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LYSICRATES, MONUMENT OF 100.00%
One of the most graceful relics of Greek antiquity, raised in memory of a victory in the dramatic contests won by Lysicrates when he was choregus (see CHORUS) in B.C. 334. From a slender square basement, [12 feet high by 9 feet wide) rises a small but elegant round temple; six engaged Corinthian columns surround its circular wall and support the entablature, on the frieze of which there is a delicate and life-like representation of a scene in the legend of Dionysus (the changing of the Tyrrhenian pirates into dolphins, for having by mistake laid hands on the god). Over the entablature is a flat dome made of a single block of marble, and from the centre of the roof rises a finial of acanthus leaves, formerly crowned by the tripod which was the prize of victory. The monument is thirty-five feet high, and the diameter of the inside is about six feet. The reliefs of the frieze are of great value, as they belong to the new Attic school of Seopas and Praxiteles According to a tradition (which is without foundation) that Demosthenes used to study here, the monument used to be called the Lantern of Demosthenes. [This name was familiar to Michael Akominatos, in the second half of the 12th century; Gregorovius, Mirabilien der Stadt Athen, p. 357. The true name was first restored by Transfeldt about 1674, id. Athen im Mittelalter, ii 357.]
 
LANTERN OF DEMOSTHENES 100.00%
A mediaeval name for the monument of Lysicrates (q.v.).
 
CHORUS 15.41%
the word choros in Greek meant a number of persons who performed songs and dances at religious festivals. When. the drama at Athens was developed from the dithyrambic choruses, the chorus was retained as the chief element in the Dionysiac festival. (See TRAGEDY.) With the old dramatists the choral songs and dances much preponderated over the action proper. As the form of the drama developed, the sphere of the chorus was gradually limited, so that it took the comparatively subordinate position which it occupies in the extant tragedies and comedies. The function of the chorus represented by its leader was to act as an ideal public, more or less connected with the dramatis personae. It might consist of old men and women or of maidens. It took an interest in the occurrences of the drama, watched the action with quiet sympathy, and sometimes interfered, if not to act, at least to advise, comfort, exhort, or give warning. At the critical points of the action, as we should say in the entr'actes, it performed long lyrical pieces with suitable action of dance and gesture. In the better times of the drama these songs stood in close connexion with the action; but even in Euripides this connexion is sometimes loose, and with the later tragedians, after the time of Agathon, the choral performance sank to a mere intermezzo. The style of the chorus was distinguished from that of the dialogue partly by its complex lyrical form, partly by its language, in which it adopted a mixture of Attic and Doric forms. The proper place of the chorus was on the orchestra, on different parts of which, after a solemn march, it remained until the end of the piece drawn up, while standing, in a square. During the action it seldom left the orchestra to re-appear, and it was quite exceptional for it to appear on the stage. As the performance went on the chorus would change its place on the orchestra; as the piece required it would divide into semi-choruses and perform a variety of artistic movements and dances. The name of Emmeleia was given to the tragic dance, which, though not lacking animation, had a solemn and measured character. The comedy had its burlesque and often indecent performance called Cordax; the satyric drama its Sicinnis, representing the wanton movements of satyrs. The songs of the choruses, too, had their special names. The first ode performed by the entire body was called parodos; the pieces intervening between the parts of the play, stasima; the songs of mourning, in which the chorus took part with the actors, commoi. The number of the members (choreutai) was, in tragedies, originally twelve, and after Sophocles fifteen. This was probably the number allowed in the satyric drama; the chorus in the Old Comedy numbered twenty-four. The business of getting the members of the chorus together, paying them, maintaining them during the time of practice, and generally equipping them for performance, was regarded as a Liturgia, or public service, and devolved on a wealthy private citizen called a Choregus, to whom it was a matter of considerable trouble and expense. We know from individual instances that the cost of tragic chorus might run up to 30 minae (about £100), of a comic chorus to 16 minae (about £53). If victorious, the Choregus received a crown and a finely wrought tripod. This he either dedicated, with an inscription, to some deity as a memorial of his triumph, or set up on a marble structure built for the purpose in the form of a temple, in a street named the Street of Tripods, from the number of them monuments which were erected there. One of these memorials, put up by a certain Lysicrates in 335 B.C., still remains. (See LYSICRATES.) After the Peloponnesian war the prosperity of Athens declined so much that it was often difficult to find a sufficient number of choregi to supply the festivals. The State therefore had to take the business upon itself. But many choruses came to an end altogether. This was the case with the comic chorus in the later years of Aristophanes; and the poets of the Middle and New Comedy accordingly dropped the chorus. This explains the fact that there is no chorus in the Roman comedy, which is an imitation of the New Comedy of the Greeks. In their tragedies, however, imitated from Greek originals, the Romans retained the chorus, which, as the Roman theatre had no orchestra, was placed on the stage, and as a rule performed between the acts, but sometimes during the performance as well.
