Homer Hesiod Hymns Tragedy Remythologizing Tools Blackboard Info
VASES 100.00%
Vases of Greek origin, may be classified under four heads, with several subdivisions in each: (I) archaic vases, (II) those with black figures, (III) those with red figures, and (IV) those of the decadence.
DURIS 100.00%
A vase-painter; see VASES.
An oil-flask. (See VASES and VESSELS.)
MAENADS 59.82%
"the frenzied ones." Women in Bacchic ecstasy, who formed part of the train of Dionysus (q.v. fig. 3; cp. VASES, fig. 13).
POTTERY 54.24%
The simplest, and at the same time one of the oldest, branches of the primeval art of working in clay is the manufacture of bricks and tiles, the invention of which (at Athens) was ascribed by the Greeks to the mythical personages Euryalus and Hyperbius [Pliny, H. N. vii 194]. So far as bricks were used at all, their use was generally confined to private buildings; and Greeks and Romans for ages employed only unbaked or sun-dried bricks. Bricks baked in the kiln came into use at a later date. The first to employ them extensively were the Romans, probably at the period when the population of the city rendered it necessary to build houses of several stories, which demanded a more solid material. In imperial times such bricks were the common material for private and public buildings. The walls were built of them, and then overlaid with stucco or marble. Building with baked bricks extended from Rome into Greece, and, generally speaking, wherever the Romans carried their arms, they introduced their exceptional aptitude for making excellent bricks. Bricks which presented flat surfaces, to be used for walls or pavements, were made of the most various dimensions, but were for the mostpart thinner than ours. Besides these, there were also rounded bricks for bujlding dwarf column, and for the construction of circular walls. For roofs flat tiles were chiefly used (Lat. tegula), which were provided with a raised rim on both of their longer sides, and were so formed that the upper fitted into the lower. Concave tiles also were used (Lat. imbrex) of the form of a half cylinder, which covered the adjoining edges of the flat tiles. The lowest row was commonly finished off with ornamental moulding. From the same material as bricks were also made pipes for conveying water, for sewers, and for warm air; the section in the first two cases was round, in the last, square. Pottery in its proper sense, the manufacture of utensils, is very old. The potter's wheel was known even before Homer's time [IL. xviii 600]. Its invention was variously ascribed to the Corinthian Hyperbius [Pliny vii 198] and to the Athenian Talus, nephew of Daedalus. Corinth and Athens, where the neighbouring promontory of Colias furnished an inexhaustible supply of fine potter's clay, were, in fact, the headquarters of the manufacture of Greek pottery. Next came Aegina, Samos, Lacedaemon, and other places in Greece itself, which always remained the principal seat of this manufacture, especially in the form of vases of painted clay. These were exported in large numbers to the countries on the Mediterranean and Black Seas. The high estimation in which Greek, and especially Attic, pottery was held is proved by the numerous vases which have been discovered in tombs, chiefly in Italy. More-over they represent almost every period. The excellence of the workmanship lies in the material, which is very fine, and prepared with the utmost care; also in the execution and in the baking. Its thinness, as well as the hardness of its sides, even in vessels of large dimensions, astonishes experts in such matters. The shapes are mostly produced by the potter's wheel, but also by hand in the case of vessels too large to be conveniently placed on the wheel; for example, the largest wine-jars. [The prehistoric pottery from Mycenaene, the Troad, and other Hellenic sites, was-also made by hand.] Whereas small vessels were made of a single piece, in the case of large ones the body, handles, feet, and neck, were fashioned separately, and then united. They were first dried in the sun, then twice baked, before and after the painting. The colours are No less admirable than the workmanship. The clay shows a beautiful bright reddish yellow, which is produced by the addition of colouring matter, and is also further intensified by a thin coating of glaze. The black colour, which often verges upon green, and is of a brilliant lustre, is then applied. Either (1) the design stands out black against the bright background or (2) the figures appear in red on a black ground, the former being the earlier method. Other colours, especially white or dark-red, were applied after the black glaze had been burnt into the clay by the second baking, and served as a less lasting adornment. In later times yellow, green, blue, brown, and gold were also used. [In the case of vases with black figures, the vase was first turned on the wheel, and in order to give it a surface of deeper red: clay finely ground and mixed with water to the consistency of cream, technically known as "slip," was applied by a brush or other wise while it was still revolving. The outline of the design was next roughly sketched, either witho . nt or in light-red ochre with a brush. The vase was then dried in the sun, and again put on the wheel, and the glaze, finely powdered and mixed with water was applied to it with a brush as it revolved. The vase was then in some cases fired for the first time in the kiln in order to provide a smooth, almost non-absorbent surface for the use of the painter. The painter then put on the black enamel figures and ornaments with a brush. After the firing of the enamel, the details were drawn in by incised lines, cutting through the enamel down to the clay body of the vase. In vases with red figures instead of the figures being painted in black, the ground is covered with black enamel and the figures left, showing the glazed red "slip" which covers the whole vase. This method produced a great artistic advance in the beauty of the figures, the details and inner lines of which could be executed with freedom and ease by brush-marked lines, instead of by the laborious process of cutting incised lines through the very hard black enamel (Prof. Middleton on "Pottery" in Encyc. Brit. xix 608, 609).] Lastly, the form deserves all praise. The vases of the best period present the most tasteful elegance of form, that is at once fine and strong, and the most delicate proportion of the various parts to each other and to the whole, without interfering with their practical utility (see cuts under VASES and VESSELS). It was not until the times when taste had begun to degenerate that the fashion was introduced of giving to clay ware, by means of moulds, all kinds of grotesque forms of men and beasts, and of furnishing them with plastic (as well as painted) ornamentation. [The technique of ancient pottery is illustrated by figs. 1 and 2. The first represents a youth seated in front of an oven, from the top of which he takes with two sticks a small, two-handled vase which has been newly glazed. The second shows the potter giving the last polish to a finished vase, while two other vessels are standing to dry on an oven, the door of which is closed (Guhl and Koner's Life of the Greeks and Romans, p. 141, Eng. ed.). Among the votive tablets in the Louvre there are two from Corinth, The first of these represents an early Greek type of kiln, which is domed over, and has a space for the fuel on one side, and a door in the side of the upper chamber, through which the pottery could be put in and withdrawn. The second shows a potter applying painted bands while the vessel revolves on the wheel (Prof. Middleton, l.c., figs. 3 and 20). See also VASES.] The ROMANS, with whom, as early as the time of the second king, Numa, a guild (collegium) of potters existed, neither had vessels of painted clay amongst their household goods, nor did they employ it for the ornamentation of their graves. In earlier times at least, they used only coarse and entirely unornamented ware. They imported artistically executed vases from their neighbours, the Etruscans. In the last hundred years of the Republic, as well as in the first hundred years after Christ, the chief place for the manufacture of the red crockery generally used in households was Arretium (Arezzo) [Pliny, xxxv 160; Martial, i 54, 6, xiv 98; Dennis, Etruria, ii 335]. The ware of this place was distinguished by a coral-red colour, and was generally furnished with glaze and delicate reliefs; in fact, ornamentation in relief was widely employed in later Roman pottery. Very much valued was the domestic ware, called vasa Samia, which was an imitation of the earlier pottery brought from the island of Samos. It was formed of fine, red-coloured clay, baked very hard, of thin make, and very delicate workmanship. It was glazed and generally adorned with reliefs, and served especially for the table use of respectable people who could not afford silver. While this fine ware was made by hand, the manufacture of ordinary pottery as well as of bricks and pipes, especially under the Empire, formed an important industry among capitalists, who, on finding good clay on their estates, built potteries and tileworks, and either worked them on their own account through slaves or had them carried on by lessees. The emperor himself, after the time of Tiberius, and the members of the imperial family, especially the females, pursued a similar trade, as is shown by the trade-mark which, according to Roman custom, was borne by clay manufactures. The production of large statues of clay, apart from the purpose of modelling, belongs amongst the Greeks to the early times. It continued much longer amongst the Italians, especially amongst the Etruscans, who furnished the temple at Rome with clay images of the gods before the victorious campaigns in the East brought marble and bronze productions of Greek art to Rome. On the other hand, throughout the whole of antiquity, the manufacture of small clay figures of very various kinds, for the decoration of dwellings and graves, and for playthings for children, etc., was most extensively practised. They were generally made in moulds, and after baking were decorated with a coating of colour. The excellence which Greek art attained in this department, as in others, is shown by the "figurines" discovered at Tanagra in and after 1874, specimens of which are given in figs. 3, 4. Very important too was the manufacture of clay reliefs, partly with figured representation and partly with arabesque patterns, for the embellishment of columns, windows, cornices, and also of tombstones and sarcophagi. (See Dumont and Chaplain, Ceramiques, 1888: Kekule, Thonfiguren aus Tanagra, 1878, Die antiken Terracotten, 1880, and Die Terracotten von Sicilien, 1884; Henzey, Catalogue des figurines antiques de terre cuite du Musee du Louvre, 1882, id. 60 plates, 1883; and the popular work by Pottier, Les Statuettes de Terre Cuite dans L'Antiquite, 1880.)
TROILUS 32.19%
A younger son of Priam and Hecuba, who was slain by Achilles. According to the later legend, Achilles lay in wait for the boy when he was exercising his horse near a well in front of the city, and slew him as he fled to the temple of Thymbraean Apollo, just by the altar of the god, at the very spot where he himself was destined afterwards to meet his fate. According to another account, Troilus ventured to meet Achilles in open conflict, but was dragged to death by his own horses. (See VASES, fig. 10.)
