Homer Hesiod Hymns Tragedy Remythologizing Tools Blackboard Info
ZETHUS 100.00%
Son of Antiope (q.v., 1) and of Zeus, brother of Amphion and husband of Aedon. (Cp. AeDON and AMPHION.)
CHLORIS 55.46%
Daughter of Amphion of Orchomenus, wife of Neleus, mother of Nestor and Periclymenus. (See PERICLYMENUS.)
ANTIOPE 51.23%
In Homer a daughter of the Boeotian river-god Asopus, mother by Zeus of Amphion and Zethus. In later legend her father is Nycteus of Hyria or Hysiae. As he threatens to punish her for yielding to the approaches of Zeus under the form of a satyr, she flees to Epopeus of Sicyon. This king her uncle Lycus kills by order of his brother Nycteus, now dead, and leads her back in chains. Arrived on Mount Cithaeron, she gives birth to twins, Amphion by Zeus, Zethus by Epopeus, whom Lycus leaves exposed upon the mountain. After being long imprisoned and illtreated by Dirce, the wife of Lycus, she escapes to Cithaeron, and makes acquaintance with her sons, whom a shepherd has brought up. She makes them take a frightful vengeance upon Dirce (see AMPHION), for doing which Dionysus drives her mad, and she wanders. throught Greece, till Phocus, king of Phocis, heals and marries her.
LAIUS 39.80%
The son of Labillcus, grandson of Polydorus, and great-grandson of Cadmus. When his guardian Lycus was banished or slain by Amphion (q.v.) and Zethus, he fled to Pelops. At the death of the usurpers, he ascended the throne of his fathers and married Jocasta. (See (EDIPUS.)
LYCUS 35.42%
Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno, married to Dirce. He took over the government of Thebes after his brother Nyoteus, for Labdacus, who was a minor; and, after the death of Labdacus for his son Laius. He was either killed by Amphion (q.v.) and zethus, or (according to another account) handed the government of Thebes over to them at the behest of Hermes.
NELEUS 32.42%
Son of Poseidon and Tyro the daughter of Salmoneus, brother of Pelias. The brothers are exposed after birth by their mother, who afterwards married Cretheus of Iolcus: they are found by a herdsman and brought up by him until they grow up and are acknowledged by their mother. After Cretheus' death they quarrel about the possession of Iolcus, and Neleus, together with Melampus and Bias, the sons of his half-brother Amythaon, retires into exile in Messenia, where Aphareus, Tyro's cousin, allows them to occupy Pylus. By Chloris, daughter of Amphion, the king of the Minyan Orchomenus (it is only a later myth that identifies him with Amphion of Thebes) he is father of twelve sons, of whom Periclymenus and Nestor (q.v.) are the most celebrated, and one daughter, the beautiful Pero, bride of Bias (see MELAMPUS). On his refusing to purify Heracles from the murder of Iphitus, Heracles invades his country and slays all his sons except Nestor, who chances to be absent from home at the time. Nestor becomes the champion and avenger of the aged Neleus when the Epeans and their king Augeas, emboldened by his misfortune, venture on acts of injustice towards him. According to one account it was Neleus who renewed the Olympian games and died at Corinth, where, it was said, he was buried at the isthmus; according to others, he was slain along with his sons by Heracles.
NIOBE 11.49%
Daughter of Tantalus and Dione, sister of Pelops and wife of Amphion of Thebes. Like her father, she stood in close connexion with the gods, especially with Leto, the wife of Zeus, and fell into misfortune by her own arrogance. In maternal pride for her numerous progeny of six sons and six daughters, the ill-fated woman ventured to compare herself to Leto, who had only two children. To punish this presumption Apollo and Artemis slew with their arrows all Niobe's children, in their parents' palace. For nine days they lay in their blood without any to bury them, for Zeus had changed all the people into stone. On the tenth day the gods buried them. Niobe, who was changed to stone on the lonely hills of Sipylus, cannot even in this form forget her sorrow. Thus runs Homer's account [Il. xxiv 614], in which we have the earliest reference to "a colossal relief roughly carved on the rocks" of Mount Sipylus in Lydia, the face of which is washed by a stream in such a manner that it appears to be weeping [cp. Jebb on Soph., Ant. 831]. The accounts of later writers vary greatly in respect of the number of the daughters of Niobe and of the scene of her death. Sometimes the spot where the disaster occurs is Lydia, sometimes Thebes, where moreover the grave of Niobe's children was pointed out: the sons perish in the chase or on the race-course, while the daughters die in the royal palace at Thebes or at the burial of their brethren. This story describes Niobe as returning from Thebes to her home on Sipylus, and as there changed into a stone by Zeus, at her own entreaty. The fate of Niobe was often in ancient times the theme both of poetry and of art. The group of the children of Niobe discovered at Rome in 1583 and now at Florence (part of which is shown in the cut) is well-known: it is probably the Roman copy of a Greek work which stood in Pliny's time in a temple of Apollo at Rome, and with regard to which it was a moot point with the ancients whether it was from the hand of Scopas or of Praxiteles [Pliny, N. H. xxxvi 28. Cp. Stark, Niobe und die Niobiden, 1863].