 
ARCHITECTURE: 6.18%
of the Greeks. Of the earliest efforts of the Greeks in architecture, we have evidence in the so-called Cyclopean Walls surrounding the castles of kings in the Heroic Age at Tiryns, Argos, Mycenae (fig. 1), and elsewhere. They are of enormous thickness, some being constructed of rude colossal blocks, whose gaps are filled up with smaller stones; while others are built of stones more or less carefully hewn, their interstices exactly fitting into each other. Gradually they begin to show an approximation to buildings with rectangular blocks. The gates let into these walls are closed at the top either by the courses of stone jutting over from each side till they touch, or by a long straight block laid over the two leaning side-posts. Of the latter kind is the famous Lion-gate at Mycenae, so-called from the group of two lions standing with their forefeet on the broad pedestal of a pillar that tapers rapidly downwards, and remarkable as the oldest specimen of Greek sculpture. The sculpture is carved on a large triangular slab that fills an opening left in the wall to lighten the weight on the lintel (fig. 2). Among the most striking relies of this primitive age are the so-called Thesauroi, or treasuries (now regarded as tombs) of ancient dynasties the most considerable being the Treasure-house of Atreus at Mycenae. Theusual form of these buildings is that of a circular chamber vaulted over by the horizontal courses approaching from all sides till they meet. Thus the vault is not a true arch (fig. 3). The interior seems originally to have been covered with metal plates, thus agreeing with Homer's descriptions of metal as a favourite ornament of princely houses. An open-air building preserved from that age is the supposed Temple of Hera on Mount Ocha (now Hagios Elias) in Euboea, a rectangle built of regular square blocks, with walls more than a yard thick, two small windows, and a door with leaning posts and a huge lintel in the southern side-wall. The sloping roof is of hewn flagstones resting on the thickness of the wall and overlapping each other; but the centre is left open as in the hypaethral temples of a later time. From the simple shape of a rectangular house shut in by blank walls we gradually advance to finer and richer forms, formed especially by the introduction of columns detached from the wall and serving to support the roof and ceiling. Even in Homer we find columns in the palaces to support the halls that surround the courtyard, and the ceiling of the banqueting-room. The construction of columns (see ARCHITECTURE, ORDERS OF) received its artistic development first from the Dorians after their migration into the Peloponnesus about 1000 B.C., next from the Ionians, and from each in a form suitable to their several characters. If the simple serious character of the Dorians speaks in the Doric Order, no less does the lighter, nimbler, and more showy genius of the Ionian race come out in the Order named after them. By about 650 B.C. the Ionic style was flourishing aide by side with the Doric. As it was in the construction of Temples (q.v.) that architecture had developed her favourite forms, all other public buildings borrowed their artistic character from the temple. The structure and furniture of private houses (see HOUSE), were, during the best days of Greece, kept down to the simplest forms. About 600 B.C., in the Greek islands and on the coast of Asia Minor, we come across the first architects known to us by name. It was then that Rhaecus and Theodorus of Samos, celebrated likewise as inventors of casting in bronze, built the great temple of Hera in that island, while Chersiphron of Cnosus in Crete, with his son Metagenes, began the temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus, one of the seven wonders of the world, which was not finished till 120 years after. In Greece Proper a vast temple to Zeus was begun at Athens in the 6th century B.C. (see OLYMPIEUM), and two more at Delphi and Olympia, one by the Corinthian Spintharus, the other by the Elean Libon. Here, and in the Western colonies the Doric style still predominated everywhere. Among the chief remains of this period, in addition to many ruined temples in Sicily (especially at Selinus and Agrigentum), should be mentioned the Temple of Poseidon. at Paestum (Poseidonia) in South Italy, one of the best preserved and most beautiful relies of antiquity (figs. 4, 5). The patriotic fervour of the Persian Wars created a general expansion of Greek life, in which Architecture and the sister art of Sculpture were not slow to take a part. In these departments, as in the whole onward movement, a central position was taken by Athens, whose leading statesmen, Cimon and Pericles, lavished the great resources of the State at once in strengthening and beautifying the city. During this period arose a group of masterpieces that still astonish us in their ruins, some in the forms of a softened Doric, others in the Ionic style, which had now found its way into Attica, and was here fostered into nobler shapes. The Doric order is represented by the Temple of Theseus (fig. 6), the Propylaea built by Mnesicles, the Parthenon, a joint production of Ictinus and Callicrates; while the Erechtheum is the most brilliant creation of the Ionic order in Attica. Of the influence of Attic Architecture on