The most ancient and most important of Athenian festivals. It was celebrated in honour of Athene, the patron deity of Athens. Claiming to have been founded as early as by Erichthonius, it is said to have been originally named only Athenaea, and to have first received the name of Panathenaea at the time when Theseus united all the inhabitants of Attica into one body. In memory of the union itself was kept the festival of the Synaecia, or Synaecesia, on the 16th of Hecatombaeon (July-August), which may be regarded as a kind of prepatory solemnity to the Panathenaea. There was a festival of the ordinary or lesser Panathenaea celebrated every year, and from the time of Pisistratus, the great Panathenaea held every fifth year, and in the third year of every Olympiad, from the 24th to the 29th of Hecatombaeon. Pisistratus, in the year 566 B.C., added to the original chariot and horse races athletic contests in each of the traditional forms of competition. He, or his son Hipparchus, instituted the regulation, that the collected Homeric poems should be recited at the feast of Rhapsodi. In 446 Pericles introduced musical contests, which took place on the first day of the festival, in the Odeum, which he had built. Competitions of cyclic choruses and other kinds of dances, torch races and trireme races, added to the splendour of the festival. The care and direction of all these contests were committed to ten stewards (athlothetae), who were elected by the people for four years, from one great Panathenaic festival to the next. In the musical contests, the first prize was a golden crown; in the athletic, the prize was a garland of leaves from the sacred olive trees of Athene, together with large and beautiful vases filled with oil from the same trees. Many specimens of these Panathenaic vases have been found [in Italy, Sicily, Greece, and at Cyrene. They have the figure of Athene on one side, and a design indicating the contest for which they are awarded on the other. Most of them belong to the 4th century B.C., 367-318; the "Burgon Vase," in the British Museum, to the 6th century. Cp. Pindar, Nem. x 35]. The tribe whose ships had been victorious received a sum of money, part of which was destined for a sacrifice to Poseidon. The culminating point of the festival was the 28th day of the month, the birthday of the goddess, when the grand procession carried through the city the costly, embroidered, saffron-coloured garment, the peplus (q.v.). This bad been woven in the preceding nine months by Attic maidens and matrons, and embroidered with representations from the battle of the gods and Giants. It was carried through the city, first of all as a sail for a ship moving on wheels, and was then taken to the Acropolis, where it adorned one of the statues of Athene Polias. The procession is represented in a vivid manner in the well-known frieze of the Parthenon. It included the priests and their attendants, leading a long train of animals festally adorned for sacrifice; matrons and maidens bearing in baskets the various sacrificial implements (see CANEPHORI); the most picturesque old men in festal attire, with olive branches in their hands, whence came their name, thallophorae; warriors, with spear and shield, in splendid array; young men in armour; the cavalry under the command of both the hipparchi; the victors in the immediately preceding contests; the festal embassies of other states, especially of the colonies ; and, lastly, the aliens resident in Athens. Of these last, the men bore behind the citizens trays with sacrificial cakes, the women waterpots, and the maidens sunshades and stools for the citizens' wives; while on the freedmen was laid the duty of adorning with oak-leaves the market-places and streets through which the procession moved. The feast ended with the great festal sacrifice of a becatomb of oxen, and with the general banqueting which accompanied it. At the yearly minor Panathenaea, on the 28th and 29th of Hecatombaeon, contests, sacrifices, and a procession took place, but all in a more simple style. In later times the festival was removed to spring, perhaps in consequence of Roman influence, in order to make it correspond to the Quinquatrus of Minerva. [All the ancient authorities are collected by Michaelis, Der Parthenon, pp. 318-333.]
GEMS 21.25%
The art of cutting precious stones was early learned by the Greeks from the Egyptians and Orientals, who had practised it from remote antiquity. The cuttings were originally only concave, and the gems set in rings and used as seals. Cameos, or stones carved in relief, first came into use, it would seem, in the time of Alexander the Great, and were used for ornament. For cameos precious stones of various colours were used, especially the onyx. The layers of the stone were so treated, that the figures stood out bright on a dark ground. Muesarchus of Samos, the father of the philosopher Pythagoras (about 600 B.C.) is the oldest Greek jeweller whose name has come down to us. In the 4th century B.C. the most celebrated master was Pyrgoteles, the only artist whom Alexander the Great would allow to cut his likeness. In the age of Augustus we hear of Dioscorides, who cut the emperor's likeness on a stone which was used as a seal by the succeeding Caesars. The Etruscans and Romans took up the art very early, but never attained the same perfection as the Greeks. The fancy for making collections of beautiful gems arose as early as the 1st century B.C. The intaglios, or cut stones, have come down to us in greater numbers than any Of the monuments of ancient art. Those which belonged to the advanced periods of style present examples of the most beautiful workmanship, the most original composition, and the most interesting subjects, the latter being mainly taken from mythology. Among the remaining Greek cameos an important place, both for size and beauty, must be given to the Gonzaga Cameo in St. Petersburg. This, it has been conjectured, represents the bust of Ptolemy Philadelphus and Arsinoe, his sister and wife; [but it more probably commemorates Nero and Agrippina, fig. 7.] The largest and most splendid of the cameos which have come down from the Roman period are those at Vienna (fig. 8) and Paris, representing, in groups and figures, the family of Augustus. Whole vessels were sometimes made of single stones, and adorned with reliefs An instance is the Mantuan vase now at Brunswick, 6 1/3 inches high, 2 1/3 inches thick, consisting of a single onyx. The lid, handle and base are of gold. Two parallel lines of gold divide the surface into three parts, the midmost of which has twelve figures, representing the festival of the Thesmophoria, in three groups; while the highest and lowest are adorned with leaves, flowers, ears of corn, fruits, bulls' heads, and other objects connected with the worship of Demeter. Works of this kind are sometimes made of coloured glasses. The most celebrated instance of this sort is the Portland Vase now in the British Museum. Its height is about 10 inches. The material is a dark blue transparent glass, with beautiful reliefs in white opaque enamel (fig. 9). [See Catalogue of Engraved Gems in the British Museum, 1888, pp. 225-8; and (on the subject in general) Introduction, pp. 1-38.]
EOS 19.31%
The Greek goddess of the dawn, daughter of the Titan Hyperion and Theia, sister of Hellos and Selene, by Astraeus, mother of the winds, Argestes, Zephyros, Boreas and Notos, the morning star Heosphoros, and of the stars in general. Her hair is beautiful, her arms and fingers ruddy, her wings are white. She rises early from her couch on the Eastern Ocean, and in a saffron-coloured mantle, on a golden chariot drawn by white horses, she comes forth as her brother's herald to proclaim the rising of day to mortals and immortals, Loving all fresh and youthful beauty, she carries away Clitus, Cephalus, Orion and Tithonus, to whom she bears Memnon and Emathion. She is represented in works of art as hovering in the sky, or riding on her chariot, moving with a torch before Ares, or sprinkling dew from a vase over the earth. See <smappCaps>MEMNON</smappCaps>.
Son of Eleusis (or of Celeus, see DEMOPHOON) a favourite of Demeter, who sent him about the world on a car drawn by serpents to extend the cultivation of grain, and with it agriculture. On his return to Attica, Celeus of Eleusis made an attempt upon his life, but, at the bidding of Demeter, was obliged to give up the country to him. He founded the town of Eleusis, and, as first priest of Demeter, instituted the services there held in her honour, as well as the Thesmophoria (q.v.). In various parts of Greece, as well as in Italy and Sicily, he was honoured as the founder and promoter of husbandry, but especially in Eleusis, where, as the local hero, he had a temple dedicated to him, and a spot called the threshing-floor of Trip-tolemus on the Rharian plain. The Argive legend connected him with its local genealogies, and told how, while seeking Io in Tarsus and Antioch, he founded Greek settlements and instituted the cultivation of corn. In the Attic legend of Eleusis, he is also represented as a judge of the dead. (See DEMETER, fig. 1, and VASES, fig. 12.)
The art of embossing metal, or working it in ornamental relief or intaglio (Pliny, N.H. xxxiv 54, 56; xxxv 77). The Greek verb toreuein means "to work in relief or repoussé," and also "to chase" in metal; toreutos is an epithet of cups that are "chased" or "worked in relief"; toreia is need of a "carving in relief"; the artist is called a toreutes; and his characteristic tool the toreus (Lat. coelum). The corresponding Latin term is coelatura, which, as defined by Quintilian (ii 21 § 9), auro, argento, oere, ferro operaefficit ; while scalptura eliam lignum, ebur, marmor, vitrum, gemmas complectitur. While sculpture in bronze is primarily concerned with designing the work of art which has to be cast in the mould, the toreutic art has to do with the elaboration and finish of the metallic form when it is already cast. In the case of large works in bronze, the task of the toreutes is simply to remove slight flaws and to add a few finishing touches; in that of smaller works, his art becomes of paramount importance. The term toreutes, is virtually confined to artists who produce for ordinary use articles in metal, which owe their value as works of art solely to the adornment bestowed upon them. In the best times of Greek art, the favourite metal for this purpose was silver; but gold and bronze and even iron were also used. The art was often applied to the embellishment of armour, especially shields; and even chariots were sometimes ornamented with embossed silver (Pliny, xxxiii 140, carrucoe argento coelatoe). Articles of plate, especially large silver platters, were occasionally adorned with ferns or ivy-leaves (lances filicatoe, pateroe hederacioe); and goblets were decorated with mythological subjects in relief (anaglypta), such as figures in gold riveted on vessels of silver, or in silver on bronze. These figures were either in high or low relief (emblemata, or crustoe). The art was also put into requisition for ornamenting furniture, for embossing plates of gold, and for making wreaths of that metal. In the Homeric age, copper, gold, silver, iron, tin, and lead were in use in different degrees. Copper, especially when mixed with tin to form bronze, was the ordinary material for armour and for all kinds of utensils; gold is named in connexion with articles of furniture, armour, and jewellery, but is generally described as imported from abroad; silver is less frequently mentioned. Iron was rare, in comparison with copper; but was used for implements of agriculture as well as for armour and tools. A block of iron is given as a prize at the funeral games in honour of Patroclus (Il. xxiii 826). Copper being the commonest metal, a worker in any kind of metal is called in Homer a coppersmith (chalkeus); thus, in Od. iii 425, it is applied to one who in the same context is described as a goldsmith (chrysochoos, ib. 432). The hammer and anvil sufficed for the manufacture of armour and the simpler varieties of household utensils. The process of beating out the metal and fashioning it with the hammer was called elaunein (Il. vii 223, xii 295); and a derivative of this verb, sphyrelatos, "wrought with the hammer," was afterwards used as an epithet of statues made of plates beaten out with the hammer, as opposed to those of cast metal (Herodotus, vii 69). It was in fact applied to all kinds of products of hammering, and to work in repoussé, large or small. The same process was used in making plates of metal to cover tripods and candelabra, as well as shields, scabbards, chariots, and also images of the gods. In such cases the plate of beaten metal was applied to a core of wood by what was termed empaistike techne (Athenaeus, 488 B). The chair of Penelope is thus covered with ivory and silver (Od. xix 56), and the bed of Odysseus, with ivory, silver, and gold (xxiii 200). The cuirass of Agamemnon (Il. xi 24 ff.) has twenty-one alternate stripes of various kinds of inlaid metal, both before and behind, the metals mentioned being gold and tin and kyanos, which is now identified as an imitation of lapis lazuli stained blue with carbonate of