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PERGAMENE SCULPTURES 100.00%
 
SCULPTURE 66.35%
 
DIPOENUS 61.24%

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A Greek sculptor, born in Crete, who flourished in Argos and Sicyon about 550 B.C. In conjunction with his countryman Scyllis he founded an influential school of sculpture in the Peloponnesus. (See SCULPTURE.)
 
AEGINETAN SCULPTURES 61.24%
The marble pediments of Athena's temple at Aegina, discovered in 1811, restored by Thorwaldsen, and preserved in the Glyptothek at Munich. Their great value consists in the full light they throw on the condition of Greek art, especially of the Aeginetan school, in B.C. 480. (Comp.SCULPTURE.) Both groups present, with lifelike accuracy and in strictly symmetrical distribution, combats of the Greeks before Troy, while Athena in the centre, as protectress of the Greeks, retains the rigid attitude of the ancient religious statues. Of the figures, originally twentytwo in number, ten in the west pediment representing the contest for the body of Patroclus, are complete, while the eleventh is preserved in fragments; of those in the east pediment representing Heracles and Telamon shielding the fallen Oicles from Laomedon, five remain and many fragments.
 
ART 39.77%

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See ARCHITECTURE, ARCHITECTURE (ORDERS OF), PAINTING, and SCULPTURE; and comp. COINAGE and GEMS.
 
AGASIAS 37.42%

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A Greek artist of Ephesus, probably in the Ist century B.C. The Borghese Gladiator in the Louvre is from his hand. (See SCULPTURE.)
 
ATHENODORUS 36.47%

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A Greek sculptor, of the Rhodian school. He was associated with Agesander and Polydorus in the production of the celebrated group of Laocoon. (See SCULPTURE.)
 
RHOECUS 34.36%

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A Greek artist of Samos, about 500 B.C., inventor of brass-founding, and architect of the celebrated temple of Hera in his native island [Herod., iii 60]. (See ARCHITECTURE and SCULPTURE.)
 
POLYCHROMY 33.83%
The ancient practice of colouriug pieces of sculpture, as well as certain portions of the exterior and interior of buildings. (See SCULPTURE</smallCaps, at end.)
 
SCYLLIS 30.30%
 
LAOCOON 24.11%
According to the post-Homeric story, a priest of Apollo. He had displeased that god by marrying against his wishes; and, when the Greeks had departed for a time from Troy, leaving the wooden horse behind them, be again offended, by serving as a priest on the occasion of the sacrifice offered to Poseidon. Accordingly, in the midst of the sacrificial feast, the god sent two serpents who strangled Laocoon and one of his sons. In Vergil's account [Aen. ii 230] Laocoon draws down upon himself the wrath of Athena, not only for warning the Trojans against the guile of the Greeks, but for piercing with a spear the flank of the horse dedicated to the goddess. Whilst he was sacrificing to Poseidon on the beach, Athena caused two snakes to emerge from the sea and strangle the father and both of his sons. This incident has been represented in the famous group of sculpture (see cut), the work of the Rhodian artists Agesander, Polydorus, and Athenodorus, which was found in 1506 amid the ruins of the house of the emperor Titus at Rome. It is now in the Belvedere court of the Vatican Museum. (Comp. SCULPTURE.)
 
METOPES 23.34%

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[Metopoe, either " the intervening openings," or (Vitruv. iv 2, 4) " the spaces between the sockets " (Gr. opai). In Doric architecture the spaces between the triglyphs (q.v.) in the frieze. They were originally left open. Thus, Orestes manages to make his way into the Tauric temple of Artemis through one of these openings (Eur., Iph. T. 113). They were afterwards filled with panels of wood, which were in course of time superseded by plain slabs of marble, as in the temples at Paestum, etc. These slabs were sometimes slightly ornamented with around shield in low relief, as in the frieze of the temple of Zeus at Olympia. More frequently they were filled with figures in relief, as in those of Selinus (see SCULPTURE, fig. 1), and of the Theseum and the Parthenon (q.v.). The term is also applied to similarly sculptured slabs not placed between the triglyphs, but on the wall of the cella, as in the temple of Zeus at Olympia. See OLYMPIAN GAMES, fig. 3.]
 