the rest of Greece we have proof, especially in the Temple of Apollo at Bassae in South-Western Arcadia, built from the design of the above-mentioned Ictinus. The progress of the Drama to its perfection in this period led to a corresponding improvement in the building of Theatres (q.v.). A stone theatre was begun at Athens even before the Persian Wars; and the Odeum of Pericles served similar purposes. How soon the highest results were achieved in this department, when once the fundamental forms had thus been laid down in outline at Athens, is shown by the theatre at Epidaurus, a work of Polyclitus, unsurpassed, as the ancients testify, by any later theatres in harmony and beauty. Another was built at Syracuse, before B.C. 420. Nor is it only in the erection of single buildings that the great advance then made by architecture shows itself. In laying out new towns, or parts of towns, men began to proceed on artistic principles, an innovation due to the sophist Hippodamus of Miletus. In the 4th century B.C., owing to the change wrought in the Greek mind by the Peloponnesian War, in place of the pure and even tone of the preceding period, a desire for effect became more and more general, both in architecture and sculpture. The sober Doric style fell into abeyance and gave way to the Ionic, by the side of which a new Order, the Corinthian, said to have been invented by the sculptor Callimachus, with its more gorgeous decorations, became increasingly fashionable. In the first half of the 4th century arose what the ancients considered the largest and grandest temple in the Peloponnesus, that of Athena at Tegea, a work of the sculptor and architect Scopas. During the middle of the century, another of the "seven wonders," the splendid tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus was constructed (see MAUSOLEUM). Many magnificent temples arose in that time. In Asia Minor, the temple at Ephesus, burnt down by Herostratus, was rebuilt by Alexander's bold architect Deinocrates. In the islands the ruins of the temple of Athena at Priene, of Apollo at Miletus, of Dionysus at Teos, and others, even to this day offer a brilliant testimony to their former magnificence. Among Athenian buildings of that age the Monument of Lysicrates (q.v.) is conspicuous for its graceful elegance and elaborate development of the Corinthian style. In the succeeding age Greek architecture shows its finest achievements in the building of theatres, especially those of Asiatic towns, in the gorgeous palaces of newly-built royal capitals, and in general in the luxurious completeness of private buildings. As an important specimen of the last age of Attic architecture may also be mentioned the Tower of the Winds (q.v.) at Athens.
 
ARCHITECTURE, ORDERS OF 5.69%
In Greek architecture there were three orders of columns: the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. (I) Doric: Figures 1 and 2 give instances of the Doric style from the temple at Paestum and the Parthenon at Athens. The Doric column consists (a) of the shaft, which increases in diameter almost invisibly up to about one-quarter of its height, and diminishes slightly after that point. It has no base, but rests immediately on the stylobate. It is surrounded with semi-circular flutings, meeting each other at a sharp angle. These were chiselled with a cedar-wood tool after the separate drums had been put together. (b) The capital (Lat. capitulum). This consists of three parts, (a) the hypotrachelion, or neck of the column, a continuation of the shaft, but separated by an indentation from the other drums. It is wider at the top than at the bottom, and is generally ornamented with several parallel and horizontal rings. (b) The echinus, a circular moulding or cushion, which widens greatly towards the top. (c) The abax or abacus, a square slab supporting the architrave or episylion. The height of the shaft is usually 5 1/2 times, the distance between the columns 1 1/2 times the diameter of the base of the column. The architrave is a quadrangular beam of stone, reaching from pillar to pillar. On this again rests the frieze, zophoros, so called from the metopes which are adorned with sculptures in relief. These metopes are square spaces between the triglyphs: the triglyphs are surfaces out into three concave grooves, two whole grooves in the centre, and two half grooves at the sides. One is placed over each pillar, and one between each pair of pillars. The entablature is completed by a projecting cornice, a slab crowned with a simple heading-course, the lower surface of which is ornamented with sloping corbels (Gk. stagones, Lat. mutuli). (II) Ionic Columns. An instance is given in fig. 3 from the temple on the Ilissus at Athens. These are loftier than the Doric, their height being 8 1/2-9 1/2 times the diameter of the, lower part. The enlargement of the lower part is also less than in the Doric columns, the distance between each column greater (two diameters), the flutings (generally 24 in number) deeper, and separated by small flat surfaces. The Ionic column has a base consisting of a square slab (plinthos), and several cushion like supports separated by grooves. The capital, again, is more artistically developed. The neck, instead of fluting, has five leaves worked in relief. The echinus is very small and ornamented with an egg pattern. Over