copper. The golden belt of Heracles is adorned with figures of bears, boars, and lions, and battle-scenes, in relief (0d. xi 609). The brooch of Odysseus represents a stag attacked by a dog (Od. xix 226). The cup of Nestor is pierced with rivets of gold, has four handles with two golden doves to each handle, and two supports running from the base of the cup to the lower part of the bowl, designed to strengthen the central stem (Il. xi 632, with Dr. Leaf's note). The structure of this singular cup was the theme of learned disquisitions in ancient times (Athenaeus, 489); it has now been made intelligible by the early cups discovered at Mycenae and Caere (Helbig, Das Homerische Epos aus den Denkmalern erlautert, p. 272). In the cup from Mycenae (Schliemann's Mycenae, fig. 346; Schuchhardt, Schliemann's Excavations, fig. 240), we see the supports continued into the handles above them, and even two doves as ornaments on the top of the handles. Elsewhere in Homer a lebes (in Il. xxiii 885, Od. iii 440), and a crater (in Od. xxiv 275), are described as "adorned with flowers," i.e. with the lotus-flowers and rosettes characteristic of archaic decoration (Schliemann, Mycenae, fig. 344). The shield of Achilles, as wrought by Hephaestus, is an elaborate work, including numerous figures distributed over separate compartments and inlaid in various kinds of metal. The metal facing has apparently a bronze ground, inlaid with gold, silver, and kyanos; and the designs may be best regarded as resembling the peculiar combination of Egyptian and Assyrian styles which was introduced into Europe by the Phoenicians (Il. xviii 478-607, ed. Leaf ; op. Helbig, l.c., chap. xxxi, and Murray's Greek Sculpture, chap. iii). In the Homeric age the articles in metal which were most highly prized are generally described as imported from abroad. Thus the silver crater given as a prize at the funeral games of Patroclus is the work of Sidonian craftsmen (Il. xxiii 743). It is the king of the Sidonians who sends a crater to Menelaus (Od. iv 616; Il. xxiii 741). The tripods and basket of Helen are said to have been brought by Menelaus from Egypt (Od. iv 126). The cuirass, as well as the chariot, of Agamemnon, are described as a present from the king of Cyprus (Il. xi 24). According to Greek mythology, the first blacksmiths were the Idoean Dactyli (q.v.); the first goldsmiths, the Telchines (q.v.). The legends about the latter imply that the forms and processes of the art were transmitted to Greece from the East. They are described as dwelling in turn in Crete, Rhodes, Cyprus, Cos, Lycia, and in various cities of Greece, especially at Sicyon, which, according to Pliny (xxxvi 4), was long the home of all kinds of manufacture in metals. Working in metal was afterwards much advanced by two important inventions, (1) that of casting in moulds, attributed to a Samian artist Rhoecus, son of Phileas, and his son Theodorus; and (2) that of soldering, ascribed to Glaucus of Chios (Pausanias, x 16 § 1), who was also famed for his skill in hardening and softening iron (Plutarch, De Def. Orac. 47). The toreutic art is described by Pliny as having been founded by Phidias (xxxiv 54) and brought to perfection by Polyclitus (56). For the former, it is sufficient to refer to the chryselephantine statue of Zeus at Olympia, and that of Athene in the Parthenon. Among other sculptors who were also toreutoe may be mentioned Calamis, Myron, Euphranor, Boethus, Stratonicus, Ariston, Eunicus, Hecataeus, Posidonius, Pasiteles, and Zenodorus. The artists who excelled in the chasing of silver (argento coelando) are enumerated by Pliny (xxxiii 154-157), who observes that no one had attained renown by the chasing of gold. The first named is Mentor, the most celebrated of all, and with him Acragas, Boethus (Cicero, Verr. 2 iv 32, hydriam Boethi manu factam proeclaro opere et grandi pondere), and Mys (q.v.). The last of these executed in bronze, from the designs of Parrhasius, the battle of the Centaurs and Lapithae which adorned the shield of the Athene Promachos of Phidias (Pausanias, i 28, 2). Pliny's second group includes Calamis and Antipater, who is probably mentioned by mistake for Diodorus (Anthologia Groeca i 106,16). His third group consists of Stratonicus and Tauriscus, both of Cyzicus; Ariston and Eunicus of Mytilene; and lastly Hecatoeus. In the next we have Pasiteles (in the time of Pompey); also Posidonius of Ephesus, with Hedystrachides, Zopyrus, and Pytheas. After these, he adds, there was an artist named Teucer, famous as a crustarius, a worker of plaques in low relief. Thereupon, he continues, art fell into abeyance, and only works ascribed to the old masters were of any account, even when the design had been almost worn out by use. The age of imitations and forgeries followed. The work of Calamis was skilfully opied by Zenodorus (Pliny, xxxiv 47), the sculptor of the colossal bronze statue of Nero (ib. 45). In the above list Pliny is probably following the order of fame rather than that of time. Stratonicus, Ariston, Eunicus, and Posidonius, all belong to Asia, and possibly to the age of the Diadochi. To the same age may be ascribed Pytheas and two artists remarkable for their skill in the most minute and delicate kinds of work, Callicrates of Lacedaemon and Myrmecides of Athens, who inscribed an elegiac couplet in letters of gold on a grain of sesame, and carved a quadriga of ivory which a fly could cover with its wings (Aelian, Var. Hist. i 17; Cicero, Acad. ii 120; Pliny, vii 85, xxxvi 43). Some of the technical processes of working in metal can be illustrated from the remains of ancient art. Thus on a cylix in Berlin (fig. 1) exhibiting scenes from a foundry, we have (1) two workmen, one attending to the fire in a furnace, the other resting on a hammer, and a boy blowing the bellows; on the wall hang two hammers and a saw, and a number of metal plaques with heads and figures in relief; (2) a workman putting together a bronze statue, the head of which lies a part on the ground; (3) two workmen scraping the excrescences off a statue of a warrior by means of a hooked instrument resembling a strigil. The first of the above scenes is closely similar to the design on a vase in the British Museum (B 458) representing the forge of Hephaestus at Lemnos. Again, a mural painting from Pompeii shows us one of the attendants of Hephaestus seated at his work; in his right hand he holds a hammer, and in his left a sharp graving-tool (Gr. toreus; Lat. coelum), with which he is tracing the ornament on the helmet of Achilles (fig. 2). According to the ornament required, tools were used of different kinds, with the extremity blunt, round, or square; as well as punches for repoussé work. Among the extant specimens of the art a foremost place in point of time must be given to those discovered by Schliemann at Hissarlik in the Troad, especially the bracelets, earrings, diadems, and discs of gold, figured in Ilios, and in Schuchhardt, Schliemann's Excavations (figs. 35, 54, 56-58). Those of a more advanced type, found at Mycenae in and after 1874, include plaques and golden studs in repoussé, bowls and diadems; also sepulchral masks of gold, imitating the human countenance and placed on the faces of the dead; arms and other objects in gold, copper, and bronze. The blade of a short, two-edged sword (Schliemann's Mycenae, fig. 446), when set free from the incrustations on its surface revealed a spirited representation of a hunt with five armed men pursuing three lions. The bronze ground is covered with dark enamel, the lions and the limbs of the huntsmen are inlaid with gold of different hues; their clothing and their shields with silver, and other details with black (fig. 3). Still more interesting in respect to artistic design are the two prehistoric gold cups found in 1889 at Vaphio, the ancient Pharis near Amyclae, adorned with remarkable reliefs representing men hunting wild bulls (Ephem. Arch. 1889, pl. 7-10; Gazette des Beaux Arts, 1890, pp. 428 and 434). We must also mention the small bronzes which abound in museums of ancient art. These may be divided into (a) Greek bronzes of archaic style, such as those of the 6th century B.C. discovered at Dodona (e.g. the flute-player, fig. 4). Many such bronzes are votive; e.g. the Naxian statuette in the Berlin Museum, inscribed as "dedicated by Deinagoras to Apollo the Far-darter," and the Apollo dedicated by Polycrates, probably as Argive of that name, now in the Museum at St. Petersburg. (b) Bronzes of later style, such as those of Pompeii and Herculaneum, preserved in large numbers in the Naples Museum. Earlier Italo-Greek statuettes are rare; e.g. the bronze from Tarentum representing a general in the act of addressing his troops (Collignon, Gr. Arch., fig. 134). Among objects for ornament we have numerous bronze reliefs in repoussé work, which are often perforated with holes for the purpose of attaching them to some other material, whether to strips of leather or articles of furniture. Some of the finest of them are pieces of armour, such as the cheek-guard of a helmet with the combat between Pollux and Lynceus found at Dodona (Collignon, fig. 135), and the Bronzes of Siris, two shoulder-pieces of Greek armour found in Southern Italy and now in the British Museum (Second Bronze Room, table-case D; Baumeister's Denkmaler, fig. 2204-5). In the same museum is the Castellani cista, a cylindrical casket in wood, covered with bands of silver fixed with rivets, and representing lions and winged animals, with lotuses and palmettes of an oriental character (fig. 5). Another group of examples includes the Greek and Etruscan Mirrors, with their metal backs or cases ornamented with figures traced by the engraver's burin (fig. 6); and the cistoe Proenestinoe (of the 3rd century B.C.). The finest of these is the Ficoroni cista, in the Museo Kircheriano at Rome, with figures in outline representing a scene from the Argonautic expedition and with the archaic inscription, Novios Plautios med Romai fecid (Daremberg and Saglio, fig. 1544). There are several others in the First Bronze Room of the British Museum, one with the Judgment of Paris, another with Bellerophon and Sthenoboea. Among silver vases of various ages may be mentioned the archaic patera of Amathus in Cyprus, with concentric bands of besieging warriors and winged sphinxes showing the influence of Assyrian and Egyptian art (Cesnola's Cyprus, p. 277; Daremberg, fig. 927); the Munich vase, with representations of captive Trojans, in low relief; the magnificent amphora of the 4th century B.C., found at Nicopol in South Russia in the tomb of a Scythian king with a frieze in high relief running round the upper part, representing Scythians taming and tending their horses, while the body of the vase is covered with ornaments in repoussé, including large birds and flowers (Daremberg, fig. 975); the Corsini cup, found at the ancient Antium, aná sometimes supposed to be copied from a Greek original by Zopyrus (ib., fig. 976); the pateroe of Hildesheim (q.v.), about the time of Augustus; that of Rennes, of the 3rd century A.D., in the Paris Cabinet des Antiques (ib. 972); and the vases from Bernay in the same collection. Further, in the British Museum we have a number of embossed and chased caskets, vases, or ornaments, found at Rome in 1793, and ascribed to the end of the 5th Century A.D. As a late Roman specimen of opus interrasile, or open work in which part of the silver is cut away on the same general principle as in fig. 5, we have a cantharus of dark red glass mounted in silver gilt, found near Tiflis in 1871, and now in the Museum of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg (fig. 7). One of the richest collections of Greek jewellery, that of the Hermitage Museum, comes from the ancient Panticapaeum. (Kertch). The Vatican and the Louvre contain remarkable specimens of Etrusco-Greek jewels, mainly found at Vulci and Caere. Modern ingenuity has at present failed to recover the secret of the process of "granulation" employed in many of these jewels, a kind of decoration in which the surface of the gold leaf is covered with minute and almost invisible globules of gold (see frontispiece to Martha's L'Art Etrusque). The Antiquarium of Munich possesses a votive crown of gold, superbly executed, with sprays of oak-leaves and festoons of flowers with winged figures among them (fig. 8). Lastly, in the British Museum we have specimens of Phoenician art, ascribed to the 8th century B.C., in the gold jewellery from Camirus in Rhodes. In the same museum "the Melos necklace, and the sceptre from the tomb at Tarentum, are admirable specimens of that fine combination of filagree and vitreous enamels which characterizes the Greek goldsmith's art in the middle of the 4th century B.C., and the bracelet and earrings from Capua, ornamented with lions' heads, are still more precious, as examples of repoussé work in its perfection" (Newton's Essays, p. 393). Authorities. Brunn, Gr. Kunstler, ii 397-412; Marquardt, Das Privatleben der Romer, pp. 669-718 2; Saglio, article on Coelatura in Daremberg and Saglio's Dict. des Antiquités; and Blumner's Technologie, vol. iv, pp. 228-413. Cp. the short sketch in the last chapter of Collignon's Manual of Greek Archoeology.] [J.E.S.]
