Homer Hesiod Hymns Tragedy Remythologizing Tools Blackboard Info
TEUCER 100.00%
A son of Telamon of Salamis (thus named from his descent from Hesione, the Teucrian king's daughter); half-brother of Ajax. He was the best archer amongst the Greeks before Troy. On his return from the war, accused by his father of participation in his brother's murder, and banished from the country, he sought a new home in Cyprus, by the advice of Apollo, where Belus of Sidon, in return for assistance rendered him in war, made over to him the government, and he founded the town of Salamis. After his father's death, it is said that he returned to his native town of Salamis, but was driven away by his nephew and went to Spain.
TEUCER 100.00%
A son of Scamander and the Nymph Idaea; the most ancient king of Troy, from whom the people were called Teucri. According to another legend, he, with Scamander, was driven by famine from Crete, and found refuge with Dardanus; while another version of the story describes Dardanus as having been received by Teucer.
Son of Zeus and the Pleiad Electra, the father of the regal house of Troy. He left Arcadia, his mother's home, and went to the island of Samothrace. Here he set up the worship of the great gods, whose shrines, with the Palladium, his first wife Chryse had received as a gift from Athene at her marriage. Samothrace having been visited by a great flood, Dardanus sailed away with his shrines to Phrygia, where King Tencer gave him his daughter Bateia to wife, and land enough on Mount Ida to found the town of Dardania. His son by Bateia was Erichthonius, whom Homer describes as the wealthiest of mortals, and the possessor of horses of the noblest breed and most splendid training. The son of Erichthonius was Tros, father of Ilos, Assaracus and Ganymedes. From Ilos, the founder of Ilion or Troy, was descended Laomedon, father of Priam. From Assaracus sprang Capys, father of Anchises, and grandfather of Aeneas. Another story made Dardanus the native prince who welcomed Teucer on his arrival from Crete (see TEUCER).
HESIONE 25.47%
Daughter of Laomedon, king of Troy, and of Leucippe. By her death she was to appease the wrath of Poseidon, who, on account of her father's breaking his word, was devastating the land with a marine monster. Heracles destroyed the monster and set the maiden free; but Laomedon wanted to break his promise to the hero, and to deprive him of his stipulated payment. So Heracles took Troy, slew Laomedon and his sons, and gave Hesione to his companion Telamon, to whom she bore a son, Teucer.
TELAMON 20.77%
Son of Aeacus and Endeis, and brother of Peleus. Having assisted Peleus in murdering their half-brother Phocus, he was expelled from Aegina by his father, and was received by Cenchreus of Salamis, whose daughter Glauce became his wife; and, on the death of Cenchreus, Telamon became king of Salamis. By his second wife Periboea, daughter of Alcathous, he became father of Ajax. He was one of the heroes who joined in the Calydonian Hunt, and also one of the Argonauts. He further took part in the expedition of his friend Heracles against the Amazons and against Laomedon of Troy. At the conquest of Troy he was the first to scale the walls, and that he did at the very spot where it was built by his father. As his share in the spoil, Heracles gave him the king's daughter Hesione, by whom he became the father of Teucer (q.v., 2).
GLAUCUS 19.74%
Great-grandson of (3): grandson of 1 The swords used by gladiators often resembled rapiers: see fig. 1. ellerophoutes, and son of Hippolochus, prince of the Lycians. With his kinsman Sarpedon, he was leader of the Lycian auxiliaries of Priam, and met Diomedes in the melee. The two chieftains recognised each other as friends and guests of their grandfather Bellerophoutes, and (Eneus, and exchanged armour, Glaucus parting with his golden suit for the brazen arms of Diomedes. When the Greek entrenchments were stormed, Glaucus had reached the top of the wall when he was put to flight by an arrow shot by Teucer. He protected Hector when wounded by Achilles; with Apollo's aid he avenged Sarpedon, and took a prominent part in the struggle for the body of Patroclus. He finally met his death at the hand of Ajax.