MUSIC 3.02%
included among the Greeks everything that belonged to a higher intellectual and artistic education. [Plato in his Republic, p. 136, while discussing education, says: "Can we find any better than the old-fashioned sort, gymnastic for the body and music for the soul?" and adds: "When you speak of music, do you rank literature under music or not?" "Ido."] Music in the narrower sense was regarded by the Greeks not only as an agreeable amusement, but also as one of the most effective means of cultivating the feelings and the character. The great importance they attached to music is also shown by their idea that it was of divine origin; Hermes or Apollo were said to have invented the lyre, Athene the simple flute Pan the shepherd's pipe. Besides these gods and the Muses, Dionysus also was connected with music. Numerous myths, as for instance those concerning Amphion and Orpheus, tell of its mighty power, and testify to the Greeks having cultivated music at a very early epoch. It was always intimately allied to poetry. Originally, epic poems were also sung to the accompaniment of the cithara, and the old heroes of poetry, such as Orpheus and Musaeus, are at the same time heroes of music, just as in historical times the lyric and dramatic poets were at the same time the composers of their works. It was not until the Alexandrian times that the poet ceased to be also a musician. Owing to its connexion with poetry, music developed in the same proportion, and flourished at the same period,, as lyric and dramatic poetry. Of the Greek races, the Dorians and Aeolians had a special genius and capacity for music, and among both we find the first traces of its development as an art. The actual foundation of the classical music of the Greeks is ascribed to TERPANDER (q.v.), of the Aeolian island of Lesbos, who, in Dorian Sparta (about B.c. 675) first gave a truly artistic form to song accompanied by the cithara or citharodice, and especially to the citharodic nomos (q.v.). In the Peloponnesian school of the Terapandridce, who followed his teaching and formed a closely united guild, citharodice received its further artistic development. What Terpander had done for citharodice was done not long afterwards by CLONAS of Thebes or Tegea for aulodice, or song accompanied by the flute. The artistic flute-playing which had been elaborated by the Phrygian OLYMPUS in Asia, was introduced by Clonas into the Peloponnesus, which long remained the principal seat of all musical art. Of the two kinds of independent instrumental music, which throughout presupposes the development of vocal music and always adapts itself to this as its model, the earlier is the music on the flute, aulitice, which was especially brought into favourable notice by SACADAS of Argos (about B.C. 580), while the music on stringed instruments, citharistice, is later. Music was much promoted by the contests at the public festivals, above all, by those at the Pythian games. Its highest point of development was attained in the time of the Persian Wars, which seems to have seen the completion of the ancient system as it had been elaborated by the tradition of the schools. The lyric poets of this time, as Pindar and Simonides, the dramatists, as Phrynichus and Aeschylus, were hold by the critics to be unsurpassable models. What was added in subsequent times can hardly be called a new development of the art. Athens in her golden age was the central city where professional musicians met one another,-Athens the home of Greek dramatic poetry. At this time vocal, combined with instrumental, music largely prevailed over instrumental music alone. The latter was chiefly limited to solo performances. Ancient vocal music is distinguished in one important point from ours: throughout classical times part-singing was unknown, and there was at most a difference of octaves, and that only when men and boys sang in the same choir. Again, in classical times, the music was subordinate to the words, and was therefore necessarily much simpler than it is now. It is only in this way that we can explain the fact that an ancient audience could follow the musical representation of the often intricate language of the odes, even when the odes were sung by the whole choir. Critics regarded it as a decline of art, when, at the end of the Peloponnesian War, the music began to be the important element instead of the poetry. This change took place at first in single branches of the art, as in the solos (monodice) in tragedy, and in the dithyrambic choruses. Thenceforward ancient music, like modern music, raised itself more and more to a free and independent position beside that of poetry. The first place among the various kinds of music was assigned to the indigenous citharodice, which was connected with the first development of the musical art; and indeed stringed instruments were always more esteemed than wind instruments, in part on account of the greater technical difficulties which had to be overcome, and which led to musicians giving particular attention to them. Moreover, playing on the flute was limited to certain occasions, as its sound seemed to the ancients to arouse enthusiasm and passion [Aristotle, Politics, viii 3]. There is evidence that, on the one hand, the ancient