The torch-race was a contest held at night, especially at Athens, at the Panathenaea and the festivals of Hephaestus, Prometheus, Pan, and the Thracian moon-goddess called Bendis [Plato, Rep. 328 A]. In this contest young men ran, with torches in their hands, from the altar of Prometheus in the Academia (where the torches were lighted) to the city; and whoever reached the goal with his torch alight was the winner. Other young men without torches ran after the torch-bearers; and the latter, if overtaken, had to hand over their torches to the former. To do this without letting the torches go out, required great skill [Pausanias, i 30 § 2]. In the time of Socrates the torchbearers sometimes rode on horseback [Plato, above quoted]. The contest was attended with considerable cost, as the scene of the race had to be illuminated; and at Athens the duty of providing for it was one of the public services incumbent on the wealthier citizens. (See LEITOURGIA.) [The torchrace is sometimes represented on vases, e.g. in Gerhard's Ant. Bildw. Taf. 63, 1, copied in Baumeister's Denkmaler, fig. 563. A rider carrying a torch may be seen in the accompanying cut.]
SIRENS 10.65%
The virgin daughters of Phorcys, according to later legend of Achelous and one of the Muses. In Homer there are two, in later writers three, called Ligeia, Leukosia, and Parthenope, or Aglaopheme, Molpe, and Theloeiepeia. Homer describes them as dwelling between Circe'sisle and Scylla, on an island, where they sit in a flowery meadow, surrounded by the mouldering bones of men, and with their sweet song allure and infatuate those that sail by. Whoever listens to their song and draws near them never again beholds wife and child. They know everything that happens on earth. When Odysseus sailed past, lie had stopped up the ears of his companions with wax, while he had made them bind him to the mast, that he might hear their song without danger [Od xii 41-54,153-200]. Orpheus protected the Argonauts from their spell by his own singing [Apollonius Rhodius, iv 903]. As they were only to live till some one had sailed past unmoved by their song, they cast themselves into the sea, on account either of Odysseus or of Orpheus, and were changed to sunken rocks. When the adventures of Odysseus came to be localised on the Italian and Sicilian shore, the seat of the Sirens was transferred to the neighbourhood of Naples and Sorrento, to the three rocky and uninhabited islets called the Sirenusae [the Sirenum scopuli of Vergil, Aen. v 864; cp. Statius, Silvae ii 2, 1], or to Capri, or to the Sicilian promontory of Pelorum. There they were said to have settled, after vainly searching the whole earth for the lost Persephone, their former playmate in the meadows by the Achelous; and later legend also assigned this as the time when they in part assumed a winged shape. They were represented as great birds with the heads of women, or with the upper part of the body like that of a woman, with the legs of birds, and with or without wings (see cut). At a later period they were sometimes regarded as retaining their original character of fair and cruel tempters and deceivers. But they are more generally represented as singers of the dirge for the dead, and they were hence frequently placed as an ornament on tombs; or as symbols of the magic of beauty, eloquence, and song, on which account their sculptured forms were seen on the funeral monuments of fair women and girls, and, of orators and poets: for instance, on those of Isocrates and Sophocles. [Such a Siren may be seen, beating her breast and tearing her hair, above the stele of Aristion in the Street of Tombs at Athens. The National Museum at Athens contains several examples of stone Sirens, not as reliefs, but as separate figures "in the round"; and a funeral monument of this type maybe noticed on a vase in the British Museum (Cat. C. 29), where the Siren is standing on a pillar and playing the lyre. Cp. Euripides, Hel. 169; Anthologia Palatina vii 710 and 481; with Miss Harrison's Myths of the Odyssey, pp. 146-182, and Mythology and Monuments of Athens, pp. 582-5.1
GLASS 9.04%
Glass was for a long time procured by the Greeks and Romans from Phoenicia and Egypt, where its manufacture had been carried on since very ancient times, and the art had reached an uncommon degree of perfection. The ancients produced glass-work of great beauty, both in form and colours. In later times it was the manufacturers of Alexandria whose reputation stood the highest. The manufacturers carried on, down to the times of the later Empire, a considerable export trade in coloured blown-glass and mosaics. It is uncertain whether the Greeks manufactured their own glass in more ancient times. It was certainly a very costly article down to the time of the Peloponnesian War, and only came into general use at a late period. In Italy the manufacture of glass began at the commencement of the imperial period, first in Campania and afterwards in Rome, where they were ambitious of surpassing the art of Alexandria. From Italy it spread to Gaul and Spain and the more distant provinces, and before long, glass cups, saucers, and bottles became an ordinary part of household furniture. The remains discovered at Herculaneum and Pompeii show that glass windows were not unknown in the imperial age. The ancients were familiar with the manufacture of pure, white, transparent, crystal glass, which was much in request, as well as with the art of colouring glass in every tint. They could imitate every kind of stone, produce varying prismatic tints, and spread layers of different colours upon each other. The art of cutting and polishing glass was very advanced. From bits of glass, cut and polished, were made great numbers of mock pearls, or mock precious stones, and pastes, which were worn, instead of real stones, in rings, tut in intaglio or relief. The most important productions of art were: (1) the vasa diatreta. In these cups the outer side was made of filigree work, cut out of the hard mass. The outer network was of a different colour from the ground, with which it was connected by nothing but slender glass talks. (2) The vessels which exhibit reliefs of white opaque glass on a dark and transparent ground, like the celebrated Portland Vase (See GEMS). Glass tablets, intended for mural decoration, were sometimes ornamented with reliefs of this kind.