AIAS 11.76%
Son of Telamon of Salamis, and half-brother of Teucer: called the Great Aias, because he stood head and shoulders higher than the other Greek heroes. He brings twelve ships to Troy, where he proves himself second only to Achilles in strength and bravery; and while that hero holds aloof from the fight, he is the mainstay of the Achaeans, especially when the Trojans have taken their camp by storm and are pushing the battle to their ships. In the struggle over the corpse of Patroclus, he and his namesake the son of Oileus cover Menelaus and Meriones while they carry off their fallen comrade. When Thetis offered the arms and armour of Achilles as a prize for the worthiest, they were adjudged, not to Aias, but to his only competitor Odysseus. Trojan captives bore witness that the cunning of Odysseus had done them more harm than the valour of Achilles. Aias thereupon, according to the post-Homeric legend, killed himself in anger, a feeling he still cherished against Odysseus even in the lower world. The later legend relates that he was driven mad by the slight, mistook the flocks in the camp for his adversaries, and slaughtered them, and on coming to his senses again, felt so mortified that he fell on his sword, the gift of Hector after the duel between them. Out of his blood sprang the purple lily, on whose petals could be traced the first letters of his name, Ai, Ai. His monument stood on the Rhoetean promontory, where he had encamped before Troy, and upon which the waves washed the coveted arms of Achilles after the shipwreck of Odysseus. As the national hero of Salamis, he had a temple and statue there, and a yearly festival, the Aianteia; and he was worshipped at Athens, where the tribe Aiantis was named after him. He too was supposed to linger with Achilles in the island of Leuce. By Tecmessa, daughter of the Phrygian king Teuthras, whom he had captured in one of the raids from before Troy, he had a son Eurysaces, who is said to have removed from Salamis to Attica with his son or brother Phihaeus, and founded flourishing families, which produced many famous men, for instance Miltiades, Cimon, Alcibiades, and the historian Thucydides.
The story of the Trojan War, like the story of the Argonauts, underwent, in the course of time, many changes and amplifications. The kernel of the story is contained in the two epic poems of Homer: the Iliad and the Odyssey. The incidents, either narrated or briefly touched upon in these, were elaborated or developed by the post-Homeric poets, partly by connecting them with other popular traditions, and partly by the addition of further details of their own in ation. While in Homer it is simply the rape of Helen which is the occasion of the war, a later legend traced its origin to the marriage of Pelous and Thetis, when Eris threw down among the assembled gods the golden apple inscribed For the fairest. The quarrel that ensued between Hera, Athene, and Aphrodite for the prize of beauty was decided by Paris in favour of Aphrodite, who in return secured him the possession of Helen, while Hera and Athene became, from that time onward, the implacable enemies of the whole Trojan race. According to Homer, after Helen had been carried off by Paris, Menelaus and Agamemnon visited all the Greek chieftains in turn, and prevailed on them to take part in the expedition which they were preparing to avenge the wrong. According to the later account, the majority of the chieftains were already bound to follow the expedition by an oath, which they had sworn to Tyndareos. Agamemnon was chosen commander-in-chief; next to him the most prominent Greek heroes are his brother Menelaus, Achilles and Patroclus, the two Ajaxes, Teucer, Nestor and his son Antilochus, Odysseus, Diomedes,Idomeneus, and Philoctetes, who, however, at the very outset of the expedition had to be left behind, and does not appear on the scene of action until just before the fall of Troy. Later epics add the name of Palamedes. The entire host of 100,000 men and 1,186 ships assembled in the harbour of Aulis. Here, while they were sacrificing under a plane tree, a snake darted out from under the altar and ascended the tree, and there, after devouring a brood of eight young sparrows and the mother-bird himself, was turned into stone. This omen Calchas, the seer of the host, interpreted to mean that the war would last nine years, and terminate in the tenth with the destruction of Troy [Iliad ii 299-332]. Agamemnon had already received an oracle from the Delphian god that Troy would fall when the best of the Greeks quarrelled. In Homer the crossing to Troy follows immediately; but in the later story the Greeks at first land by mistake in Mysia, in the country of Telephus (q.v.), and being dispersed by a storm and driven back to Greece, assemble afresh at Aulis, whence they are only permitted to set out after the sacrifice of Iphigenia (an incident entirely unknown