theory of singing and of instrumentation (in spite of the primitive nature of the instruments) was brought to a high degree of perfection; and that, on the other hand, the public must have possessed a severely critical judgment in matters of music. The characteristic feature of ancient music is the great clearness of its form, resulting, above all, from the extreme precision of the rhythmic treatment. [In ancient Greece there were certain kinds or forms of music, which were known by national or tribal names, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Ionian, and Aeolian. Of these the Dorian and Phrygian are regarded by Plato as representing the mean in respect of pitch, while the highest varieties of the Lydian (called Mixo-lydian and Syntono-lydian) are contrasted with the Ionian and with the lower variety of the Lydian (afterwards known as Hypo-lydian), the last two being described as "slack," or low in pitch (Republic, p. 398, and Aristotle, Politics, viii 5 and 7). Each of these was regarded as expressive of a particular feeling. Thus, the Dorian was deemed appropriate to earnest and warlike melodies; the Phrygian was exciting and emotional; the Mixo-lydian pathetic and plaintive. The Aeolian was intermediate between the high-pitched Lydian and the low-pitched Ionian (Athenaeus, p. 624 e, f, and 526 The terms Ionian and Aeolian fell out of use, and the following names were generally applied to seven forms of music, beginning with the highest in pitch and ending with the lowest:-Mixo-lydian, Lydian, Phrygian, Dorian, Hypo-lydian, Hypo-phrygian, and Hypo-dorian. These seven forms were known as harmonice (harmonia meaning literally a "fitting" or "adjustment," hence the "tuning" of a series of notes, or the formation of a "scale"). They were afterwards known as tonoi, or tropoi, the Latin modi and our moods or "modes." But the term "modes" is ambiguous. According to some authorities (Westphal and his followers) the ancient "modes" differed from one another as the modern major mode differs from the minor, namely in the order in which the intervals follow one another, the difference in the "modes" thus depending on the place of the semi-tones in the octave. Others suppose that the terms Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian and the rest, were applied to different scales of the same "mode" in the modern sense of the term. Thus, Mr. D. B. Monro, in his Modes of Ancient Greek Music, 1894, maintains that, in the earlier periods of Greek music, (1) there is no distinction between "modes" (harmonice) and "keys" (tonoi or tropoi); and (2) that the musical scales denoted by these terms were primarily distinguished by difference of pitch (p. 101). To the passages quoted by Mr. Monro, from Plutarch (De Mutica, cc. 6, 8,15-17, 19), in support of the identity of the Greek "modes" and "keys" may be added Plutarch, de E apud Delphos, c. 10, where the "keys" (tonoi) are regarded as synonymous with the "modes" (harmonice).] As the basis of every melodic series of sounds the ancients had the tetrachord, a scale of four notes, to which according to tradition the earliest music was limited. The heptachord consisted of two tetrachords the central note was at once the highest of the first and the lowest of the second tetrachord. The heptachord was certainy in use before Terpander, who is said to have given to the lyre seven strings instead of four. [Strabo, p. 618. He really increased the compass of the scale from the two conjunct tetrachords of the seven-stringed lyre to a full octave, without increasing the number of the strings. This he did by adding one more string at the upper end of the scale, and taking away the next string but one. Aristotle, Problems, xix 32.] Thus arose the octachord or octave, and at last, after various additions, the following scale of notes was formed: From the lowest b onwards, this scale was divided into tetrachords in such a way that the fourth note was always also regarded as the first of the following tetrachord; [the intervals between the sounds of the tetrachord were, in ascending order, semi-tone, tone, tone]. This sequence was called the diatonic genus. Besides this there was also the chromatic, the tetrachords of which were as follows, b c d e e f g a [the intervals in this case were semi-tone, semi-tone, tone and a half]. Thirdly there was the enharmonic, the tetrachord of which [had for its intervals 1/4 tone, 1/4 tone, 2 tones, and accordingly] cannot be expressed in modern notation. [See also p, 707.] With regard to the musical instruments it may be mentioned that only stringed instruments (cp. especially CITHARA and LYRA) and the flute (q.v.), which closely resembled our clarionet, were employed in music proper; and that the other instruments, such as trumpets (see SALPINX), Pan's pipes (see SYRINX), cymbals (cymbala), and kettledrums (see TYMPANUM), were not included within its province. In proportion to the amount of attention paid to music by the Greeks, it early became the subject of learned research and literary treatment. The philosopher PHYTHAGORAS occupied himself with musical acoustics; he succeeded in representing numerically the relations of the octave, the fifth, and the fourth. For representing the symphonic relations the Pythagorean