Among the Greeks painting developed into an independent art much later than sculpture, though it was used very early for decorative purposes. This is proved by the evidence of painted vases belonging to the ages of the most primitive civilization, and by the mural paintings discovered by Schliemann at Tiryns. The scanty notices in ancient authors respecting the first discoveries in this art connect it with historical persons, and not with mythical names, as in the case of sculpture. Thus it is said [by Pliny, N. H. xxxv 16] that [either Philocles, the Egyptian, or] Cleanthes of Corinth was the first to draw outline sketches; that Telephanes of Sicyon developed them further; that Ecphantus of Corinth introduced painting in single tints (monochrome); and that Eumarus of Athens (in the second half of the 6th century) distinguished man and woman by giving the one a darker, the other a lighter colour. Cimon of Cleon' is mentioned as the originator of artistic drawing in profile [catagrapha, hoc est obliquas imagines, Pliny xxxv 56, cp. 90]. It is further said of him that he gave variety to the face by making it look backwards or upwards or downwards, and freedom to the limbs by duly rendering the joints; also that he was the first to represent the veins of the human body, and to make the folds of the drapery fall more naturally [ib. 56]. Painting did not, however, make any decided advance until the middle of the 5th century B.C. This advance was chiefly due to POLYGNOTUS of Thasos, who painted at Athens. Among other claims to distinction, it is attributed to him that he gave greater variety of expression to the face, which hitherto had been rigidly severe. His works, most of them large compositions rich in figures, give evidence of a lofty and poetic conception; they appear to have been, in great part, mural paintings for decorating the interior of public buildings [Pausanias, x 25-31; i 15, 22 § 6]. The colours were first applied in uniform tints so as to fill in the outlines, and fresh lines and touches were then added to indicate where the limbs and muscles began, and the folds of the garments. The drawing and the combination of colours were the chief considerations; light and shade were wanting, and no attention was paid to perspective. It is doubtful whether at this early time, besides mural paintings (executed al fresco on carefully smoothed stucco-priming with plain water-colours), there were any pictures on panels, such as afterwards became common; but we may fairly assume it. These were painted on wooden panels in tempera; i.e. with colours mixed with various kinds of distemper, such as gum or size, to make them more adhesive. In the same century the encaustic method of painting was discovered, though not elaborated till the following century. [The process, as described in Roman times by Vitruvius (vii 9), was as follows: "The medium used was melted white wax (cera punica), mixed with oil to make it more fluid. The pot containing the wax was kept over a brazier, while the painter was at work, in order to keep the melted wax from solidifying. The stucco itself was prepared by a coating of hot wax applied with a brush, and it was polished by being rubbed with a wax candle, and finally with a clean linen cloth. After the picture was painted, the wax colours were fixed, partly melted into the stucco, and blended with the wax of the ground by the help of a charcoal brazier, which was held close to the surface of the painting, and gradually moved over its whole extent" (Middleton's Ancient Rome in 1888, p. 417).] The encaustic method had several advantages over painting in tempera: it lasted longer and was more proof against damp, while the colouring was much brighter; on the other hand, it was much more laborious and slow, which explains the fact that the majority of encaustic paintings were of small size. While the pictures of Polygnotus certainly did not deceive by too much truth to nature, it was [his younger contemporary] the Samian AGATHARCHUS who practised scene-painting (Gr. skenographia) at Athens, and thus gave an impulse to the attempt at illusory effect and the use of perspective. [He painted the scenery for a play of 'schylus (Vitruv. vii proef. 10), and decorated the interior of the house of Alcibiades (Andocides, Alcib. 17).] The Athenian APOLLODORUS (about B.C. 420) was the actual founder of an entirely new artistic style, which strove to effect illusion by means of the resources of painting. [He was the first, says Pliny, to give his pictures the appearance of reality; the first to bring the brush into just repute (l.c. 60).] He also led the way in the proper management of the fusion of colours and their due gradation in different degrees of light and shade (Pliny, l.c. 60]. [It was to this that he owed his title of shadow-painter (skiagraphos: Hesychius on skia).] The Attic school flourished till about the end of the 5th century, when this art was for some time neglected at Athens, but made another important advance in the towns of Asia Minor, especially at Ephesus. The principal merits of this, the Ionic school, consist in richer and more delicate colouring, a more perfect system of pictorial representation, rendering on a flat surface the relief and variety of nature, and the consequent attainment of the greatest possible illusion. Its principal representatives were ZEUXIS of Heraclea and PARRHASIUS of Ephesus; TIMANTHES also produced remarkable works, though not an adherent of the same school. It was opposed by the Sicyonian school, founded by Eupompus of Sicyon, and developed by Pamphilus of Amphipolis, which aimed at greater precision of technical training, very careful and characteristic drawing, and a sober and effective colouring [Pliny, l.c. 75, 76). PAUSIAS, a member of this school, invented the art of foreshortening and of painting on vaulted ceilings, besides perfecting the encaustic art, which was much more favourable for purposes of illusion and picturesque effectiveness than painting in tempera [ib. 123-127]. Greek painting reached its summit in the works of APELLES of Cos, in the second half of the 4th century; he knew how to combine the merits of the Ionian and the Sicyonian schools, the perfect grace of the former with the severe accuracy of the latter. After him the most famous artist was PROTOGENES of Caunos. The following contemporaries, some older and some younger than himself, deserve also to be mentioned: Nicomachus and Aristides of Thebes, Euphranor of Corinth, Nicias of Athens, the Egyptian Antiphilus, Theon of Samos, and Aetion. After the age of Alexander, the art of painting was characterized by a striving after naturalism, combined with a predilection for the representation of common, every-day scenes, and of still-life. This branch of painting was also carried to great perfection, and Piraeicus was the most celebrated for it. Among painters of the loftier style the last noteworthy artist was TIMOMACHUS of Byzantium. [For the ancient authorities on the history of Painting, see Overbeck's Schrift-quellen; comp. Brunn's Kunstlergeschichte, and Woermann's History of Painting, bk. ii.] Among the Romans a few solitary names of early painters are mentioned, for instance, Fabius Pictor and the poet Pacuvius [Pliny, xxxv 19]; but nothing is known as to the value of their paintings, which served to decorate buildings. The way in which landscapes were represented by a certain S. Tadius [or Ludius (?), ib. 116; the best MS has studio] in the reign of Augustus is mentioned as a novelty. These landscapes were mainly for purposes of decoration (Vitruv. vii 5]. Indeed the love of display peculiar to the Romans, which had led them gradually to accumulate the principal works of the old Greek masters at Rome as ornaments for their public and private edifices, brought about an extra-ordinary development of decorative art, attested by the numerous mural paintings that have been found in Italy, chiefly at Pompeii and Herculaneum. These paintings were mostly executed al fresco on damp stucco, seldom with colours in tempera on the dry surface. The principal subjects represented are figures from the world of myth, such as Maenads, Centaurs, male and female, Satyrs, etc.; scenes from mythology and heroic legends, frequently copies of famous Greek originals [one of the best examples of which is Achilles delivering Briseis to the Heralds (see fig. 1)]; landscapes (fig. 5); still-life (fig. 2); animals (fig. 3); and also scenes from real life. (See also cuts under IPHIGENIA and VILLA.) From a technical point of view these works do not go beyond the limits of light decorative painting, and are especially wanting in correct perspective; but they show fine harmony, varied gradation, and delicate blending of colour, and frequently a surprising depth and sincerity of expression: qualities which must have characterized the lost masterpieces of the ancient artists to a much more remarkable degree, and cannot but give us a very high idea of them. One of the finest mural paintings is that known as the Aldobrandini Marriage [discovered in 1606 near the Arch of Gallienus, and] named after its first owner, Cardinal Aldobrandini, now in the Library of the Vatican at Rome. It is copied from an excellent Greek original, and represents, in the style of a relief, the preparations for a marriage (see fig. 4). ["It is composed," says Woermann in his History of Painting, i 115, "not pictorially, but yet with taste. It exhibits several individual motives of much beauty; its colouring is soft and harmonious; and it is instinct with that placid and serious charm which belongs only to the antique. In technical execution, however, the work is insignificant, and in no way rises above the ordinary handling of the Roman house-decorator in similar subjects." The Vatican Library also possesses an important series of landscapes from the Odyssey, found during the excavations on the Esquiline in 1848-1850. Landscapes of this kind are mentioned by Vitruvius, vii 5, among the subjects with which corridors used to be decorated in the good old times. They represent the adventure with the L'strygones (fig. 5), the story of Circe, and the visit of Odysseus to the realm of Hades, thus illustrating a continuous portion of the poem, Od. x 80-xi 600. The predominant colours are a yellowish brown and a greenish blue, and the pictures are divided from one another by pilasters of a brilliant red. They furnish interesting examples of the landscape-painting of the last days of the Republic or the first of the Empire, and, in point of importance, stand alone among all the remains of ancient painting (Woermann, l.c., and Die Odyssee-landschaften vom Esquilin, with chromolithographs of all the six landscapes). On mosaic-painting and vase-painting, see MOSAICS and VASES.] [The processes of painting are represented in several works of ancient art, e.g. in three mural paintings from Pompeii (Schreiber's Bilderatlas, viii 2, 4, and ix 3; see SCULPTURE, fig. 18). Even some of the implements and materials used by artists have been discovered. Thus, in 1849, at St. Mèdard-des-Près in the Vendée, a grave was opened, containing a female skeleton, surrounded by eighty small vessels of glass, in most of which remains of ancient pigments were still preserved. Besides these, there was a small cup of brown glass (fig. 6, a); a knife of cedar-wood, with its blade reduced to rust (b); a small bronze box (c) with a movable lid and four partitions, holding materials for pigments; a mortar of alabaster, and a smaller one of bronze (d); one or two elegant bronze spoons (e), either for removing colours from the palette, or for adding some liquid to mix them together; a small shovel, made of rock crystal, containing gold embedded in gum (f); and an oblong palette of basalt (g). There were also two small cylinders of amber and two brush-handles of bone. One of the glass vessels contained bits of resin; another, wax; a third, a mixture of both; a