MAUSOLEUM 22.41%
 
STEPHANUS 20.87%

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[A sculptor of the archaistic school of Pasiteles (a contemporary of Pompey). His name appears on a wellknown statue of a nude youth in the Villa Albani, which is repeated with very slight alteration in a male statue forming part of a group in the Naples Museum. Among his pupils was the sculptor Menelaus. (See SCULPTURE, fig. 16.)] [J.E.S.]
 
LEOCHARES 20.12%
A Greek sculptor, of Athens, who (about 350 B.C.) was engaged with Scopas in the adornment of the Mausoleum (q.v.) of Halicarnassus. One of his most famous works was the bronze group of Ganymede and the Eagle, a work remarkable for its ingenious composition, which boldly ventures to the verge of what is allowed by the laws of sculpture, and also for its charming treatment of the youthful form as it soars into the air. It is apparently imitated in the well-known marble group in the Vatican (see cut).
 
GIGANTES 19.10%

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In Homer the Gigantes are a wild and gigantic race of aborigines, kinsmen of the gods, as are the Cyclopes and Phaeacians. With their king Eurymedon, they are destroyed for their wickedness. Hesiod makes them the sons of Gaea, sprung from the blood of the mutilated Uranus. Neither Hesiod nor Homer know anything of their struggle with the gods (Gigantomachia ), the story of which seems to be a reflexion of the myth of the Titans, and their contest with the gods, and to be associated with local legends. The two are often confused by later poets. The place of the contest was Phlegra, or the place of burning. Phlegra, was always localized in volcanic regions. In the earlier stories it is on the Macedonian peninsula of Pallene; and in later times on the Phlegraean plains in Campania between Cumae and Capua, or again at Tartessus in Spain. Led on by Alcyoneus and Porphyrion, they hurled rocks and burning trunks of trees against heaven. But the gods called Heracles to their assistance; a prophecy having warned them that they would be unable to destroy the giants without the aid of a mortal. Heracles slow not only Alcyoneus, but gave the others, whom the gods had struck down, their quietus with his arrows. As Enceladus was flying, Athene threw the island of Sicily upon him. Polybotes was buried by Poseidon under the island of Nisyros, a piece of the island of Cos, which Poseidon had broken off with his trident, with all the giants who had fled there. Besides these, the following names are given among others: Agrios, Ephialtes, Pallas, Clytios, Eurytos, Hippolytos, Thoon. In the oldest works of art the Giants are represented in human form and armed with harness and spears. But in course of time their attributes became terrific, awful faces, long hanging hair and beard, the skins of wild animals for garments, trunks of trees and clubs for weapons. In the latest representations, but not before, their bodies end in two scaly snakes instead of feet (see cut). In the Gigantomachia of Pergamos, the grandest representation of the subject in antiquity, we find a great variety of forms; some quite human, others with snakes' feet and powerful wings, others with still bolder combinations of shape; some are naked, some clothed with skins, some fully armed, and others slinging stones. (See PERGAMENE SCULPTURES.)
 
TYCHE 18.07%

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In Greek mythology, originally the goddess of chance; only occasionally mentioned in the older poets. In the course of time she came to be extensively worshipped as a goddess of prosperity, who had cities under her special protection. With the general decay of belief in the gods she became one of the mightiest and most commonly named of all supernatural powers. She is generally represented with a cornucopia as the bestower of blessing, with a rudder as the pilot of destiny, and with wings, wheel, and ball, as emblems of her variability. [For the personified Tyche of Antioch on the Orontes, see SCULPTURE, fig. 15.]
 