to Homer). On the Greek side the first to fall is Protesilaiis, who is the first to land. The disembarkation cannot take place until Achilles has slain the mighty Cycnus (q.v., 2). After pitching their camp, Odysseus and Menelaus proceed as ambassadors to Troy, to demand the surrender of Helen. But this proposal, in spite of the inclination of Helen herself and the admonition of the Trojan Antenor, falls to the ground, owing to the opposition of Paris, and war is declared. The number of the Trojans, whose chief hero is Hector, scarcely amounts to the tenth part of that of the besiegers; and although they possess the aid of countless brave allies, such as Aeneas, Sarpedon, and Glaucus, in their fear of Achilles they dare not risk a general engagement. On the other hand, the Achaeans can do nothing against the well-fortified and defended town, and see themselves confined to laying ambuscades and devastating the surrounding country, and compelled by lack of provisions to have resource to foraging expeditions in the neighbourhood, undertaken by sea and by land under the generalship, of Achilles. At length the decisive tenth year arrives. The Homeric Iliad narrates the events of this year, confining itself to the space of fifty-one days. Chryses, of Apollo, comes in priestly garb into camp of the Greeks to ransom his daughter Chryseis from Agamemnon. He is rudely repulsed, and Apollo consequently visits the Greeks with a plague. In an assembly of the Greeks summoned by Achilles, Calchas declares the only means of appeasing the god to be the surrender of girl without ransom. Agamemnon assents to the general wish; but, by way of compensation, takes from Achilles, whom he considers to be the instigator of the whole plot, his favourite, slave Briseis. Achilles withdraws in a rage to his tent, and implores his mother Thetis to obtain from Zeus a promise that the Greeks should meet with disaster in fighting the Trojans until Agamemnon should give her son complete satisfaction [Il. i]. The Trojans immediately take the open field, and Agamemnon is induced by a promise of victory, conveyed in a dream from Zeus, to appoint the following day for a battle [ii]. The hosts are already standing opposed to one another, prepared for fight, when they agree to a treaty that the conflict for Helen and the plundered treasures be decided by a duel between Paris and Menelaus. Paris is overcome in the duel, and is only rescued from death by the intervention of Aphrodite [iii]. When Agamemnon presses for the fulfilment of the treaty, the Trojan Pandarus breaks the peace by shooting an arrow at Menelaus, and the first open engagement in the war begins [iv], in which, under the protection of Athene, Diomede performs miracles of bravery and wounds even Aphrodite and Ares [v]. Diomede and the Lycian Glaucus are on the point of fighting, when they recognise one another as hereditary guest-friends. Hector goes from the battle to Troy, and the day ends with an indecisive duel between Hector and Ajax son of Telamon. In the armistice ensuing both sides bury their dead, and the Greeks, acting on the advice of Nestor, surround the camp with a wall and trench [vii]. When the fighting begins afresh, Zeus forbids the gods to take part in it, and ordains that the battle shall terminate with the discomfiture of the Greeks [viii]. On the following night Agamemnon already begins to meditate flight, but Nestor advises reconciliation with Achilles. The efforts of the ambassadors are, however, fruitless [ix]. Here-upon Odysseus and Diomede go out to reconnoitre, capture Dolon, a Trojan spy, and surprise Rhesus (q.v.), king of the Thracians, the newly arrived ally of the enemy [x]. On the succeeding day Agamemnon's bravery drives the Trojans back to the walls of the town; but he himself, Diomede, Odysseus, and other heroes leave the battle wounded, the Greeks retire behind the camp walls [xi], to attack which the Trojans set out in five detachments. The opposition of the Greeks is brave; but Hector breaks the rough gate with a rock, and the stream of enemies pours itself unimpeded into the camp [xii]. Once more the Greek heroes who are still capable of taking part in the fight, especially the two Ajaxes and Idomeneus, succeed with the help of Poseidon in repelling the Trojans, while Telamonian Ajax dashes Hector to the ground with a stone; but the latter soon reappears on the battlefield with fresh strength granted him by Apollo at the command of Zeus [xiii]. Poseidon is obliged to leave the Greeks to their fate; they retire again to the ships, which Ajax in vain defends [xv]. The foremost ship is already burning, when Achilles gives way to the entreaties of his friend Patroclus, and sends him, clad in his own armour, with the Myrmidons to the help of the distressed Greeks. Supposing it to be Achilles himself, the Trojans in terror flee from the camp before Patroclus, who pursues them to the town, and