school invented the monochord or canon, a string stretched over a sounding board and with a movable bridge, by means of which the string could be divided into different lengths; it was on this account known as the school of the Canonici as opposed to the Harmonici, who opposed this innovation and continued to be satisfied with a system of scales ("harmonies") sung by the sole guidance of the ear. Amongst the Canonici were philosophers such as PHILOLAUS ARCHYTAS, DEMOCRITUS, PLATO, and ARISTOTLE. LASUS of Hermione, the master of Pindar, is mentioned as the first author of a theoretical work on music. The "harmonic" ARISTOXENUS (q.v.) of Tarentum, a pupil of Aristotle, was held by the ancients to be the greatest authority on music; from his numerous works was drawn the greatest part of subsequent musical literature. Of other writers on music we may mention the well-known mathematician EUCLID, and the great astronomer CLAUDIUS PTOLEMAeUS, who perfected musical acoustics. Among the Romans, a native development of music was completely wanting. They had, indeed, an ancient indigenous musical instrument, the short and slender Latian flute with four holes; but their national art of flute-playing was, at an early period, thrown into the background by the Etruscan, which was practised as a profession by foreigners, freedmen, and people of the lowest classes of the Roman population. Among the nine old guilds, said to have been instituted by king Numa, there was one of flute-players (tibicines), who assisted at public sacrifices. With the Greek drama, Greek dramatic music was also introduced; it was, however, limited to flute-playing (cp. FLUTE). Stringed instruments were not originally known at Rome, and were not frequently employed till after the second Punic War. Indeed, as Greek usages and manners in general gained ground with the beginning of the 2nd century, so also did Greek music. Greek dances and musical entertainments became common at the meals of aristocratic families, and the younger members of respectable households received instruction in music as in dancing. Though it was afterwards one of the subjects of higher education, it was never considered a real and effective means of training. Entertainments like our concerts became frequent towards the end of the Republic, and formed part of the musical contests instituted by Nero, a great lover of music, in A.D. 60, on the model of the Greek contests. Domitian had an Odeum built on the Campus Martius (Field of Mars) for the musical entertainments of the Agon Capitotinus, instituted by him in A.D. 86, and celebrated at intervals of four years to the end of the classical period. -Passages bearing on music in Roman literature have no independent value, as they are entirely drawn from Greek sources.-For Roman military music, see LITUUS (2) and TUBA.
The origin of painting as an art in Greece is connected with definite historical personages. That of sculpture is lost in the mists of legend. It was regarded as an art imparted to men by the gods; for such is the thought expressed in the assertion that the earliest statues fell from heaven. The first artist spoken of by name, DAeDALUS, who is mentioned as early as Homer, is merely a personification of the most ancient variety of art, that which was employed solely in the construction of wooden images of the gods. This is clearly proved by his name (= "the cunning artificer"). To him were attributed a series of inventions certainly separated far from each other in respect of time and place, and embracing important steps in the development of wood-carving and in the representation of the human form. Thus he is said to have invented the saw, the axe, the plummet, the gimlet, and glue [Pliny,N. H. vii 198], to have been the first to open the eyes in the statues of the gods, to separate the legs, and to give freer motion to the arms, which had before hung close to the body [Diodorus iv 76]. After him the early school of sculptors at Athens, his reputed native city, is sometimes called the school of Daedalus [Pausanias v 25 § 13]. During a long residence in Crete he is said to have instructed the Cretans in making wooden images (xoana) of the gods [ib. viii 53 § 8]. The invention of modelling figures in clay, from which sculpture in bronze originated, is assigned to the Sicyonian potter BÜTÄDES at Corinth [Pliny, xxxv 151]. The art of working in metals must have been known early in Greece, as appears from the Homeric poems [esp. ll. xviii 468-608, "the shield of Achilles "]. An important step in this direction was due to GLAUCUS of Chios, who in the 7th century B.C. invented the soldering of iron [Herodotus, i 25; Pausanias, x 16 § 1], and the softening and hardening of metal by fire and water [Plutarch, De Defectu Orac. 47]. The discovery of bronze-founding is attributed to RHOECUS and THEODORUS of Samos about 580 [Pausanias, viii 14 § 8]. The high antiquity of Greek sculpture in stone may be inferred from a work of the very earliest period of Greek civilization, the powerful relief of two upright lions over the gate of the castle at Mycenae. (See ARCHITECTURE, fig. 2.) Sculpture in marble, as well as in gold and ivory, was much advanced by two famous "pupils of Daedalus," DIPOENUS and SCYLLIS of Crete, who