PARTHENON 17.82%
"The maiden's chamber," particularly a temple of Athene Parthenos (the virgin goddess), especially that on the Acropolis of Athens, distinguished by the grandeur of its dimensions, the beauty of its execution, and the splendour of its artistic adornment. [There was an earlier temple of Athene immediately to the south of the Erechtheum (see plan of ACROPOLIS), and the foundations of a new temple were laid after the Persian War, probably in the time of Cimon. This temple was never completed; on the same site there was built a temple of less length, but greater breadth, which is usually called the Parthenon.] It was built at the command of Pericles by the architects Ictinus and Callicrates. It took about five years in building, and was finished in 438 B.C. (fig. 1). Its further adornment with sculptures in the pediments, and with metopes and frieze was completed under the direction of Phidias, who himself took part in the work. The temple, built wholly of Pentelic marble, is 65 feet high. The stylobate, or platform, on which the columns stand (fig. 2, C), is 228 feet in length, and 101 feet in breadth [= 225 x 100 in Attic feet, giving 9 : 4 as the ratio of length to breadth]. Under the stylobate is the crepidoma, or basis proper, formed of three steps (fig. 2, B B B) resting on a massive substructure, 250 feet long and 105 feet broad, and founded on the rock at the highest part of the plateau of the Acropolis (fig. 2, C). The temple is peripteral, its walls being entirely surrounded by a colonnade of forty-six Doric columns, about 35 feet high, eight at each end, and fifteen on each side. The architrave from the first was adorned with 92 metopes sculptured in high relief (see, for the position of the metopes, fig. 2, G). Shields and votive inscriptions were subsequently placed there by Alexander the Great, in 338 B.C. [Plut.,Alex. 16]. The subjects were: on the E. the battle of the gods and giants; on the S., that of the Centaurs and Lapithae (fig. 3); on the W., the victory of the Athenians over the Amazons; and on the N., the destruction of Troy. The sculptures of the eastern pediment (D) represented the birth of the goddess, those of the western the strife of Athene with Poseidon for the possession of Attica. These pediments are 93 feet long, and 11 feet 4 inches high. The cella, or temple proper, is 194 feet long, and 69 1/2 feet wide, with six columns at each end, 33 feet in height. Opposite the outermost columns at each end are antoe, formed by the prolongation of the side walls of the cella (see plan of ACROPOLIS). Along the top of the outer wall of the cella ran a continuous frieze, 524 feet in length, with representations of the Panathenaic procession carved in very low relief (fig. 2, F, and figs. 4 and 5). At the east end of the cella, the pronaos, or portico, leads into the eastern chamber, which was 100 Greek feet in length, and was therefore called the hecatompedos. It was divided longitudinally into three parts by two rows of nine columns each, and above these was a second row of columns forming an upper story. The central space was open to the sky (hypaethral). At its western end, under a protecting canopy, stood the statue of the goddess, wrought in gold and ivory, the masterpiece of Phidias (cp. ATHENE, near the end). The western chamber of the cella was fronted by a portico, and was called by the special name of the Parthenon. [Within this smaller chamber were kept vessels for use in the sacred processions, with various small articles of gold or, silver. Modern writers have hitherto generally identified this small chamber with the opisthodomos (lit. back-chamber), which was used as the treasury, or State bank, of Athens; but it is held by Dorpfeld that this term should be confined to the corresponding chamber of the early temple south of the Erechtheum.] In the Middle Ages the temple was converted into a church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and then into a mosque, and remained in good preservation till 1687. In that year, during the siege of Athens by the Venetians, the building was blown up by the explosion of a powder magazine that the Turks had stored in it, and, with the exception of the two pediments, was almost completely destroyed. Most of the sculptures preserved from the pediments and metopes, and from the frieze of the temple chamber, are now among the Elgin Marbles in the British Museum.
 
CALAMIS 16.67%
A Greek artist, who flourished at Athens about 470 B.C. He worked in marble and metal, as well as gold and ivory, and was master of sculpture in all its branches, from the chiselling of small silver vessels to the execution of colossal statues in bronze. His Apollo, at Apollonia in Pontus, was 120 feet high. This statue was carried away to Rome by Lucullus, and set up on the Capitol. We hear of statues of the gods and heroic women from his hand, as well as of men on horseback and four-horsed chariots. His horses are said to have been unsurpassed. His female figures, if we may believe the ancient critics, were cbaracterized by antique harshness and severity, but were relieved by a touch of grace and delicacy.
 
LACUNARIA 16.39%
The Latin name for the panelled ceilings of rooms which were formed by placing planks across the beams of the roof, whereby hollow spaces were produced. These spaces were covered with wood or ivory, or ornamented with sculptured reliefs or pictures; occasionally they were even gilded or inlaid with plates of gold. [Horace, Odes, ii 18, 1.] In banqueting-rooms they were sometimes so formed that, the panels could be slipped aside to let flowers, wreaths, and other complimentary presents fall in showers on the guests below. [Suetonius, Nero, 31.]
 
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