lays low vast numbers of the enemy, including the brave Sarpedon, whose corpse is only rescued from the Greeks after a severe fight. At last Patroclus himself is slain by Hector with the help of Apollo [xvi]; Achilles' arms are lost, and even the corpse is with difficulty saved [xvii]. And now Achilles repents of his anger, reconciles himself to Agamemnon, and on the following day, furnished with new and splendid armour by Hephaestus at the request of Thetis [xviii], avenges the death of his friend on countless Trojans and finally on Hector himself [xxii]. With the burial of Patroclus and the funeral games established in his honour [xxiii], the restoration of Hector's corpse to Priam, and the burial of Hector, for which Archilles allows an armistice of eleven days [xxiv], the Iliad concludes. Immediately after the death of Hector the later legends bring the Amazons to the help of the Trojans, and their queen Penthesilea is slain by Achilles. Then appears Memnon, who is also mentioned by Homer; at the head of his Aethiopians he slays Antilochus son of Nestor, and is himself slain by Achilles. And now comes the fulfilment of the oracle given to Agamemnon at Delphi; for at a sacrificial banquet a violent quarrel arises between Achilles and Odysseus, the latter declaring craft and not valour to be the only means of capturing Troy. Soon after, in an attempt to force a way into the hostile town through the Scaean gate, or, according to later legend, at the marriage of Priam's daughter Polyxena in the temple of Thymbraean Apollo, Achilles falls slain by the arrow of Paris, directed by the god. After his burial, Thetis offers the arms of her son as a prize for the bravest of the Greek heroes, and they are adjudged to Odysseus. Thereupon his competitor, the Telamonian Ajax, slays himself. For these losses, however, the Greeks find some compensation. Acting on the admonition of Helenus, son of Priam, who had been captured by Odysseus, that Troy could not be conquered without the arrows of Heracles and the presence of a descendant of Aeacus, they fetch to the camp Philoctetes, the heir of Heracles, who had been abandoned on Lemnos, and Neoptolemus, the young son of Achilles, who had been brought up on Seyros. The latter, a worthy son of his father, slays the last ally of the Trojans, Eurypylus, the brave son of Telephus; and Philoctetes, with one of the arrows of Heracles, kills Paris. Even when the last condition of the capture of Troy, viz. the removal of the Palladium from the temple of Athene on the citadel, lias been successfully fulfilled by Diomede and Odysseus, the town can only be taken by treachery. On the advice of Athene, Epeius, son of Panopeus, builds a gigantic wooden horse, in the belly of which the bravest Greek warriorsconceal themselves under the direction of Odysseus, while the rest of the Greeks burn the camp and embark on board ship, only, however, to anchor behind Tenedos. The Trojans, streaming out of the town, find the horse, and are in doubt what to do with it. According to the later legend, they are deceived by the treacherous Sinon, a kinsman of Odysseus, who has of his own free will remained behind. He pretends that he has escaped from the death by sacrifice to which he had been doomed by the malice of Odysseus, and that the horse has been erected to expiate the robbery of the Palladium; to destroy it would be fatal to Troy, but should it be set on the citadel, Asia would conquer Europe. The fate of Laocoon (q.v.) removes the last doubt from the minds of the Trojans; the city gate being too small, they break down a portion of the wall, and draw the horse up to the citadel as a dedicatory offering for Athene. While they are giving themselves up to transports of joy, Sinon in the night opens the door of the horse. The heroes descend, and light the flames that give to the Greek fleet the preconcerted signal for its return. Thus Troy is captured; all the inhabitants are either slain or carried into slavery, and the city is destroyed. The only survivors of the royal house are Helenus, Cassandra, and Hector's wife Andromache, besides Aeneas (q.v.; for the fate of the rest see DEIPHOBUS, HECUBA, POLYDORUS, 2, POLYXENA, PRIAM, TROILUS). After Troy has been destroyed and plundered, Agamemnon and Menelaus, contrary to custom, call the drunken Greeks to an assembly in the evening. A division ensues, half siding with Menelaus in a desire to return home at once; while Agamemnon and the other half wish first to appease by sacrifice the deity of Athene, who has been offended by the outrage of the Locrian Ajax (see AIAS, 1). The army consequently sets out on its journey in two parts. Only Nestor, Diomede, Neoptolemus, Philoctetes, and Idomeneus reach home in safety; while Menelaus and Odysseus have first to undergo wanderings for many a long year. Death overtakes the Locrian Ajax on the sea, and Agamemnon immediately after his arrival home.