it, instead of the abacus, is a Four-cornered cushion ending before and behind in spiral volutes, supporting a narrow square slab, which is also adorned with an egg pattern. The architrave is divided into three bands, projecting one above the other, and upon it rises, in an uninterrupted surface, the frieze, adorned with reliefs, continuously along its whole length. Finally, the cornice is composed of different parts. (III) The Corinthian column (fig. 4, from the monument of Lysicrates, at Athens). The base and shaft are identical with the Ionic, but the capital takes the form of an open calix formed of acanthus leaves. Above this is another set of leaves, from between which grow stalks with small leaves, rounded into the form of volutes. On this rests a small abacus widening towards the top, and on this again the entablature, which is borrowed from the Ionic order. On the human figures employed instead of columns to support the entablature, see ATLAS, CANEPHORI, CARYATIDES. The Romans adopted the Greek styles of column, but not always in their pure form. They were fondest of the Corinthian, which they laboured to enrich with new and often excessive ornamentation. For instance, they crowned the Corinthian capital with the Ionic, thus forming what is called the Roman or composite capital. The style known as Tuscan is a degenerate form of the Doric. The Tuscan column has a smooth shaft, in height=7 diameters of the lower part, and tapering up to three-quarters of its lower dimensions. Its base consists of two parts, a circular plinth, and a cushion of equal height. The capital is formed of three parts of equal height. In other styles, too, the Romans sometimes adopted the smooth instead of the fluted shaft, as for instance in the Pantheon (fig. 5). Single columns were sometimes erected by the Greeks, and in imitation of them by the Romans, as memorials to distinguished persons. A good example is the Columna Rostrata, or column with its shaft adorned with the beaks of ships, in the Roman Forum. This was set up in commemoration of the naval victory of Duilius over the Carthaginians (261 B.C.). Among the columns which survive, the most magnificent is that of Trajan, erected in the Forum of Trajan 113 A.D. It rises on a quadrangular pediment to the height of 124 feet; its diameter below is about 10 feet, and a little less in the upper part. An interior spiral staircase of 185 steps leads to the summit. The shaft, formed of twenty-three drums of marble, is adorned with a series of reliefs, 3 feet 3 inches high and 200 feet long, in a series of twenty-two spirals. They represent scenes in Trajan's Dacian campaigns, and contain 2,500 human figures, with animals, engines, etc. On a cylindrical pedestal at the summit there once stood a gilded statue of the emperor, which, since the year 1587, has made way for a bronze figure of St. Peter. A similar column is that of Marcus Aurelius, 122 feet high, on the Piazza Colonna. Since 1589 the statue of St. Paul has been substituted for that of the emperor. The reliefs, in twenty spirals, represent events in the emperor's war with the Marcomanni.
 
SCULPTURE 2.78%
The origin of painting as an art in Greece is connected with definite historical personages. That of sculpture is lost in the mists of legend. It was regarded as an art imparted to men by the gods; for such is the thought expressed in the assertion that the earliest statues fell from heaven. The first artist spoken of by name, DAeDALUS, who is mentioned as early as Homer, is merely a personification of the most ancient variety of art, that which was employed solely in the construction of wooden images of the gods. This is clearly proved by his name (= "the cunning artificer"). To him were attributed a series of inventions certainly separated far from each other in respect of time and place, and embracing important steps in the development of wood-carving and in the representation of the human form. Thus he is said to have invented the saw, the axe, the plummet, the gimlet, and glue [Pliny,N. H. vii 198], to have been the first to open the eyes in the statues of the gods, to separate the legs, and to give freer motion to the arms, which had before hung close to the body [Diodorus iv 76]. After him the early school of sculptors at Athens, his reputed native city, is sometimes called the school of Daedalus [Pausanias v 25 § 13]. During a long residence in Crete he is said to have instructed the Cretans in making wooden images (xoana) of the gods [ib. viii 53 § 8]. The invention of modelling figures in clay, from which sculpture in bronze originated, is assigned to the Sicyonian potter BÜTÄDES at Corinth [Pliny, xxxv 151]. The art of working in metals must have been known early in Greece, as appears from the Homeric poems [esp. ll. xviii 468-608, "the shield of Achilles "]. An important step in this direction was due to GLAUCUS of Chios, who in the 7th century B.C. invented the soldering of iron [Herodotus, i 25; Pausanias, x 16 § 1], and the softening and hardening of metal by fire and water [Plutarch, De Defectu Orac. 47]. The discovery of bronze-founding is attributed to RHOECUS and THEODORUS of Samos about 580 [Pausanias, viii 14 § 8]. The high antiquity of Greek sculpture in stone may be inferred from a work of the very earliest period of Greek civilization, the powerful