fourth, a mixture of lamp-black and wax, with traces of sebacic acid, possibly due to the presence of oil. Our principal information about ancient pigments (Gr. pharmaka; Lat. medicamenta, pigmenta) comes from Theophrastus (De Lapidibus), Dioscorides (v), Vitruvius (vii), and the elder Pliny (xxxiii and xxxv). It is observed by Cicero in the Brutus § 70, that only four colours were used by Polygnotus, Zeuxis, Timanthes, and their contemporaries, as contrasted with their successors, Aetion, Nicomachus, Protogenes, and Apelles. Pliny (xxxv 50), who identified the colours as white (melinum), yellow (sil Atticum), red (Sinopis Pontica), and black (atramentum), even places Aetion, Nicomachus, Apelles, and Me1anthius under the same limitation. But it is hardly probable that such important colours as blue and green were dispensed with, even in the primitive art of Polygnotus; much less in the more advanced art of Zeuxis and his contemporaries; and least of all in that of Apelles and Protogenes. The earliest artists, however, may well have used comparatively few colours, and those of the simplest kind, the coloresausteri of Pliny xxxv 30, as contrasted with the colores floridi, such as vermilion, "Armenian blue," "dragon's blood," malachite green, indigo, and purple. These were characteristic of later developments of art, and were so costly that they were not paid for by the artists, but by those who gave them their commissions (ib. 44; Vitruv., vii 5, 8). The pigments known to the ancients were as follows: White. The pigment used in Greece was a "pipe-clay " called melinum (Gr. melias), found in veins in the island of Melos. It was not available for fresco-painting (Pliny, xxxv 49). A white earth of Eretria was employed by Nicomachus and Parrhasius (ib. 38). A commoner pigment was the creta Seliusia of Se1inus in Sicily, used for mural paintings (ib. 49, 194), and the creta anularia, made by mixing chalk with the glass composition worn in the rings of the poor (ib. 48). For fresco-painting they used paroetonium, a hydrated silicate of magnesia, so called from a cliff on the African coast near Egypt (ib. 30), which in Rome was adulterated with creta Cimolia (ib. 36). For other purposes they employed whitelead (Gr. psimythion; Lat. cerussa), an artificial product, the finest sorts of which came from Rhodes, Corinth, and Sparta. It is carbonate of lead, and is still used under various names (e.g. ceruse). It is sold in its crude form as "Chemnitz or Vienna white," and mixed with sulphate of barium in "Dutch, Hamburg, and Venetian white." Yellow. The pigments in use were yellow ochre and orpiment. The best kind of yellow ochre (Gr. ochra; Lat. sil) was found in the mines of Laurium. It was also found in Scyros, Achaia, Gaul, Cappadocia, Cyprus, and Lydia. The Attic variety was first used by Polygnotus and Micon; it was afterwards preferred for the high lights, while the kinds from Scyros and Lydia were reserved for the shadows (ib. xxxiii 158-160, xxxvii 179). It is a diluted brown ochre or hydrated peroxide of iron, being composed of oxygen, water, and iron, mixed with more or less clay. Orpiment, or trisulphide of arsenic (Gr. arsenicon; Lat. auripigmentum), was of two kinds: (1) of a golden yellow, from Mysia on the coast of the Hellespont; and (2) a duller kind, from Pontus and Cappadocia (Dioscorides v 120). It could not be used for frescoes (Pliny xxxv 49). Yellow ochre and orpiment (under the name of "king's or Chinese yellow") are still in use. Red. One of the oldest pigments was ruddle (Gr. miltos; Lat. rubrica). This is a red earth coloured by sesquioxide of iron. In the Homeric age it was used to ornament the bows of ships. In later times the clay from which Greek vases were made owed its brilliant hue to the ruddle of Cape Colias on the Attic coast (Suidas, s.v. Koliados keramees, and Pliny, xxxv 152). The best kind came from Cappadocia, by way of Sinope (hence called Sinopsis Pontica, ib. 31, 36, xxxiii 117), or through Ephesus (Strabo, p. 540). It was also found in North Africa (cicerculum, Pliny, xxxv 32), especially in Egypt and at Carthage; also in Spain and the Balearic Islands, and Lemnos and Ceos. There was a treaty forbidding the export of ruddle from Ceos except only to Athens (Hicks, Gr. Historical Inscriptions, p. 186). It could be artificially produced by calcining yellow ochre, a discovery due to Cydias, a contemporary of Euphranor (Theophr., l.c. 53). Another mineral supplying a red, sometimes a yellow, pigment, was sandarach (Gr. sandarache; Lat. sandaraca), found in Paphlagonia, probably disulphide of arsenic ("realgar"). As this mineral is poisonous, the mortality in the mines was very high. An artificial substitute, called cerussa usta, or usta alone, was therefore generally preferred. This was obtained by burning white lead, a discovery attributed to the painter Nicias (Pliny, xxxv 38). The result is "red lead," i.e. red oxide of lead. There was besides a colour compounded of equal parts of ruddleand sandarach, called sandyx (Pliny, xxxv 40), which is also the designation of a natural pigment of which little is known (Vergil, Ecl. iv 45). Of greater importance than these is cinnabar (Gr. originally kinnabari, afterwards ammion; Lat. minium), found in Spain, especially at Sisapo (Pliny, xxxiii 121). An artificial kind was made at Ephesus from the red sand of the agri Cilbiani. This discovery is assigned to Callias (ib. 113). The name cinnabari was often erroneously given to a red resin, now called dragon's blood, and produced from the calamus draco, a kind of palm growing in the Sunda Islands and elsewhere. The ancients probably imported it from the island of Socotra, as it is a product of the Somali coast on the adjacent mainland of Africa.-A purple pigment (Gr. ostreion; Lat. ostrum, purpurissum) was prepared by mixing creta argentaria with the purple secretion of the murex (see PURPLE); the best kind was made at Puteoli (Pliny xxxv 45). Blue. The pigment used from the earliest times was called in Greek kyanos, in Latin coeruleum, a blue silicate of copper, generally mixed with carbonate of lime (chalk). It is not to be confounded with the modern coeruleum, which is stannate of cobalt. Kyanos was found in small quantities in copper mines, and artificial kinds were made in Scythia, Cyprus, and Egypt (Theophr., l.c. 51, 55). Vitruvius mentions only the artificial coeruleum of Alexandria and Puteoli. The method of manufacturing it was brought from Egypt by Vestorius. It was prepared by heating strongly together sand, flos nitri (carbonate of soda), and filings of copper. This "Egyptian azure" was reproduced by Sir Humphry Davy, by taking fifteen parts by weight of carbonate of soda, twenty of powdered opaque flints, and three of copper filings, and heating them strongly for two hours. The product, when pulverized, supplied a fine deep sky blue. The "Alexandrian frit" is in part a species of artificial lapis lazuli, the colouring matter of which is naturally inherent in a hard siliceous stone (Phil. Trans. Royal Society, 1815, p. 121). It was not available for frescopainting, but could be used for painting in tempera (Pliny, xxxiii 162). The name kyanos was given to a blue mineral, which is to be identified as lapis lazuli, a silicate of sodium, calcium, and aluminium, with a sulphur compound of sodium. This was pounded into a pigment, now known as ultramarine. Kyanos was also the name of the blue carbonate of copper from the copper mines of Cyprus, where lapis lazuli is not to be fouud. Artificial blue pigments were produced by colouring pulverized glass with carbonate of copper. "Armenian blue" (Gr. Armenion) is described by Pliny (xxxv 47) as made from a mineral like chrysocolla (malachite?) in colour, the best kinds being almost as good as coeruleum. It is probably a kind of ultramarine.-Indigo (indicum) was also used. The way in which it is mentioned in Vitruvius (vii 9, 6, and 10, 4) implies that it had been recently introduced. It could not be used for frescoes. Modern experiment has proved that the colouring basis of the blue found in ancient mural paintings is oxide of copper. Cobalt has also been discovered in ancient specimens of transparent blue glass. Green. Several pigments were in use: (1) chrysocolla (or malachite ?, hydrated dicarbonate of copper), pounded and sifted, and mixed with alum and woad (lutum, Pliny, xxxiii 87). Malachite green, sometimes called mountain, or Hungary, green, is also a modern pigment. (2) Creta viridis, the best kind of which came from Smyrna (Vitruv., vii 7, 4). It is a species of ochre containing silica, oxide of iron, magnesia, potash, and water; and is still used under the names of terra verte, verdetta, green earth, Verona green, green bice, or holly green. (3) Verdigris (Gr. ios; Lat. oerugo, ceruca, Vitruv., vii 12, 1). This is an acetate of copper (sometimes crystallized), i.e. a compound of acetic acid and oxide of copper. Malachite green and Verona green have both been traced in ancient paintings. Verdigris has not been found; hence it has been conjectured by Sir H. Davy, that what was originally a diacetate of copper has in the course of centuries changed into carbonate of copper (l.c., p. 112). It is described as "the least durable of copper greens; light fades it in water; damp and foul air first bleach it, and then turn it black" (Standage, Manual of Pigments, p. 21). Black. The pigment (Gr. melan; Lat. atramentum) was almost always produced by combustion. Polygnotus and Micon produced it by drying and burning the lees of wine (Gr. tryginon). Apelles was the discoverer of "ivory black" (elephantinum, Pliny, xxxv 42). A common material was the smoke of burnt resin (our lamp-black), or burnt pine-twigs (Vitruv., vii 10, 1). Pliny (xxxv 41) also mentions a natural black pigment which is difficult to identify; it may be peat, or else oxide of iron, or oxide of manganese. The best black pigment was called atramentum, Indicum (Gr. melan Indikon), doubtless the same as "Chinese black," which originally found its way to the West through India, and thus obtained its alternative name of "Indian ink." But it cannot be used for frescoes, and no traces of it have been found in the mural paintings of antiquity. The black in these paintings is always carbonaceous. Some of the remains of ancient colours and paintings at Pompeii, and in the "Baths of Titus" and of Livia, and elsewhere, were analysed by Sir Humphry Davy (l.c., pp. 97-124: Some Experiments and Observations on the Colours used in Painting by the Ancients). In an earthen vase from the "Baths of Titus" containing a variety of colours, the reds proved to be red oxide of lead, with two iron ochres of different tints, a dull red and a purplish red "nearly of the same tint as prussiate of copper"; all three were mixed with chalk or carbonate of lime (p. 101). The yellows were pure ochres mixed with carbonate of lime, and ochre mixed with red oxide of lead and carbonate of lime (p. 104). The blues were a kind of smalt, with carbonate of lime (p. 106). Of greens there were three varieties; "one, which approached to olive, was the common green earth of Verona; another, which was pale grass-green, had the character of carbonate of copper mixed with chalk; and a third, which was sea-green, was a green combination of copper mixed with blue copper frit" (p. 110). A pale, rose-coloured substance, found in the "Baths of Titus," which in its interior "had a lustre approaching to that of carmine," was found to be either of vegetable or animal origin; if the latter, it was most probably a specimen of Tyrian purple (pp. 113-15). In the Aldobrandini Marriage (fig. 4) the reds and yellows were all ochres; the greens, preparations of copper; the blues, "Alexandrian frit"; the purple, a mixture of red ochre and carbonate of copper; the browns, mixtures of ochres and black; the whites were all carbonates of lime (ib. passim). For further details see Blumner's Technologie, iv 457-518.] [J.E.S.]
