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Form: of Paros.
One of the most celebrated Greek sculptors. With Praxiteles, he stood at the head of the later Attic school, in the first half and towards the middle of the 4th century. He was also an architect, and in his younger days superintended the reconstruction of the temple of Athene at Tegea, which had been burnt down in 394 B.C. The groups in the two pediments, representing the chase of the Calydonian boar and the combat of Achilles and Telephus, were executed by his hand, or at any rate under his direction. [Pausanias viii 45 §§ 4-7. The exact site of this temple was ascertained in 1879, and fragments of the sculptures in the pediments were discovered during the excavations. They include the heads of two youthful heroes, and the mutilated head of the Calydonian boar.] In conjunction with other artists he executed in 350 the designs on the sepulchre of Mausolus. (See MAUSOLEUM.) His most important work, a group with numerous figures, representing Achilles being conducted to the island of Leuce, and including Poseidon, Thetis, Achilles, and Tritons and Nereids riding on sea monsters, afterwards ornamented the temple of Neptune neir the Circus Flaminius in Rome [Pliny, N. H.xxxvi 26]. In Pliny's time [xxxvi 28] there was doubt as to whether the group of Niobids (see NIOBE) in the Roman temple of Apollo Sosianus was the work of Scopas or of Praxiteles. The number of single statues, especially of gods and demigods, by his hand, which were known to the ancients, was very great. Among these was the Apollo placed by Augustus in the temple on the Palatine, clothed in a long robe, with a crown of bayleaves on his head, sweeping the chords of his lyre [Pliny, xxxvi 25; Propertius, ii 31, ll. 5, 16]; the colossal seated figure of Ares in the temple built by Brutus Gallaecus near the Circus Flaminius [Pliny, § 26]; the nude statue of Aphrodite in the same temple [ib.]; and the frenzied Maesnad [Anthologia Groeca i 74, 75; iii 57,3]. The influence of some of these works has been traced in copies and imitations that are still extant. [Thus, the Maenad is supposed to have supplied the type for such representations as that exemplified in the gem of Agave (q.v.) with the head of Pentheus.]
Type: Standard
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