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A form of later Greek philosophy, founded upon Plato. (See PHILOSOPHY.)
The followers of Aristotle's philosophy. They derived their name from Aristotle's habit of walking with his disciples in the shady avenues of the Athenian Gymnasium called the Lyceum, while he discussed the problems of philosophy. (See also ARISTOTLE and PHILOSOPHY.)
A Greek scholar and philosopher; in the latter capacity a votary of Neoplatonism. He was born 233 A.D. at Batamea in Syria, and received his education at Tyre, and afterwards studied grammar, rhetoric, and philosophy at Athens with Longinus, who instead of his Syrian name Malehus ("king"), gave him the Greek name Porphyrios ("clad in royal purple"). The fame of the Neoplatonist Plotinus drew him in 263 to Rome, where, after some initial opposition, he for six years enthusiastically devoted himself to the study of the Neoplatonic philosophy. Being attacked by a dangerous Mucholy, the result of overwork, he went, on the advice of Plotinus, to Sicily, whence after five years he returned to Rome, strengthened in mind and body. Here, until his death (304), he taught philosophy in the spirit of Plotinus, especially by bringing the teaching of his master within the reach of general knowledge by his clear and attractive exposition. His most important scholar was Iamblichus. A man of varied culture, Porphyry was particularly prolific as an author in the domain of philosophy, grammar, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, and music; however, most of his works, including the most important, are lost, among them a treatise against the Christians in fifteen books, which was publicly burned under Theodosius II (435). We have to lament the loss of his history of Greek philosophy before Plato in four books, of which we now possess only the (certainly uncritical) Life of Pythagords, and that not complete. Besides this there are preserved a Life of Plotinus ; a Compendium of the System of Plotinus, in the form of aphorisms; a work on abstaining from animal food (De Abstinentia) in four books, from the Pythagorean point of view, valuable for its fulness of information on philosophy, and on the religions, forms of ritual, and customs of various peoples; an Introduction to the Categories of Aristotle, and a commentary on the same, in the form of questions and answers; a compendium of his own practical philosophy in the form of a Letter to Marcella, a widow without property, and with seven children, whom Plotinus married in his old age on account of her enthusiasm for philosophy; Scholia on Homer, discussions on a number of Homeric questions, an allegorical interpretation of the Homeric story of the grotto of the Nymphs in the Odyssey; and a Commentary on the Harmonics of Ptolemy.
ZENO 44.64%

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Of Cittium in Cyprus. He came in 390 B.C. as a merchant to Athens, and there, through the study of the writings of the Socratic philosophers, was led to devote himself to philosophy. At first he attached himself to the Cynic philosopher Crates, whose doctrine was, however, too unscientific to give him permanent satisfaction; he then studied under the Megarian Stilpo, and the Academics Xenocrates and Polemon, and founded about 310 a school of philosophy of his own, which received the name of Stoic from the Stoa Poecile, where he held his discourses. After fifty-eight years devoted to the teaching of philosophy, he died at an advanced age, held in the highest honour by the Athenians. Of his numerous writings we possess only a few meagre fragments. His doctrine received its complete development from his followers Cleanthes and Chrysippus. (See PHILOSOPHY.)
A Grecian philosopher, a follower of the Sceptical school, who lived at the beginning of the 3rd century A.D. He is the author of three works on philosophy, (1) the Pyrrhonistic Sketches in three books, an abridgment of the Sceptical philosophy of Pyrrho; (2) an attack on the dogmatists (the followers of the other schools of philosophy) in five books; (3) an attack on the mathematicians (the followers of positive seiences-grammar, with all the historical sciences, rhetoric, arithmetict, geometry, astrology, and music) in six books. These works are remarkable for their learning and acuteness, as well as for simplicity and clearness of style. They form a valuable contribution to our knowledge of the general philosophical literature of Greece, and the Sceptical philosophy in particular.
PYRRHON 41.57%

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A Greek philosopher of Elis, who flourished about 365-275 B.C.; the founder of Scepticism. (See PHILOSOPHY.)
STOICS 37.41%

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The adherents of a school of philosophy (Stoicism), founded by Zeno of Citium. about 310 A.D. They derived their name from the Painted Stoa (see STOA) in Athens, in which Zeno lectured. For further details, see PHILOSOPHY.