were working in Argos and Sicyon about 550 B.C. [Pliny, xxxvi §§ 9, 14; Pausanias, ii 15 § 1, 22 § 5], and founded and influential school of art in the Peloponnesus. [This school included Hegylus and Theocles (Pausanias, vi 19 § 8, 17 § 2); Dontas and Dorycleidas (ib., vi 19 § 12, v 17 § 1); Clearchus of Rhegium (iii 17 § 6); Tectaeus and Augelion (ii 32 § 5, ix 35 § 3).] Among their works are recorded not only statues of gods, but also of heroes, often united in large groups. Some conception of the artistic productions of this period may be, formed from scattered monuments still extant, originating in different parts of the Greek world; e.g. the rude and more primitive metopes of Selinus Sicily (fig. 1); the statues of Apollo from the island of Thera and from Tenea, near Corinth (fig. 2); the reliefs on the Harpy Monument from the acropolis of Xanthus in Lycia (figs. 3 and 4), etc. These works, in spite of their archaic stiffness, show an effort after individual and natural expression, though the position of the foot in striding, with the sole completely touching the ground, and the unemotional and stony smile on the mask-like face, are common to all. Even after Greek sculpture had mastered the representation of the human body, not only at rest, but also in the most violent movement, it still continued unable to overcome the lifeless rigidity of facial expression. This is seen in the Trojan battle-scenes (date about 480) on the Aeginetan pediments. Here the figures are represented in every variety of position in the fight, and depicted, not indeed with any ideality, but with perfect mastery even to the smallest detail; whereas the faces are entirely destitute of any expression appropriate to their situation. (See fig. 5, and the (West Pediment under AeGINETAN SCULPTURES.) The athletic forms in which the Aeginetan heroes are represented indicate another important extension of the sphere of artistic representation. From about 544 B.C. it had become usual to erect statues of the victors in the athletic contests, Olympia especially abounding in these. [Ol. 59; Pausanias, vi 18 § 7 ; the statues there mentioned are of wood.] By this innovation the art was freed from the narrow limits to which it had been confined by the traditions of religion, and led on to a truer imitation of nature. In this department the school of Aegina was specially active, attaining its highest perfection in the bronze statuary of GLAUCIAS, CALLON, and above all ONÄTÄS (500-460). Sculpture in bronze flourished simultaneously in the Peloponnesus at Sicyon under CÄNÄCHUS [for a supposed copy of his Apollo see CANACHUS] and his brother ARISTÖCLES, the founder of a school which lasted long after, and at Argos under AGELADAS, the teacher of Phidias, Myron, and Polyolitus. The transition to the period of the finest art is represented by CÄLÄMIS of Athens, PYTHÄGÖRÄS of Rhegium, and especially MYRON, another Athenian, in whom the art attained the highest truth to nature, with perfect freedom in the representation of the human body, and was thus prepared for the development of ideal forms. This last step was taken at Athens, in the time of Pericles, by PHIDIAS. In his creations, particularly in his statues of the gods, whether in bronze or in ivory and gold, he succeeded in combining perfect beauty of form with the most profound ideality, fixing for ever the ideal type for Zeus and Athene, the two deities who were pre-eminently characterized by intellectual dignity. (See ATHENE, ZEUS, and PARTHENON, figs. 4 and 5.) For one of his heroic subjects see fig. 7. Of the pupils of Phidias the two who worked most nearly in the same spirit were AGÖRÄCRITUS and ALCAMENES, the author of the sculpture of the western pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, part of which still remains. The perfection of Attic art at this time can be realized when we consider that, with all their beauty of execution, the extant marble sculptures of the Parthenon, Theseum, Erechtheum, and the temple of "Wingless Victory" must be regarded as mere productions of the ordinary workshop [as compared with the lost masterpieces of Phidias]. The school of Phidias had rivals in the naturalistic school which followed Myron, including his son LYCIUS and CRESILAS of Cydonia. [For a supposed copy of his Pericles, see CRESILAS.] Independent of both schools stood PAeONIUS of Mende, whose Victory, as well as part of his sculptures on the east pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, are still extant [see PAeONIUS and OLYMPIAN GAMES (fig. 1)]; and CALLIMÄCHUS, the "inventor" of the Corinthian order of architecture [Vitruvius, iv 1 § 10] and of the application of the auger to working in marble [Pausanias, i 26 § 6]. Another school of sculpture in opposition to that of Athens was founded at Argos by Phidias' younger contemporary POLYCLITUS, whose colossal gold and ivory statue of the Argive Hera directly challenged comparison with the works of Phidias in its materials, its ideality, and its artistic form, and established the ideal type of that goddess. He mainly devoted himself, however, to work in bronze, the department in which Argos had long been pre-eminent; and made it his aim to exhibit the perfection of beauty in the youthful form (fig. 8). He also