relief of two upright lions over the gate of the castle at Mycenae. (See ARCHITECTURE, fig. 2.) Sculpture in marble, as well as in gold and ivory, was much advanced by two famous "pupils of Daedalus," DIPOENUS and SCYLLIS of Crete, who were working in Argos and Sicyon about 550 B.C. [Pliny, xxxvi §§ 9, 14; Pausanias, ii 15 § 1, 22 § 5], and founded and influential school of art in the Peloponnesus. [This school included Hegylus and Theocles (Pausanias, vi 19 § 8, 17 § 2); Dontas and Dorycleidas (ib., vi 19 § 12, v 17 § 1); Clearchus of Rhegium (iii 17 § 6); Tectaeus and Augelion (ii 32 § 5, ix 35 § 3).] Among their works are recorded not only statues of gods, but also of heroes, often united in large groups. Some conception of the artistic productions of this period may be, formed from scattered monuments still extant, originating in different parts of the Greek world; e.g. the rude and more primitive metopes of Selinus Sicily (fig. 1); the statues of Apollo from the island of Thera and from Tenea, near Corinth (fig. 2); the reliefs on the Harpy Monument from the acropolis of Xanthus in Lycia (figs. 3 and 4), etc. These works, in spite of their archaic stiffness, show an effort after individual and natural expression, though the position of the foot in striding, with the sole completely touching the ground, and the unemotional and stony smile on the mask-like face, are common to all. Even after Greek sculpture had mastered the representation of the human body, not only at rest, but also in the most violent movement, it still continued unable to overcome the lifeless rigidity of facial expression. This is seen in the Trojan battle-scenes (date about 480) on the Aeginetan pediments. Here the figures are represented in every variety of position in the fight, and depicted, not indeed with any ideality, but with perfect mastery even to the smallest detail; whereas the faces are entirely destitute of any expression appropriate to their situation. (See fig. 5, and the (West Pediment under AeGINETAN SCULPTURES.) The athletic forms in which the Aeginetan heroes are represented indicate another important extension of the sphere of artistic representation. From about 544 B.C. it had become usual to erect statues of the victors in the athletic contests, Olympia especially abounding in these. [Ol. 59; Pausanias, vi 18 § 7 ; the statues there mentioned are of wood.] By this innovation the art was freed from the narrow limits to which it had been confined by the traditions of religion, and led on to a truer imitation of nature. In this department the school of Aegina was specially active, attaining its highest perfection in the bronze statuary of GLAUCIAS, CALLON, and above all ONÄTÄS (500-460). Sculpture in bronze flourished simultaneously in the Peloponnesus at Sicyon under CÄNÄCHUS [for a supposed copy of his Apollo see CANACHUS] and his brother ARISTÖCLES, the founder of a school which lasted long after, and at Argos under AGELADAS, the teacher of Phidias, Myron, and Polyolitus. The transition to the period of the finest art is represented by CÄLÄMIS of Athens, PYTHÄGÖRÄS of Rhegium, and especially MYRON, another Athenian, in whom the art attained the highest truth to nature, with perfect freedom in the representation of the human body, and was thus prepared for the development of ideal forms. This last step was taken at Athens, in the time of Pericles, by PHIDIAS. In his creations, particularly in his statues of the gods, whether in bronze or in ivory and gold, he succeeded in combining perfect beauty of form with the most profound ideality, fixing for ever the ideal type for Zeus and Athene, the two deities who were pre-eminently characterized by intellectual dignity. (See ATHENE, ZEUS, and PARTHENON, figs. 4 and 5.) For one of his heroic subjects see fig. 7. Of the pupils of Phidias the two who worked most nearly in the same spirit were AGÖRÄCRITUS and ALCAMENES, the author of the sculpture of the western pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, part of which still remains. The perfection of Attic art at this time can be realized when we consider that, with all their beauty of execution, the extant marble sculptures of the Parthenon, Theseum, Erechtheum, and the temple of "Wingless Victory" must be regarded as mere productions of the ordinary workshop [as compared with the lost masterpieces of Phidias]. The school of Phidias had rivals in the naturalistic school which followed Myron, including his son LYCIUS and CRESILAS of Cydonia. [For a supposed copy of his Pericles, see CRESILAS.] Independent of both schools stood PAeONIUS of Mende, whose Victory, as well as part of his sculptures on the east pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, are still extant [see PAeONIUS and OLYMPIAN GAMES (fig. 1)]; and CALLIMÄCHUS, the "inventor" of the Corinthian order of architecture [Vitruvius, iv 1 § 10] and of the application of the auger to working in marble [Pausanias, i 26 § 6]. Another school of sculpture in opposition to that of Athens was founded at Argos by Phidias' younger contemporary POLYCLITUS, whose colossal gold and ivory statue of the Argive Hera directly challenged comparison with the works of Phidias in its materials, its ideality, and its artistic form, and established the ideal type of that goddess. He mainly devoted himself, however, to work in