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CALLISTO 100.00%
A nymph, the daughter of the Arcadian Lycaon, and a companion of Artemis. She became, by Zeus, the mother of Arcas, the ancestor of the Arcadians. She was'turned into a bear, according to one account by the jealous Hera, according to another by Zeus, who was anxious to protect her from Hera's wrath. In this shape she was slain by Artemis, and set among the constellations by Zeus under the title of the She-Bear. There was another story, according to which Callisto's son was intending to slay his transformed mother while hunting; upon which Zeus set him in the sky under the name of Arcturus (Arktouros), the Watcher of the Bear, and his mother under the name of Arctus (Arktos), the She-Bear. As the stars bearing these names never set, Homer describes them as the only ones which have no share in the bath of the ocean. Later poets, accordingly, invented the further story that Tethys, wishing to gratify Hera, refused to receive her former rival into her waters.
ARCAS 100.00%
Son of Zeus by the nymph Callisto, and ancestor of the Arcadians, who was translated to the sky by Zeus as Arcturus - Watcher of the Bear. (See CALLISTO.)
LYCAON 21.60%
Mythical king of Arcadia, son of Pelasgus and Me1iboea (daughter of Oceanus) or Cyllene), and father of Callisto. He is said to have founded on Mount Lycaeum. the town Lycosura, the oldest that Helios looked upon, and to have sacrificed a child to Zeus on the altar he had raised on the highest peak of the mountain, on account of which he was changed into a wolf (see LYCAeA). Another legend relates that he had fifty impious sons. When Zeus came to them in the guise of a beggar in order to put their contempt of the gods to the test, they followed the advice of Maenalus, the eldest, and set before him the entrails of a boy which had been mixed with the sacrifice. The god however threw the table over and killed Lycaon and his sons with lightning, with the exception of Nyctimus, the youngest, whom Gaea saved by firmly holding the right hand of Zeus. During the reign of Nyctimus the deluge connected with the name of Deucalion covered the land as a punishment for the impiety of Lycaon and his sons.
PAN 12.12%
[from the same root as the Lat. pastor and panis]. Originally an Arcadian god of hills and woods, the protecting deity of flocks, herdsmen, and hunters; the son either of Hermes and a daughter of Dryops, or of Zeus and the Arcadian Nymph Callisto. The ancients represented him with a puck-nose and bearded, with shaggy hair, two horns, and goat's feet. They imagined him as wandering by day through hill and dale with the Nymphs, guarding the flocks, especially the goats, and chasing wild animals [Homeric Hymn, xix]. In the heat of noonday he sleeps, and is then very sensitive to any disturbance; therefore at this time no shepherd blows his pipe [Theocr. i 16]. In the evening, sitting in front of his grotto,he plays on the syrinx, or Pan's pipe, which he himself invented. He is even said to have formed it from the reed into which a Nymph named Syrinx was changed while fleeing from his love [Ovid,Met. i 705]. There are many other tales of his love adventures with the Nymphs. As he excites the sudden ("panic") terror which attacks the wanderer in forest solitudes, so he was also said to have caused the panic which put to flight the Persians at Marathon; and on this account a grotto in the Acropolis of Athens was dedicated to him, and he was honoured with an annual sacrifice and torch procession [Herod., vi 105]. As a spirit of the woodland, he is also a god of prophecy, and hence there were oracles of Pan Like the similar figures of Silenus and the Satyrs, he was brought into connexion with Dionysus, in whose train he proved himself useful on his Indian expedition by means of the terror he inspired. As one of the gods of nature, he was one of the companions of Cybele; and by reason of his amorousness, he is associated with Aphrodite. In later times, owing to a misinterpretation of his name (as though it stood for pan, "the universe"), he was made a symbol of the universe. His cult was chiefly confined to the country. He was either worshipped with the Nymphs in grottoes, or his image was set up under the trees, where his worshippers brought it simple offerings such as milk, honey, must, rams, or lambs. Mountains, caves, old oaks, and pine trees, and the tortoise, were sacred to him; his attributes are the syrinx, a shepherd's crook, a garland of pine leaves or a twig of the pine tree. The fancy of later times invented as his companions young Pans, or Panisci, a species of imps of the forest, who were fabled to torment mankind by all sorts of apparitions, nightmares, and evil dreams. The Romans identified Pan with the Italian Faunus (q.v.).
Type: Standard
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