The art of embossing metal, or working it in ornamental relief or intaglio (Pliny, N.H. xxxiv 54, 56; xxxv 77). The Greek verb toreuein means "to work in relief or repoussé," and also "to chase" in metal; toreutos is an epithet of cups that are "chased" or "worked in relief"; toreia is need of a "carving in relief"; the artist is called a toreutes; and his characteristic tool the toreus (Lat. coelum). The corresponding Latin term is coelatura, which, as defined by Quintilian (ii 21 § 9), auro, argento, oere, ferro operaefficit ; while scalptura eliam lignum, ebur, marmor, vitrum, gemmas complectitur. While sculpture in bronze is primarily concerned with designing the work of art which has to be cast in the mould, the toreutic art has to do with the elaboration and finish of the metallic form when it is already cast. In the case of large works in bronze, the task of the toreutes is simply to remove slight flaws and to add a few finishing touches; in that of smaller works, his art becomes of paramount importance. The term toreutes, is virtually confined to artists who produce for ordinary use articles in metal, which owe their value as works of art solely to the adornment bestowed upon them. In the best times of Greek art, the favourite metal for this purpose was silver; but gold and bronze and even iron were also used. The art was often applied to the embellishment of armour, especially shields; and even chariots were sometimes ornamented with embossed silver (Pliny, xxxiii 140, carrucoe argento coelatoe). Articles of plate, especially large silver platters, were occasionally adorned with ferns or ivy-leaves (lances filicatoe, pateroe hederacioe); and goblets were decorated with mythological subjects in relief (anaglypta), such as figures in gold riveted on vessels of silver, or in silver on bronze. These figures were either in high or low relief (emblemata, or crustoe). The art was also put into requisition for ornamenting furniture, for embossing plates of gold, and for making wreaths of that metal. In the Homeric age, copper, gold, silver, iron, tin, and lead were in use in different degrees. Copper, especially when mixed with tin to form bronze, was the ordinary material for armour and for all kinds of utensils; gold is named in connexion with articles of furniture, armour, and jewellery, but is generally described as imported from abroad; silver is less frequently mentioned. Iron was rare, in comparison with copper; but was used for implements of agriculture as well as for armour and tools. A block of iron is given as a prize at the funeral games in honour of Patroclus (Il. xxiii 826). Copper being the commonest metal, a worker in any kind of metal is called in Homer a coppersmith (chalkeus); thus, in Od. iii 425, it is applied to one who in the same context is described as a goldsmith (chrysochoos, ib. 432). The hammer and anvil sufficed for the manufacture of armour and the simpler varieties of household utensils. The process of beating out the metal and fashioning it with the hammer was called elaunein (Il. vii 223, xii 295); and a derivative of this verb, sphyrelatos, "wrought with the hammer," was afterwards used as an epithet of statues made of plates beaten out with the hammer, as opposed to those of cast metal (Herodotus, vii 69). It was in fact applied to all kinds of products of hammering, and to work in repoussé, large or small. The same process was used in making plates of metal to cover tripods and candelabra, as well as shields, scabbards, chariots, and also images of the gods. In such cases the plate of beaten metal was applied to a core of wood by what was termed empaistike techne (Athenaeus, 488 B). The chair of Penelope is thus covered with ivory and silver (Od. xix 56), and the bed of Odysseus, with ivory, silver, and gold (xxiii 200). The cuirass of Agamemnon (Il. xi 24 ff.) has twenty-one alternate stripes of various kinds of inlaid metal, both before and behind, the metals mentioned being gold and tin and kyanos, which is now identified as an imitation of lapis lazuli stained blue with carbonate of copper. The golden belt of Heracles is adorned with figures of bears, boars, and lions, and battle-scenes, in relief (0d. xi 609). The brooch of Odysseus represents a stag attacked by a dog (Od. xix 226). The cup of Nestor is pierced with rivets of gold, has four handles