established a canon or scheme of the normal proportions of the body. Of his pupils the chief was Naucydes of Argos. As in the first period of Greek sculpture, represented by Myron, Phidias, and Polyclitus, the schools of Athens and Argos held the first rank beyond dispute, so it was also in the second period, which embraces the 4th century down to the death of Alexander the Great. Athens, moreover, during this period remained true to the traditions of Phidias, and still occupied itself mainly with the ideal forms of gods and heroes, though in a spirit essentially altered. The more powerful emotions, the more deeply stirred passions, of the period after the Peloponnesian War were not without their influence on art. The sculptors of the time abandoned the representation of the dignified divinities of the earlier school, and turned to the forms of those deities whose nature gave room for softer or more emotional expression, especially Aphrodite and Dionysus and the circle of gods and daemons who surrounded them. The highest aim of their art was to pourtray the profound pathos of the soul, to give expression to the play of the emotions. With this is connected the preference of this school for marble over bronze, as more suited for rendering the softer and finer shades of form or expression. The art of executing work in gold and ivory was almost lost, the resources of the States no longer sufficing, as a rule, for this purpose. The most eminent of the New Attic school were SCÖPÄS of Paros and PRAXITELES of Athens. Scopas, also famous as an architect, was a master of the most elevated pathos. Praxiteles was no less masterly in regard to the softer graces in female or youthful forms, and in the representation of sweet moods of dreamy reverie. In his statues of Aphrodite at Cnidus and Eros at Thespiae he established ideal types for those divinities. The Hermes with the infant Dionysus, found at Olympia, remains as a memorial of his art (fig. 9). Of the productions of this school (in which the names of BRYAeUS, LEOCHARES, and TIMOTHEUS, who was joined with Scopas in his work on the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, ought also to be mentioned) an opinion may be formed from the spirited reliefs on the choragic monument of Lysicrates (q.v.) at Athens. We have also extant, in a copy, the Niobid group (see NIOBE), concerning the original of which it was much disputed, even in ancient times, whether the author were Scopas or Praxiteles [Pliny, xxxvi 28]. In contrast to the ideal aims of Attic art, the Sicyonian school still remained true to its early naturalistic tendencies and to the art of sculpture in bronze, of which Argos had so long been the home. At the head of the school stood one of the most influential and prolific artists of antiquity, LYSIPPUS of Sicyon. His efforts were directed to represent beauty and powerful development in the human body (fig. 11). Hence Heracles, as the impersonation of human physical strength, was pourtrayed by him oftener, and with more success, than any other deity, and his type fully established. Lysippus was most prolific as a portrait sculptor, a branch of art which bad been much advanced in the invention by his brother Lysistratus of the method of taking plaster casts of the features [Pliny, xxxv 153]. After Alexander the Great the practice of the art, which had thus developed to perfect mastery of technique, began to deteriorate with the general decay of the countries of Greece proper, and to give place to the flourishing artistic schools of Asia Minor and the neighbouring islands. The characteristic of this period is the rise of a method of treatment which strives after effect. Instead of the naivete of earlier times we get a certain deliberate calculation of a theatrical type, a tendency to make the exhibition of technical skill an end in itself. The most productive school was that of Rhodes, at the head of which stood a pupil of Lysippus, CHARES of Lindus, who designed the famous Colossus of Rhodes, the largest statue of ancient times. Two well known extant works in marble proceeded from this school, the group of Laocoon (q.v.) and his sons, by AGESANDER, ATHENODORUS, and POLYDORUS, found at Rome in 1506, now one of the chief treasures of the Vatican Museum, and the Farnese Bull at Naples. This last group, by APOLLONIUS and TAURISCUS of Tralles, represents the revenge of Zethus and Amphion on Dirce (see cut under DIRCE), and is the largest extant antique work which consists of a single block of marble. Both these are admirable in skill and technique, embodying with the greatest vividness the wild passions of a moment of horror; but the theatrical effect and the exhibition of technical skill are unduly exaggerated. [To the Rhodian school is conjecturally assigned the fine group representing Menelaus bearing the body of Patroclus, several imperfect copies of which are still extant (fig. 12). It is sometimes, however, regarded as one of the later products of the same school as the group of Niobe, and assigned to the early part of the 3rd century B.C. (Friederichs - Wolters, Gipsabgusse, no. 1397.) The Pasquino at Rome is probably the original of the copy in the Vatican and of both of those in Florence.] The second in rank of the schools of this period