forth the wisdom and the good qualities of the founders of Rome. The book is founded on a thorough study of the authorities, and, in spite of its rhetorical tone and of many other defects, forms one of our chief sources of information upon ancient Roman history in its internal and external development. The other remaining works of Dionysius are partly on rhetoric, partly on literary criticism. The rhetorical works are: (a) On the Arrangement of Words, or on the different styles of Greek prose structure; (b) a treatise on rhetoric, which has certainly not come down to us in its original form. The critical writings are essays on the ancient Greek classics, particularly the orators, and among them Demosthenes; but also on Aristotle, Plato, and Thucydides. They are in part thrown into the form of letters to contemporary Romans of repute.
 
TRIBUNUS CELERUM 63.43%
The designation, under the Roman Empire, of the commander of the cavalry, nominated by the emperor for the time being.
 
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