BURIAL 6.02%
Greek. The Greeks regarded the burial of the dead as one of the most sacred duties. Its neglect involved an offence against the dead ; for, according to the popular belief, the soul obtained no rest in the realms of the dead, so long as the body remained unburied. It involved, further, an offence against the gods, both of the upper and the lower world. The unburied corpse was an offence to the eyes of the former, while the latter were deprived of their due. Any one finding an unburied corpse was expected at least to throw a handful of dust over it. If a general neglected to provide for the burial of the slain in war, he was deemed guilty of a capital offence. Burial of the dead was not refused even to the enemy, whether Greek or barbarian. It was a violation of the laws of war to refuse to the conquered the truce necessary for this purpose; and if the conquered were unable to fulfil the duty, the responsibility fell upon the conquerors. There were certain circumstances under which, according to Athenian law, children, during the lifetime of their fathers, were held free from all obligations to them; but the obligation to give them burial after death was never cancelled. The usages of the Athenians, and probably of the other Greeks, were as follows. The eyes of the dead having been closed, an obolos was put in the mouth as passage-money for Charon. The body was then washed and anointed by the women of the family, who proceeded to adorn it with fillets and garlands (commonly of ivy), to clothe it in white garments, and lay it out on a couch in the hall, with its face turned to the door. The kinsfolk and friends stood by, mourning; but the laws of Solon forbade all exaggerated expressions of grief. Hired women were sometimes introduced, singing dirges to the accompaniment of the flute. Near the couch were placed painted earthenware vases containing the libations to be afterwards offered. Before the door was a vessel of water, intended for the purification of all who went out. This water might not be brought from another house in which a dead body lay. The corpse was laid out on the day following the death; and on the next day before sunrise (lest the sun should be polluted by the sight) was carried out to the place of burial, attended by kinsmen and friends, who sometimes acted as bearers. This office, however, was usually performed by freedmen or hired assistants; in the case of men of mark, it would be undertaken by young Athenian citizens. The procession was headed by men singing songs of mourning, or women playing the flute; then came the male mourners in garments of black or grey, and with hair cut short; and these were followed by the bier. Behind the bier followed a train of women, including all who were related to the dead as far as to the fifth degree. No other women might attend but those who were more than sixty years of age. In the heroic age the bodies are always burnt, burial being unknown; but in later times burial and burning are found existing side by side, burial being preferred by the pooron the ground of expense. In case of buria, the body was placed in coffin of wood, clay, or stone, or in a chamber in a wall, or in a grave hollowed out in a rock. If burning was resorted to, the corpse was laid on a pyre, which, in the case of rich families, was sometimes very large, splendid and costly. It was kindled by the nearest relative; the mourners threw into the flame locks of hair, and objects of all kinds in which the dead person had taken pleasure during his life. When the fire was extinguished, the relations collected the ashes and put them in an urn, which was set up in a building constructed on a scale large enough for whole families or clans. So, too, in ease of burial, the coffins which belonged to one family or clan were laid together in a common tomb. Near the urns and coffins were placed a variety of vessels and other objects which had been the property of the dead. (Comp. fig. 1.) The funeral was succeeded by a meal partaken of by the mourners in the house of mourning. The virtues of the dead were spoken of, and his faults passed over, to speak evil of the dead being regarded as an impiety. Then came the purification of the house. On the third, ninth, and thirtieth day after the funeral, libations of honey, wine, oil, and milk or water, with other offerings, were brought to the tomb. On the ninth day, in particular, peculiar preparations of food were added. The outward signs of mourning were laid aside at Athens on the thirtieth, at Sparta as early as the twelfth, day after the funeral. The kinsfolk visited the graves at certain seasons of the year, adorned them with garlands and fillets, and brought offerings to them. This was done more especially on the anniversaries of births and deaths, and at the general festival of the dead (Nekysia) in September. (Comp. fig. 2.) After the time of Solon, a public burial was sometimes given at Athens to men of great mark. In time of war, too, the bones of all the citizens who had fallen in the campaigns of the year were sometimes buried together at the public expense in the outer Ceramicus, the most beautiful suburb of the city. On these occasions a funeral oration was delivered by a speaker of mark, chosen by the government. In later times a memorial festival was observed, even in time of peace, in honotir of the dead thus publicly buried. A special service was held annually at Marathon in memory of the heroes who had fallen there, and been buried on the spot in recognition of their valour. (Comp. fig. 3.) The ashes of persons who had died in a foreign country were, if possible, brought home and laid in a tomb. There were cases in which this was impossible, or in which the body could not be removed-if, for instance, the deceased had been lost at sea. Then a kenotaphion, or empty tomb, would be erected to his memory. It was only to very heinous offenders that a tomb in their own country was refused. If a man's guilt was proved after his death, his remains were disinterred and sent across the frontier. As a rule-though there were exceptions, as at Sparta-burial places were situated outside the city, and in the neighbourbood of the great roads. This was also the favourite place for private tombs standing on their own ground, apart from the common cemeteries. The body was generally buried with the feet turned towards the road. Monuments took the form of mounds, pilasters, columns, and flat grave-stones. We often find buildings in the style of temples, with very costly adornments, sculptures, and inscriptions in verse and prose. These inscriptions often give more than the name of the deceased, and contain notices of his life, sometimes with proverbs, sometimes with curses directed against any one violating the tomb and disturbing the rest of its occupants. The violation of a tomb, which was regarded with reverence as a consecrated spot, was a serious offence. One of the most aggravated forms of it was the intrusion into the family sepulchre of a body which had no right to be there.
An immense number of vessels for different purposes is mentioned by the ancients. It is impossible within the present limits to speak of more than a certain number of the most important. In ordinary life much use was made of pottery, which was sometimes ornamented with paintings. (See POTTERY and VASES.) Next to clay, bronze was the favourite material. The precious metals, marble, and other stones, such as porphyry, travertine, alabaster, and onyx, were also used, and the vessels made of these and of bronze were often adorned with carved work. On the employment of glass for this purpose, see GLASS. (Cp. also MURRINA.) It can hardly be said that wood was much in use. Vessels intended to hold wine, oil, salt meat, salt fish, olives, corn, and the like, were generally of clay. The largest of them was the pithos (Gr.) or dolium (Lat.), a butt in the form of a gourd, used for storing oil and wine. This vessel, which was lined with pitch, was often so large that a man could easily get inside it. It was one of these butts in which Diogenes made his abode. They were generally let into the floor of the cellar, and counted as immovable furniture. The Greek bikos and the Roman seria were smaller vats of the same kind, used for storing salt-meats, figs, corn, etc. For purposes of sale and of use, the wine and oil were passed from the dolium into the amphora (Gr. amphoreus), and the cadus (Gr. kados). These were vessels with two handles, and a slim body pointed at the foot. They were either buried up to the middle in the ground, or set up slanting against the wall (fig. 1, nos. 20-23; fig. 2 a, b). The cadi were specially used by the Romans for the storage of Greek wines. Wine and oil were also, especially in the country, put into leather bags (Gr. askos; Lat. uter), as is the case now in the East and in the south of Europe. The bag was made by sewing a number of skins together, and was tapped by untying one of the legs. For drawing and holding water they used the hydria, or kalpis (Lat. urna), carried on the head or shoulders. This was a vessel, with a short neck and large body, often with three handles, two smaller ones for carrying, and one behind for drawing and pouring out (fig. 1, nos. 16, 17). The lagynos (Lat. lagona or lagoena) was a wine-jar. It had a narrow neck, rather a wide mouth, and a handle (fig. 1, no. 34). It was hung up as a sign in front of wine shops, and was put before the guests at table. The lekythos or ampulla was used for oil (fig. 1, no. 33); the alabastron or alabaston (fig. 1, no. 35) for fragrant ointments. This vessel was named from the material of which it was usually made. Both the lekythos and alabastron had narrow necks, so that the liquid ran out in drops. The alabastron was round at the foot, and therefore required a stand to support it. The general term krater (Lat. cratera or creterra) was used to denote the vessels in which wine was mixed with water at mealtimes (fig. 1, no. 25; cp. HILDESHEIM, THE TREASURE OF). They were moderately large, with wide necks and bodies, and two handles. Sometimes they had a pedestal, sometimes they were pointed or round beneath, in which case they required a support (hypokraterion). For ladling and pouring out the wine, spoons were used (trua, trulla, fig. 3), as well as various sorts of cups (cyathus, fig. 1, nos. 10, 13-15). These resembled our tea and coffee cups, but had a much higher handle, rising far above the rim, and contained a definite measure. Drinking-vessels were made in the form of bowls, beakers, and horns. To the first class belonged the flat phiale, or saucer without handle or base, corresponding to the Roman patera generally used in sacrifices (fig. 1, nos. 1, 2); the kymbion, a long deep vessel without handles, so called from its likeness to a boat; and the kylix (Lat. calix) with handle and base (fig. 1, nos. 3 and 8). Among the beakers may be mentioned the skyphos (Lat. scyphus) attributed to Heracles (fig. 1, nos. 4-7). This was a large cup originally of wood, and used by shepherds, sometimes with a round, sometimes with a flat bottom. Another was the kantharos (cantharus) peculiar to Dionysus (fig. 1, no. 12), with a high base and projecting handles. The karchesion (carchesium, fig. 1, no. 11) was tall, slightly contracted at its sides, and with slender handles reaching from the rim to the foot [Macrobius, Saturnalia v 21]: the kiborion (ciborium) resembled the husks of the Egyptian bean. The class of drinking horns included the rhyton (fig. 4), with its mouth shaped like the head of an animal. As may be seen from the names, the Romans borrowed most of their drinking vessels from the Greeks. They were generally fitted with silver; and, during the imperial times often ornamented with finely cut gems. It is unnecessary to enumerate the various vessels used for washing, cooking, and eating, the characteristics of which were not strikingly different from our own. But we may observe that for domestic purposes of all kinds the ancients used basket work of canes, rushes, straw, and leaves, especially palm leaves. The kalathos, made in the form of a lily (fig.5, a and b), was used for holding the wool used in weaving and embroidery: the low kaneon, or basket of round or oval shape (fig. 5, c), for bread and fruit. The Athenian maidens carried kanea on their heads at the Panathenaic procession. (See CANEPHORI.) For baskets of other shapes, see fig. 5, d, e, f.