was that at Pergamon, where the sculptors Isogonus, Phyromachus, Stratonicus, and Antigonus celebrated in a series of bronze statues the victories of the kings Eumenes I (263-241) and Attalus I (241-197) over the Gauls. There are still extant, at Venice, Rome, and Naples, single figures from a magnificent offering of Attalus, which stood on the Acropolis at Athens, and consisted of groups of figures illustrating the conflict between the gods and the Giants, the battle of the Athenians and Amazons , the fight at Marathon, and the destruction of the Gauls by Attalus. Other masterpieces of the school are the work popularly called the Dying Gladiator, now identified as a Gallic warrior, who has just stabbed himself after a defeat (fig. 13), and the group in the Villa Ludovisi, called Paetus and Arria, which really represents a Gaul killing his wife and himself. But the most brilliant proof of their powers is furnished by the relief, of the battle of the Giants from the acropolis at Pergamon. This work-brought to light by Humann in 1878, and now at Berlin -is among the most important artistic products of antiquity. (See PERGAMENE SCULPTURES.) To this period may also be referred with certainty the original of the celebrated Belvedere Apollo, which probably had reference to the rescue of the temple of Delphi from the Gallic army in B.C. 280, which was supposed to be the work of the god (fig. 14). To Greek art in Egypt belong the types of Isis and Harpocrates, and the fine reclining figure of the river-god Nilus, with sixteen charming boys playing round him. The artistic activity of the kingdom of the Seleuecidae in Syria is represented by Eutychides, a pupil of Lysippus, and his famous Tyche, a work in bronze representing the presiding destiny of the city of Antioch on the Orontes [Pausanias, vi 2 § 6; see fig. 15]. After the subjugation of Greece by the Romans in the middle of the 2nd century, Rome became the headquarters of Greek artists, whose work, though without novelty in invention, had many excellences, especially in perfect mastery of technique. Of the artists of the 1st Century B.C. and the early imperial times the following are worthy of mention: APOLLONIUS of Athens (Belvedere torso of Hercules at Rome), GLYCON (Farnese Hercules at Naples, see cut, art. HERACLES), and CLEOMENES (Venus de' Medici at Florence), though the works of all these are more or less free reproductions of the creations of earlier masters; also AGASIAS of Ephesus, sculptor of the Borghese Gladiator in the Louvre at Paris, a very fine work in the spirit of the Pergamene school (see cut under AGASIAS). In the same period PASITELES, an Italian Greek of great versatility, attempted a regeneration of art on the basis of careful study of nature and of earlier productions. This movement in favour of an academic eclecticism was continued by Pasiteles' pupil,STEPHÄNUS, who has left us a youthful figure (Villa Albani), and Stephanus' pupil MENELAUS, the artist of the fine group called Orestes and Electra (fig. 16). There was a revival of Greek art in the first half of the 2nd century A.D. under Hadrian, when a new ideal type of youthful beauty was created in the numerous representations of the imperial favourite Antinous (see cut under ANTINOUS). The artistic work of the Romans before the introduction of Greek culture was under Etruscan influence. The art of that people was chiefly displayed in pottery and the closely connected craft of bronze-founding, which they developed with great technical skill and for which they had a special predilection. They not only filled their towns with quantities of bronze statues, Volsinii alone containing about 2,000 at the time of its conquest by the Romans in 265 B.C. [Pliny, xxxiv 34], but provided Rome also for a long time with works of the kind. Judging from the extant monuments, such as the Mars of Todi at the Vatican, the Boy with a Goose under his Arm at Leyden, and the Robed Statue of Aulus Metellus at Florence, the character of their art seems wanting in freedom of treatment and in genuine inspiration. After the conquest of Greece, Greek art took the place of Etruscan at Rome; and, thanks to the continually increasing love of magnificence among the Romans, which was not content with the adornment of public buildings and squares, but sought artistic decoration for private dwellings, a brisk activity in art was developed, whereof numberless extant works give evidence. Beside the Greek influence, to which we owe many copies of the masterpieces of Greek art gradually accumulated in Rome, a peculiarly Roman art arose. This was especially active in portrait sculpture. Portrait statues were divided, according as they were in civil or military costume, into togatae and loricatae or thoracatae (lorica=thorax, a coat of mail). To these were added in later times the so-called Achilleae, idealized in costume and pose [Pliny, xxxiv §§ 8, 118]. It was customary to depict emperors in the form of Jupiter or other gods, and their wives with the attributes of Juno or Venus. Of the innumerable monuments of this description special mention is due to the statue of Augustus in the Vatican (fig. 17); the marble equestrian statues of Balbus and his son at Naples (found at Herculaneum); the bronze equestrian