with two golden doves to each handle, and two supports running from the base of the cup to the lower part of the bowl, designed to strengthen the central stem (Il. xi 632, with Dr. Leaf's note). The structure of this singular cup was the theme of learned disquisitions in ancient times (Athenaeus, 489); it has now been made intelligible by the early cups discovered at Mycenae and Caere (Helbig, Das Homerische Epos aus den Denkmalern erlautert, p. 272). In the cup from Mycenae (Schliemann's Mycenae, fig. 346; Schuchhardt, Schliemann's Excavations, fig. 240), we see the supports continued into the handles above them, and even two doves as ornaments on the top of the handles. Elsewhere in Homer a lebes (in Il. xxiii 885, Od. iii 440), and a crater (in Od. xxiv 275), are described as "adorned with flowers," i.e. with the lotus-flowers and rosettes characteristic of archaic decoration (Schliemann, Mycenae, fig. 344). The shield of Achilles, as wrought by Hephaestus, is an elaborate work, including numerous figures distributed over separate compartments and inlaid in various kinds of metal. The metal facing has apparently a bronze ground, inlaid with gold, silver, and kyanos; and the designs may be best regarded as resembling the peculiar combination of Egyptian and Assyrian styles which was introduced into Europe by the Phoenicians (Il. xviii 478-607, ed. Leaf ; op. Helbig, l.c., chap. xxxi, and Murray's Greek Sculpture, chap. iii). In the Homeric age the articles in metal which were most highly prized are generally described as imported from abroad. Thus the silver crater given as a prize at the funeral games of Patroclus is the work of Sidonian craftsmen (Il. xxiii 743). It is the king of the Sidonians who sends a crater to Menelaus (Od. iv 616; Il. xxiii 741). The tripods and basket of Helen are said to have been brought by Menelaus from Egypt (Od. iv 126). The cuirass, as well as the chariot, of Agamemnon, are described as a present from the king of Cyprus (Il. xi 24). According to Greek mythology, the first blacksmiths were the Idoean Dactyli (q.v.); the first goldsmiths, the Telchines (q.v.). The legends about the latter imply that the forms and processes of the art were transmitted to Greece from the East. They are described as dwelling in turn in Crete, Rhodes, Cyprus, Cos, Lycia, and in various cities of Greece, especially at Sicyon, which, according to Pliny (xxxvi 4), was long the home of all kinds of manufacture in metals. Working in metal was afterwards much advanced by two important inventions, (1) that of casting in moulds, attributed to a Samian artist Rhoecus, son of Phileas, and his son Theodorus; and (2) that of soldering, ascribed to Glaucus of Chios (Pausanias, x 16 § 1), who was also famed for his skill in hardening and softening iron (Plutarch, De Def. Orac. 47). The toreutic art is described by Pliny as having been founded by Phidias (xxxiv 54) and brought to perfection by Polyclitus (56). For the former, it is sufficient to refer to the chryselephantine statue of Zeus at Olympia, and that of Athene in the Parthenon. Among other sculptors who were also toreutoe may be mentioned Calamis, Myron, Euphranor, Boethus, Stratonicus, Ariston, Eunicus, Hecataeus, Posidonius, Pasiteles, and Zenodorus. The artists who excelled in the chasing of silver (argento coelando) are enumerated by Pliny (xxxiii 154-157), who observes that no one had attained renown by the chasing of gold. The first named is Mentor, the most celebrated of all, and with him Acragas, Boethus (Cicero, Verr. 2 iv 32, hydriam Boethi manu factam proeclaro opere et grandi pondere), and Mys (q.v.). The last of these executed in bronze, from the designs of Parrhasius, the battle of the Centaurs and Lapithae which adorned the shield of the Athene Promachos of Phidias (Pausanias, i 28, 2). Pliny's second group includes Calamis and Antipater, who is probably mentioned by mistake for Diodorus (Anthologia Groeca i 106,16). His third group consists of Stratonicus and Tauriscus, both of Cyzicus; Ariston and Eunicus of Mytilene; and lastly Hecatoeus. In the next we have Pasiteles (in the time of Pompey); also Posidonius of Ephesus, with Hedystrachides, Zopyrus, and Pytheas. After these, he adds, there was an artist named Teucer, famous as a crustarius, a worker of plaques in low relief. Thereupon, he continues, art fell into