bronze, the department in which Argos had long been pre-eminent; and made it his aim to exhibit the perfection of beauty in the youthful form (fig. 8). He also established a canon or scheme of the normal proportions of the body. Of his pupils the chief was Naucydes of Argos. As in the first period of Greek sculpture, represented by Myron, Phidias, and Polyclitus, the schools of Athens and Argos held the first rank beyond dispute, so it was also in the second period, which embraces the 4th century down to the death of Alexander the Great. Athens, moreover, during this period remained true to the traditions of Phidias, and still occupied itself mainly with the ideal forms of gods and heroes, though in a spirit essentially altered. The more powerful emotions, the more deeply stirred passions, of the period after the Peloponnesian War were not without their influence on art. The sculptors of the time abandoned the representation of the dignified divinities of the earlier school, and turned to the forms of those deities whose nature gave room for softer or more emotional expression, especially Aphrodite and Dionysus and the circle of gods and daemons who surrounded them. The highest aim of their art was to pourtray the profound pathos of the soul, to give expression to the play of the emotions. With this is connected the preference of this school for marble over bronze, as more suited for rendering the softer and finer shades of form or expression. The art of executing work in gold and ivory was almost lost, the resources of the States no longer sufficing, as a rule, for this purpose. The most eminent of the New Attic school were SCÖPÄS of Paros and PRAXITELES of Athens. Scopas, also famous as an architect, was a master of the most elevated pathos. Praxiteles was no less masterly in regard to the softer graces in female or youthful forms, and in the representation of sweet moods of dreamy reverie. In his statues of Aphrodite at Cnidus and Eros at Thespiae he established ideal types for those divinities. The Hermes with the infant Dionysus, found at Olympia, remains as a memorial of his art (fig. 9). Of the productions of this school (in which the names of BRYAeUS, LEOCHARES, and TIMOTHEUS, who was joined with Scopas in his work on the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, ought also to be mentioned) an opinion may be formed from the spirited reliefs on the choragic monument of Lysicrates (q.v.) at Athens. We have also extant, in a copy, the Niobid group (see NIOBE), concerning the original of which it was much disputed, even in ancient times, whether the author were Scopas or Praxiteles [Pliny, xxxvi 28]. In contrast to the ideal aims of Attic art, the Sicyonian school still remained true to its early naturalistic tendencies and to the art of sculpture in bronze, of which Argos had so long been the home. At the head of the school stood one of the most influential and prolific artists of antiquity, LYSIPPUS of Sicyon. His efforts were directed to represent beauty and powerful development in the human body (fig. 11). Hence Heracles, as the impersonation of human physical strength, was pourtrayed by him oftener, and with more success, than any other deity, and his type fully established. Lysippus was most prolific as a portrait sculptor, a branch of art which bad been much advanced in the invention by his brother Lysistratus of the method of taking plaster casts of the features [Pliny, xxxv 153]. After Alexander the Great the practice of the art, which had thus developed to perfect mastery of technique, began to deteriorate with the general decay of the countries of Greece proper, and to give place to the flourishing artistic schools of Asia Minor and the neighbouring islands. The characteristic of this period is the rise of a method of treatment which strives after effect. Instead of the naivete of earlier times we get a certain deliberate calculation of a theatrical type, a tendency to make the exhibition of technical skill an end in itself. The most productive school was that of Rhodes, at the head of which stood a pupil of Lysippus, CHARES of Lindus, who designed the famous Colossus of Rhodes, the largest statue of ancient times. Two well known extant works in marble proceeded from this school, the group of Laocoon (q.v.) and his sons, by AGESANDER, ATHENODORUS, and POLYDORUS, found at Rome in 1506, now one of the chief treasures of the Vatican Museum, and the Farnese Bull at Naples. This last group, by APOLLONIUS and TAURISCUS of Tralles, represents the revenge of Zethus and Amphion on Dirce (see cut under DIRCE), and is the largest extant antique work which consists of a single block of marble. Both these are admirable in skill and technique, embodying with the greatest vividness the wild passions of a moment of horror; but the theatrical effect and the exhibition of technical skill are unduly exaggerated. [To the Rhodian school is conjecturally assigned the fine group representing Menelaus bearing the body of Patroclus, several imperfect copies of which are still extant (fig. 12). It is sometimes, however, regarded as one of the later products of the same school as the group of Niobe, and assigned to the early part of the 3rd century B.C. (Friederichs - Wolters, Gipsabgusse, no. 1397.) The Pasquino at Rome is probably the original of the copy in the Vatican