statue of M. Aurelius on the square of the Capitol at Rome; the seated statues of Agrippina the elder in the Capitoline Museum, and the younger at Naples. Hand in hand with portrait sculpture went the art of historical reliefs. In accordance with the realistic spirit of Rome, as opposed to the Greek custom of idealizing persons and events, this department strove to secure the greatest possible accuracy and truth. The most important works of the kind are the reliefs on the Arch of Titus (see cut under TRIUMPH); those on the Arch of Constantine, taken from the Arch of Trajan (see cut under TRIUMPHAL ARCHES); and those on the columns of Trajan and M. Aurelius (see cut under ARCHITECTURE, ORDERS OF, p. 58 b). Roman historical sculpture is seen already on its decline in the reliefs of the Arch of Septimius Severus (203 A.D.), and the decline is complete in those of the Arch of Constantine. A Subordinate branch of relief sculpture was employed on the sarcophagi common from the 2nd century A.D. The subjects of these reliefs are rarely taken from events in the man's actual life, they are most usually scenes from legends of Greek gods or heroes, often after compositions of an earlier period, and accordingly showing a Greek character in their treatment. (See out under MUSES.) Materials. White marble was the material chiefly employed: in the earlier times of Greek art, the local kinds, in Attica particularly the Pentelic, which is "fine in grain and of a pure white" (Middleton's Rome in 1888, pp. 11, 12). From the 4th century on that of Paros was preferred. [This is a very beautiful marble, though of a strongly crystalline grain; it is slightly translucent.] It was used in Roman times in preference to the similar marble of Luna (Carrara), a " marble of many qualities, from the purest white and a fine sparkling grain like loaf sugar, to the coarser sorts disfigured with bluish-gray streaks" (ib). It was sometimes used for columns in Rome. The marble of Hymettus "appears to have been the first foreign marble introduced into Rome. It resembles the inferior kind of Luna marble, being rather coarse in grain and frequently stained with gray striations" (ib.). Coloured marble first became popular under the emperors; e.g. black for Egyptian subjects (statues of Isis), red for Dionysus, Satyrs, and others in his train. To the same period belongs the use of striped and spotted kinds of marble, coloured alabaster, porphyry, and granite. Different colours of stone were also combined (e.g. drapery of black marble or porphyry). A noteworthy peculiarity of ancient sculpture, as also of architecture, is the habit of embellishing all kinds of marble work by the application of colours (Polychromy), which is known from references in ancient writers. [Plato, Rep. 420 C, speaks of "painting statues." Plutarch, De Gloria Athen. 348 F, mentions "dyers" of statues side by side with gilders and encaustic painters. Lastly, Pliny, xxxv 133, states that Praxiteles owned he was much indebted to the circumlitio, or touching up, of his works by the painter Nicias.] It is also attested by traces still present on many works. [Thus the straps of the sandal of the Hermes of Praxiteles still show traces of red and gold; and the statues at Pompeii, especially those of late date, are in many cases coloured, especially certain parts of the drapery. The accompanying cut (fig. 18) introduces us into the studio of an artist engaged in embellishing with paint a terminal statue of Hermes. The original sketch in colours lies on the ground, and she is pausing to examine her work, which is also watched with interest by two bystanders. (Cp. Treu, Sollen wir unsre Statuen bemalen? Berlin, 1884.) Wood and pottery were always painted. [It is sometimes supposed that] even sculptures intended for the adornment of buildings, e.g. metopes and friezes, not only had painted backgrounds (generally blue or red), but were themselves richly adorned with colouring. [It is also held that] originally, even the bare parts of stone figures were painted; afterwards a coating of wax was thought enough [Vitruvius, vii9]. In particular statues, many artists coloured only the characteristic parts, fringes of garments, sandals, armour, weapons, snoods or head wrappings, and of the parts of the body the lips, eyes, hair, beard, and nipples. Probably the cheeks, too, received a light reddish tinge; but all was done with discretion. The colours chiefly used were red, blue, and yellow, or gilding. The employment of different materials for the extremities, and for the drapery, also produced the effect of colouring. Similarly metal-sculpture secured variety of colour by the application of gold, silver, and copper to the bronze. The sparkle of the eyes was often represented by inlaid precious stones or enamel. Particular parts in marble statues, such as attributes, weapons, implements, were also made of metal. [There are examples of this in the pediments of Aegina and in the frieze of the Parthenon. Under the Empire metal was sometimes used for the drapery. Thus the Braschi Antinous in the Vatican was formerly draped in bronze.]-On ancient stone-cutting, see GEMS; on terracottas, see POTTERY; on working in metal, see TOREUTIC ART.
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