abeyance, and only works ascribed to the old masters were of any account, even when the design had been almost worn out by use. The age of imitations and forgeries followed. The work of Calamis was skilfully opied by Zenodorus (Pliny, xxxiv 47), the sculptor of the colossal bronze statue of Nero (ib. 45). In the above list Pliny is probably following the order of fame rather than that of time. Stratonicus, Ariston, Eunicus, and Posidonius, all belong to Asia, and possibly to the age of the Diadochi. To the same age may be ascribed Pytheas and two artists remarkable for their skill in the most minute and delicate kinds of work, Callicrates of Lacedaemon and Myrmecides of Athens, who inscribed an elegiac couplet in letters of gold on a grain of sesame, and carved a quadriga of ivory which a fly could cover with its wings (Aelian, Var. Hist. i 17; Cicero, Acad. ii 120; Pliny, vii 85, xxxvi 43). Some of the technical processes of working in metal can be illustrated from the remains of ancient art. Thus on a cylix in Berlin (fig. 1) exhibiting scenes from a foundry, we have (1) two workmen, one attending to the fire in a furnace, the other resting on a hammer, and a boy blowing the bellows; on the wall hang two hammers and a saw, and a number of metal plaques with heads and figures in relief; (2) a workman putting together a bronze statue, the head of which lies a part on the ground; (3) two workmen scraping the excrescences off a statue of a warrior by means of a hooked instrument resembling a strigil. The first of the above scenes is closely similar to the design on a vase in the British Museum (B 458) representing the forge of Hephaestus at Lemnos. Again, a mural painting from Pompeii shows us one of the attendants of Hephaestus seated at his work; in his right hand he holds a hammer, and in his left a sharp graving-tool (Gr. toreus; Lat. coelum), with which he is tracing the ornament on the helmet of Achilles (fig. 2). According to the ornament required, tools were used of different kinds, with the extremity blunt, round, or square; as well as punches for repoussé work. Among the extant specimens of the art a foremost place in point of time must be given to those discovered by Schliemann at Hissarlik in the Troad, especially the bracelets, earrings, diadems, and discs of gold, figured in Ilios, and in Schuchhardt, Schliemann's Excavations (figs. 35, 54, 56-58). Those of a more advanced type, found at Mycenae in and after 1874, include plaques and golden studs in repoussé, bowls and diadems; also sepulchral masks of gold, imitating the human countenance and placed on the faces of the dead; arms and other objects in gold, copper, and bronze. The blade of a short, two-edged sword (Schliemann's Mycenae, fig. 446), when set free from the incrustations on its surface revealed a spirited representation of a hunt with five armed men pursuing three lions. The bronze ground is covered with dark enamel, the lions and the limbs of the huntsmen are inlaid with gold of different hues; their clothing and their shields with silver, and other details with black (fig. 3). Still more interesting in respect to artistic design are the two prehistoric gold cups found in 1889 at Vaphio, the ancient Pharis near Amyclae, adorned with remarkable reliefs representing men hunting wild bulls (Ephem. Arch. 1889, pl. 7-10; Gazette des Beaux Arts, 1890, pp. 428 and 434). We must also mention the small bronzes which abound in museums of ancient art. These may be divided into (a) Greek bronzes of archaic style, such as those of the 6th century B.C. discovered at Dodona (e.g. the flute-player, fig. 4). Many such bronzes are votive; e.g. the Naxian statuette in the Berlin Museum, inscribed as "dedicated by Deinagoras to Apollo the Far-darter," and the Apollo dedicated by Polycrates, probably as Argive of that name, now in the Museum at St. Petersburg. (b) Bronzes of later style, such as those of Pompeii and Herculaneum, preserved in large numbers in the Naples Museum. Earlier Italo-Greek statuettes are rare; e.g. the bronze from Tarentum representing a general in the act of addressing his troops (Collignon, Gr. Arch., fig. 134). Among objects for ornament we have numerous bronze reliefs in repoussé work, which are often perforated with holes for the purpose of attaching them to some other material, whether to strips of leather or articles