and of both of those in Florence.] The second in rank of the schools of this period was that at Pergamon, where the sculptors Isogonus, Phyromachus, Stratonicus, and Antigonus celebrated in a series of bronze statues the victories of the kings Eumenes I (263-241) and Attalus I (241-197) over the Gauls. There are still extant, at Venice, Rome, and Naples, single figures from a magnificent offering of Attalus, which stood on the Acropolis at Athens, and consisted of groups of figures illustrating the conflict between the gods and the Giants, the battle of the Athenians and Amazons , the fight at Marathon, and the destruction of the Gauls by Attalus. Other masterpieces of the school are the work popularly called the Dying Gladiator, now identified as a Gallic warrior, who has just stabbed himself after a defeat (fig. 13), and the group in the Villa Ludovisi, called Paetus and Arria, which really represents a Gaul killing his wife and himself. But the most brilliant proof of their powers is furnished by the relief, of the battle of the Giants from the acropolis at Pergamon. This work-brought to light by Humann in 1878, and now at Berlin -is among the most important artistic products of antiquity. (See PERGAMENE SCULPTURES.) To this period may also be referred with certainty the original of the celebrated Belvedere Apollo, which probably had reference to the rescue of the temple of Delphi from the Gallic army in B.C. 280, which was supposed to be the work of the god (fig. 14). To Greek art in Egypt belong the types of Isis and Harpocrates, and the fine reclining figure of the river-god Nilus, with sixteen charming boys playing round him. The artistic activity of the kingdom of the Seleuecidae in Syria is represented by Eutychides, a pupil of Lysippus, and his famous Tyche, a work in bronze representing the presiding destiny of the city of Antioch on the Orontes [Pausanias, vi 2 § 6; see fig. 15]. After the subjugation of Greece by the Romans in the middle of the 2nd century, Rome became the headquarters of Greek artists, whose work, though without novelty in invention, had many excellences, especially in perfect mastery of technique. Of the artists of the 1st Century B.C. and the early imperial times the following are worthy of mention: APOLLONIUS of Athens (Belvedere torso of Hercules at Rome), GLYCON (Farnese Hercules at Naples, see cut, art. HERACLES), and CLEOMENES (Venus de' Medici at Florence), though the works of all these are more or less free reproductions of the creations of earlier masters; also AGASIAS of Ephesus, sculptor of the Borghese Gladiator in the Louvre at Paris, a very fine work in the spirit of the Pergamene school (see cut under AGASIAS). In the same period PASITELES, an Italian Greek of great versatility, attempted a regeneration of art on the basis of careful study of nature and of earlier productions. This movement in favour of an academic eclecticism was continued by Pasiteles' pupil,STEPHÄNUS, who has left us a youthful figure (Villa Albani), and Stephanus' pupil MENELAUS, the artist of the fine group called Orestes and Electra (fig. 16). There was a revival of Greek art in the first half of the 2nd century A.D. under Hadrian, when a new ideal type of youthful beauty was created in the numerous representations of the imperial favourite Antinous (see cut under ANTINOUS). The artistic work of the Romans before the introduction of Greek culture was under Etruscan influence. The art of that people was chiefly displayed in pottery and the closely connected craft of bronze-founding, which they developed with great technical skill and for which they had a special predilection. They not only filled their towns with quantities of bronze statues, Volsinii alone containing about 2,000 at the time of its conquest by the Romans in 265 B.C. [Pliny, xxxiv 34], but provided Rome also for a long time with works of the kind. Judging from the extant monuments, such as the Mars of Todi at the Vatican, the Boy with a Goose under his Arm at Leyden, and the Robed Statue of Aulus Metellus at Florence, the character of their art seems wanting in freedom of treatment and in genuine inspiration. After the conquest of Greece, Greek art took the place of Etruscan at Rome; and, thanks to the continually increasing love of magnificence among the Romans, which was not content with the adornment of public buildings and squares, but sought artistic decoration for private dwellings, a brisk activity in art was developed, whereof numberless extant works give evidence. Beside the Greek influence, to which we owe many copies of the masterpieces of Greek art gradually accumulated in Rome, a peculiarly Roman art arose. This was especially active in portrait sculpture. Portrait statues were divided, according as they were in civil or military costume, into togatae and loricatae or thoracatae (lorica=thorax, a coat of mail). To these were added in later times the so-called Achilleae, idealized in costume and pose [Pliny, xxxiv §§ 8, 118]. It was customary to depict emperors in the form of Jupiter or other gods, and their wives with the attributes of Juno or Venus. Of the innumerable monuments of this description special mention is due to the statue of Augustus in the Vatican (fig. 17); the marble equestrian statues of Balbus and his son at Naples (found at Herculaneum); the bronze