The GREEKS traced the origin of the healing art to a deified son of the healing god Apollo and a pupil of the sage centaur Chiron; viz. Asclepius, whose sons Podalirius and Machaon, in Homeric poetry, act before Troy both as warriors and as surgeons. The temples of Asclepius, distinguished for their healthy situation on headlands and lofty hills, in the midst of groves and near medicinal springs, were much resorted to as sanatoria, especially those at Epidauros, Cnidus, and Cos, and were for centuries the chief seats of the gradual development of leechcraft. The priests, who styled themselves Asclepiadoe, i.e. descendants of Asclepius, made use of memoranda on the treatment of patients, contained partly in the votive tablets which these hung up in the temple, and partly in the temple chronicles. Thus in course of time they collected a varied stock of experimental maxims, which were handed down from father to son. Some of the Asclepiadae practised their art singly, as travelling physicians, but were bound by oath to teach it to Asclepiadae alone. At the same time there were not wanting physicians who, standing outside of that close corporation, practised medicine independently as a means of living; but they were less highly regarded than the Asclepiadae, and never achieved a higher standing till the healing art had burst its narrow limits and had expanded into a free science. This was brought about mainly by the influence of philosophy, which, beginning with Pythagoras, himself a proficient in the art, and continuing chiefly under Empedocles and Democritus, drew medicine within the range of her researches. Into literature the healing art was introduced by HIPPOCRATES, an Asclepiad of Cos, born about 460 B.C., who combined the hereditary wisdom of his race with the spirit of speculative philosophy. Besides physicians who were paid for their trouble by their respective patients, we find as early as the 6th century, at Athens chiefly, but in other places too, public physicians appointed and remunerated by the State. Some went to their patients' houses, others had rooms where they were consulted by their patients. They often kept assistants, both free and slaves; and they manufactured their own medicines. The style of living adopted by many physicians points to respectable incomes: Democedes, a public physician at Athens in the 6th century, had a salary of 100 minae (about £333). At Alexandria, thanks to the munificence of the Ptolemies, medicine made considerable progress, chiefly through ERASISTRAUTUS and HEROPHILUS, the two men who knew most about human anatomy. A pupil of the latter, PHILINUS of Cos (about 250), in opposition to the Dogmatic school set up by the sons of Hipocrates and dominated by philosophic theories, founded an Empirical school, which relied solely on tradition and on individual experience. In 219 B.C., when a member of that school, the Peloponnesian ARCHAGATHUS, set up a surgery in a booth (taberna) assigned him by the Senate, and was admitted to the citizenship, the Greek art of healing gained a footing among the ROMANS. Yet the physician practising for pay did not enjoy the same consideration as in Greece; Roman citizens fought shy of a profession which, respectable as it might be, was left almost entirely in the hands of foreigners, freedmen, and slaves. Romans of rank usually kept a freedman or slave as family doctor, libertus (or servus) medicus. A considerable part was played at Rome by Cicero's friend ASCLEPIADES of Prusa, whose system, mainly directed to practical skill, received its theoretic justification from the school of Methodici founded by THEMISON of Laodicea (about 63 B.C.). When Caesar had granted the citizenship to foreign physicians as well as teachers, not only did the former flock in large numbers to Rome from Greece, Egypt, and the East, but many natives adopted the medical profession, as CELSUS in the reign of Tiberius, whose treatise, De Medicina must be regarded as the chief contribution made to the science by the Romans. To the physicians at Rome, of whose receipts a notion may be formed from the statement that a certain Stertinius had an income of £6,500 from his town practice, Augustus granted immunity from all public duties, a privilege afterwards extended to the provinces. As soon as the Empire was fully established, physicians with a fixed salary began to be appointed at the court, in the army, for the gladiators, and in the service of various communities. Antoninus Pius, in the 2nd century A.D., arranged, for the province of Asia in the first instance, that physicians should be appointed by the town authorities, five in small towns, seven in those of moderate size, and ten in capitals; they were to be remunerated by the town, exempt from all burdens, and free to carry on a private practice besides. There was no real supervision of physicians on the part of the State, and the various schools and nationalities were at perfect liberty to practise. Under the Empire the art began to divide, into separate branches, and in large towns, especially Rome, the several specialties had their representatives. Thus, in addition to doctors for internal cares, the medici proper, there were surgeons (chirurgi or vulnerarii), oculists, dentists, aurists; physicians male or female, for diseases of women; also for ruptures, fistula, etc.; further iatroliptoe, probably at first mere assistants who rubbed in the embrocations, etc., afterwards a species of doctors. The physicians at Rome, as in Greece, supplied their own medicines, and turned them to profit by crying up the dearest drugs, of which they kept the secret, as the best. The medicines were provided with a label setting forth the name of the remedy and that of its inventor, the complaints it was good for and directions for use. We get a fair notion of these labels from the dies used by Roman oculists to mark the names of their eye-salve on the boxes in which they were sold; a good many of these have been preserved. [C. I. Grotefend, Die Stampe der rom. Augenarzte; there are several in the British Museum, together with two very small inscribed vases such as were used to contain the eye-salves.] The chief authority for the materia medica of those times is the work of DIOSCORIDES of the let Century A.D. About the same time the school of Methodici, whose principal representative was SORANUS (about 110), was confronted by a New Dogmatic school, otherwise called the Pneumatic school, founded by the Cilician ATHENAeUS. To the Electic school, founded towards the end of the lot century by AGATHINUS of Sparta, belongs more especially the Cappadocian writer ARETAeUS. The most renowned of the later physicians is GALEN (Galenos) in the 2nd century, who in his numerous writings embraced the whole range of the medical knowledge of antiquity. Medicine made no further progress in ancient times. Of the encyclopaedic works of OREIBASIUS and AETIUS (at the end of the 4th century and beginning of the 6th), the value lies in their extracts from older writings. Among the Romans SCRIBONIUS LARGUS (in the middle of the 1st century) and SERENUS SAMMONICUS (at the beginning of the 3rd) wrote on Remedies, the latter in verse. We have, lastly, to Mention CELIUS AURELIANUS, the translator of works by Soranus (in the 5th century), and VEGETIUS, the author of a detailed book on veterinary science (in the 4th century).
In ancient times temples were regarded as the dwelling-places of the gods to whom they were dedicated. They might contain an image or not, but the latter case was exceptional. As they were not houses of prayer intended for the devotion of a numerous community, they were usually of very limited extent. There were, however, temples of considerable size, among which was that of Artemis in Ephesus, 438 feet long by 226 broad; that of Hera in Samos; that begun by Pisistratus and finished by Hadrian, and dedicated to Zeus Olympius in Athens (see OLYMPIEUM); and the temple of Zeus of Agrigeutum, which was never quite completed. All of these were almost as large as the first-mentioned. Only temples like that at Eleusis, in which the celebration of mysteries took place, were intended to accommodate a larger number of people. The great sacrifices and banquets shared by all the people were celebrated in the court of the temple (Gr. peribolos), which included the altars for sacrifice, and was itself surrounded by a wall with only one place of entrance. It was a feature common to all temples that they were not built directly on the surface of the ground, but were raised on a sub-structure which was mounted by means of an uneven number of steps, so that people were able as a good omen to put their right foot on the first and last step. The usual shape of Greek temples was an oblong about twice as long as wide, at the front and back of which was a pediment or gable-roof (Gr.aetos or aetoma; Lat. fastigium). Round temples with dome-shaped roofs were quite the exception. The principal part of the temple was the chamber containing the image of the god. This stood on a pedestal, which was often placed in a small niche, and usually stood facing the east, opposite folding-doors which always opened outwards. Before the image stood an altar used for unbloody sacrifices. This chamber, called in Greek naos, and in Latin cella, generally received its light through the door alone, but sometimes there was also an opening in the roof. There were also temples designated hypoethral (from hypaithros, "in the open air");1 in these there was no roof to the middle chamber of the cella, which was separated from the lateral portions by one or more rows of pillars on each side. Generally each temple belonged to only one god; but sometimes a temple was regarded as the dwelling-place of several deities, either those who were worshipped in groups, as the Muses, or those who were supposed to stand in close alliance or other relationship to each other, such as the twins Apollo and Artemis; and Apollo, as leader of the Muses, together with the Muses themselves. Frequently only one god had an image and altar in the chief cella, while others were worshipped in adjoining chapels. Lastly, there were double temples, with two celloe built in opposite directions. (See ARCHITECTURE, fig. 13.) Many temples had, besides the cella, a kind of "holy of holies" (adyton or megaron) which was only entered by the priests, and only by them at certain times, and which was sometimes under the ground. Usually an open porch or vestibule (pronaos), with pillars in front, stood before the cella, and in it were exposed the dedicatory offerings. There was often also an inner chamber behind the image (opisthodomos) which served for various purposes, the valuables and money belonging to the temple being often kept there. It was surrounded by a wall, and the door was well secured by locks. The various kinds of temples are usually distinguished according to the number and arrangement of the pillars. Thus: (1) A temple in antis (fig. 1) is one in which the pronaos (sometimes also the opisthodomos) was formed by the prolongation of the side walls of the temple (Lat. antoe; Gr. parastades) and by two columns placed between the terminal pilasters of the antoe. (2) Prostylos, with the columns in front (fig. 2), is an epithet descriptive of a temple, the front of whose pronaos was formed in all its breadth by a row of columns quite separate from the walls, and with the columns at the extremities standing in front of the antoe. (3) Amphiprostylos (fig. 3) describes a temple with the columns arranged as in (2) at the back as well as in the front. (4) Peripteros (fig. 4) describes a temple surrounded on all sides by a colonnade supporting the architrave. This is the type most frequently employed by the Greeks. (See PARTHENON, cuts 1 and 2.) (5) Pseudoperipteros ("false peripteros") is an epithet of a temple in which the architrave appears to be carried by pilasters or by "engaged" columns in the walls of the cella. This form is seldom used by the Greeks, but often by the Romans. (6) Dipteros (fig. 5) describes a temple surrounded by two ranges of columns. (7) Pseudodipteros ("false dipteros," fig. 6). A temple surrounded with only a single range of columns, but at such a distance that they correspond in position to the exterior range of the dipteral temple. According to the number of columns in front, which must always be an even number, since the entrance was in the middle, it is usual to distinguish temples as tetra-, hexa-, octa-, deca-, or dodeca-stylos (with 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12 columns). The number of columns along each side was usually one more than twice the number along the front, but this was not the invariable rule. For the architrave and for the columns of the different orders, see pp. 57, 58. The frieze resting on the architrave, and (in the Doric order) the metopes in particular (q.v.), as well as the two pediments (Gr. tympana), were decorated with sculptures, and these sculptures, as well as the walls of the temple often had a more life-like and more varied appearance given to them by appropriate colouring. The coping of the roof, as well as the angles of the pediment, were ornamented by acroteria, which consisted of statues, vases, or anthemia (groups of flowers and leaves; cp. cut to AeGINETAN SCULPTURES). In the plan of their temples the ROMANS originally followed the Etruscans (cp.TEMPLUM, below). The ground-plan of the Etruscan temple was nearly a square, the ratio of the depth to frontage being 6:5. Half of the space was taken up by the cella, and the rest by the columns. The architrave was of wood, and without any special frieze. The great temple with three celloe on the Roman Capitol was built in the Etruscan style, the middle and largest cella being sacred to Jupiter, and the smaller ones on either side to Minerva and Juno. (Cp. JUPITER.) Under Greek influence the different forms of the Greek temple began to be imitated at Rome, the most prevalent type being that described as prostylos, which lent itself most easily to the requirements of a templum in the strict sense of the term. An important alteration in the Greek form of temple was brought about by the introduction of vaulted arches or groined ceilings, which were seldom used by the Greeks, and never on a large scale, but were brought to great perfection by the Romans. They took the form of a cylindrical vaulting in the case of a quadrangular cella, and a dome in the case of the round temples, which were frequent with the Romans. The two principal forms of the latter are (1) the monopteros, which consisted of a single circle of columns standing on a platform mounted by steps and supporting the columns which bore a dome on a circular architrave. (2) The peripteros, with the same arrangement of columns, but with a circular cella in the middle which was covered by a dome rising from the surrounding colonnade. In a third variety, of which we have an example in the Pantheon (q.v.), the circular body of the building is not surrounded by columns externally, but only provided on one side with an advanced portico.
Type: Standard
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