of furniture. Some of the finest of them are pieces of armour, such as the cheek-guard of a helmet with the combat between Pollux and Lynceus found at Dodona (Collignon, fig. 135), and the Bronzes of Siris, two shoulder-pieces of Greek armour found in Southern Italy and now in the British Museum (Second Bronze Room, table-case D; Baumeister's Denkmaler, fig. 2204-5). In the same museum is the Castellani cista, a cylindrical casket in wood, covered with bands of silver fixed with rivets, and representing lions and winged animals, with lotuses and palmettes of an oriental character (fig. 5). Another group of examples includes the Greek and Etruscan Mirrors, with their metal backs or cases ornamented with figures traced by the engraver's burin (fig. 6); and the cistoe Proenestinoe (of the 3rd century B.C.). The finest of these is the Ficoroni cista, in the Museo Kircheriano at Rome, with figures in outline representing a scene from the Argonautic expedition and with the archaic inscription, Novios Plautios med Romai fecid (Daremberg and Saglio, fig. 1544). There are several others in the First Bronze Room of the British Museum, one with the Judgment of Paris, another with Bellerophon and Sthenoboea. Among silver vases of various ages may be mentioned the archaic patera of Amathus in Cyprus, with concentric bands of besieging warriors and winged sphinxes showing the influence of Assyrian and Egyptian art (Cesnola's Cyprus, p. 277; Daremberg, fig. 927); the Munich vase, with representations of captive Trojans, in low relief; the magnificent amphora of the 4th century B.C., found at Nicopol in South Russia in the tomb of a Scythian king with a frieze in high relief running round the upper part, representing Scythians taming and tending their horses, while the body of the vase is covered with ornaments in repoussé, including large birds and flowers (Daremberg, fig. 975); the Corsini cup, found at the ancient Antium, aná sometimes supposed to be copied from a Greek original by Zopyrus (ib., fig. 976); the pateroe of Hildesheim (q.v.), about the time of Augustus; that of Rennes, of the 3rd century A.D., in the Paris Cabinet des Antiques (ib. 972); and the vases from Bernay in the same collection. Further, in the British Museum we have a number of embossed and chased caskets, vases, or ornaments, found at Rome in 1793, and ascribed to the end of the 5th Century A.D. As a late Roman specimen of opus interrasile, or open work in which part of the silver is cut away on the same general principle as in fig. 5, we have a cantharus of dark red glass mounted in silver gilt, found near Tiflis in 1871, and now in the Museum of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg (fig. 7). One of the richest collections of Greek jewellery, that of the Hermitage Museum, comes from the ancient Panticapaeum. (Kertch). The Vatican and the Louvre contain remarkable specimens of Etrusco-Greek jewels, mainly found at Vulci and Caere. Modern ingenuity has at present failed to recover the secret of the process of "granulation" employed in many of these jewels, a kind of decoration in which the surface of the gold leaf is covered with minute and almost invisible globules of gold (see frontispiece to Martha's L'Art Etrusque). The Antiquarium of Munich possesses a votive crown of gold, superbly executed, with sprays of oak-leaves and festoons of flowers with winged figures among them (fig. 8). Lastly, in the British Museum we have specimens of Phoenician art, ascribed to the 8th century B.C., in the gold jewellery from Camirus in Rhodes. In the same museum "the Melos necklace, and the sceptre from the tomb at Tarentum, are admirable specimens of that fine combination of filagree and vitreous enamels which characterizes the Greek goldsmith's art in the middle of the 4th century B.C., and the bracelet and earrings from Capua, ornamented with lions' heads, are still more precious, as examples of repoussé work in its perfection" (Newton's Essays, p. 393). Authorities. Brunn, Gr. Kunstler, ii 397-412; Marquardt, Das Privatleben der Romer, pp. 669-718 2; Saglio, article on Coelatura in Daremberg and Saglio's Dict. des Antiquités; and Blumner's Technologie, vol. iv, pp. 228-413. Cp. the short sketch in the last chapter of Collignon's Manual of Greek Archoeology.] [J.E.S.]
Type: Standard
gutter splint
gutter splint
gutter splint