equestrian statue of M. Aurelius on the square of the Capitol at Rome; the seated statues of Agrippina the elder in the Capitoline Museum, and the younger at Naples. Hand in hand with portrait sculpture went the art of historical reliefs. In accordance with the realistic spirit of Rome, as opposed to the Greek custom of idealizing persons and events, this department strove to secure the greatest possible accuracy and truth. The most important works of the kind are the reliefs on the Arch of Titus (see cut under TRIUMPH); those on the Arch of Constantine, taken from the Arch of Trajan (see cut under TRIUMPHAL ARCHES); and those on the columns of Trajan and M. Aurelius (see cut under ARCHITECTURE, ORDERS OF, p. 58 b). Roman historical sculpture is seen already on its decline in the reliefs of the Arch of Septimius Severus (203 A.D.), and the decline is complete in those of the Arch of Constantine. A Subordinate branch of relief sculpture was employed on the sarcophagi common from the 2nd century A.D. The subjects of these reliefs are rarely taken from events in the man's actual life, they are most usually scenes from legends of Greek gods or heroes, often after compositions of an earlier period, and accordingly showing a Greek character in their treatment. (See out under MUSES.) Materials. White marble was the material chiefly employed: in the earlier times of Greek art, the local kinds, in Attica particularly the Pentelic, which is "fine in grain and of a pure white" (Middleton's Rome in 1888, pp. 11, 12). From the 4th century on that of Paros was preferred. [This is a very beautiful marble, though of a strongly crystalline grain; it is slightly translucent.] It was used in Roman times in preference to the similar marble of Luna (Carrara), a " marble of many qualities, from the purest white and a fine sparkling grain like loaf sugar, to the coarser sorts disfigured with bluish-gray streaks" (ib). It was sometimes used for columns in Rome. The marble of Hymettus "appears to have been the first foreign marble introduced into Rome. It resembles the inferior kind of Luna marble, being rather coarse in grain and frequently stained with gray striations" (ib.). Coloured marble first became popular under the emperors; e.g. black for Egyptian subjects (statues of Isis), red for Dionysus, Satyrs, and others in his train. To the same period belongs the use of striped and spotted kinds of marble, coloured alabaster, porphyry, and granite. Different colours of stone were also combined (e.g. drapery of black marble or porphyry). A noteworthy peculiarity of ancient sculpture, as also of architecture, is the habit of embellishing all kinds of marble work by the application of colours (Polychromy), which is known from references in ancient writers. [Plato, Rep. 420 C, speaks of "painting statues." Plutarch, De Gloria Athen. 348 F, mentions "dyers" of statues side by side with gilders and encaustic painters. Lastly, Pliny, xxxv 133, states that Praxiteles owned he was much indebted to the circumlitio, or touching up, of his works by the painter Nicias.] It is also attested by traces still present on many works. [Thus the straps of the sandal of the Hermes of Praxiteles still show traces of red and gold; and the statues at Pompeii, especially those of late date, are in many cases coloured, especially certain parts of the drapery. The accompanying cut (fig. 18) introduces us into the studio of an artist engaged in embellishing with paint a terminal statue of Hermes. The original sketch in colours lies on the ground, and she is pausing to examine her work, which is also watched with interest by two bystanders. (Cp. Treu, Sollen wir unsre Statuen bemalen? Berlin, 1884.) Wood and pottery were always painted. [It is sometimes supposed that] even sculptures intended for the adornment of buildings, e.g. metopes and friezes, not only had painted backgrounds (generally blue or red), but were themselves richly adorned with colouring. [It is also held that] originally, even the bare parts of stone figures were painted; afterwards a coating of wax was thought enough [Vitruvius, vii9]. In particular statues, many artists coloured only the characteristic parts, fringes of garments, sandals, armour, weapons, snoods or head wrappings, and of the parts of the body the lips, eyes, hair, beard, and nipples. Probably the cheeks, too, received a light reddish tinge; but all was done with discretion. The colours chiefly used were red, blue, and yellow, or gilding. The employment of different materials for the extremities, and for the drapery, also produced the effect of colouring. Similarly metal-sculpture secured variety of colour by the application of gold, silver, and copper to the bronze. The sparkle of the eyes was often represented by inlaid precious stones or enamel. Particular parts in marble statues, such as attributes, weapons, implements, were also made of metal. [There are examples of this in the pediments of Aegina and in the frieze of the Parthenon. Under the Empire metal was sometimes used for the drapery. Thus the Braschi Antinous in the Vatican was formerly draped in bronze.]-On ancient stone-cutting, see GEMS; on terracottas, see POTTERY; on working in metal, see TOREUTIC ART.
 
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gutter splint
gutter splint
PLACE HOLDER FOR COUNTER
gutter splint