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Distinguished as a general, statesman and mathematician, a leading representative of the Pythagorean philosophy, who flourished about 400-366 B.C. (See PYTHAGORAS.)
A Greek philosopher from Chalcis in Syria, a pupil of Porphyrius, and the founder of the Syrian school of Neo-Platonic philosophy. He died about 330 A.D. He employed the Neo-Platonic philosophy entirely in the service of polytheistic religion, and mingled it with Oriental superstition, which he endeavoured to justify on speculative grounds. He even taught that divination and magic were necessary to bring about a re-absorption into the Deity. He himself had the reputation of working miracles, and was highly venerated by his disciples. Of his work in ten books on the Pythagorean philosophy, we still possess four parts, including a life of Pythagoras, an uncritical and careless compilation from the works of earlier writers. A work, formerly attributed to him, on the theology of arithmetic, setting forth the mystic lore of numbers according to the later Pythagoreans and Platonists, is not written by him, any more than the work on the Mysteries of Egypt. Both however belong to his school.
PHILO 29.18%
The Jew. Born of a priestly family at Alexandria, about 25 B.C., he carefully studied the different branches of Greek culture, and, in particular, acquired a knowledge of the Platonic philosophy, while in no way abandoning the study of the Scriptures or the creed of his nation. In 39 A.D. he went to Rome as an emissary to the emperor Caligula in the interest of his fellow countrymen, whose religious feelings were offended by a decree ordering them to place the statue of the deified emperor in their synagogues. This embassy, which led to no result, is described by him in a work which is still extant, though in an incomplete form. Philo is the chief representative of the Graeco-Judaic philosophy. He wrote numerous Greek works in a style modelled on that of Plato. These are remarkable for moral earnestness, passionate enthusiasm, and vigour of thought. They include allegorical expositions of portions of the Scriptures, as well as works of ethical, historical, or political purport. Several of his works only survive in Armenian versions. His philosophy, especially his theology, is an endeavour to reconcile Platonism with Judaism.
A native of Leptis, in Africa. A professor of the Stoic philosophy, who lived in Rome in the middle of the lat century A.D. He was a friend of the poets Lucan and Persius, especially of the latter, whose posthumous satires he prepared for publication. He was banished by Nero, in A.D. 68, for his uprightness and courage. He was the author of works on rhetoric, grammar and philosophy. Of his philosophical works one remains, an essay on the Nature of the Gods, written in Greek. This is perhaps only an extract from a larger work. Cassiodorus (q.v.) has pre served part of a grammatical treatise by Cornutus, entitled De Orthographia ("On Orthography").
The technical name in philosophy for philosophers who were attached to no particular school, but made a selection of favourite dogmas from. the tenets of the different sects.
CLEMENS 26.35%
A Greek ecclesiastical writer, born at Alexandria about 150 A.D. Originally a heathen, he gained, in the course of long travels, a wide knowledge of philosophy. Finding no satisfaction in it, became a Christian, and about 190 A.D. was ordained priest in Alexandria, and chosen to preside over a school of catechumens there. The persecution under Septimius Severus having compelled him to take flight, he founded a school in Jerusalem, and came afterwards to Antioch. He died in 218 A.D. His writings contributing as they do to our knowledge of ancient philosophy, have an important place, not only in Christian, but also in profane literature. This is especially true of the eight books called Stromata; a title which properly means " many coloured carpets," or writings of miscellaneous contents.
A Greek philosopher of Miletus; born B.C. 611; a younger contemporary of Thales and Pherecydes. He lived at the court of Polycrates of Samos, and died B.C. 547. In his philosophy the primal essence, which he was the first to call principle, was the immortal-imperishable, all-including infinite, a kind of chaos, out of which all things proceed, and into which they return. He composed, in the Ionic dialect, a brief and somewhat poetical treatise on his doctrine, which may be regarded as the earliest prose work on philosophy; but only a few sentences out of it are preserved. The advances he had made in physics and astronomy are evidenced by his invention of the sun-dial, his construction of a celestial globe, and his first attempt at a geographical map.

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A Greek philosopher, founder of the Epicurean school, which was so named after him. He was born 342 B.C. in the Attic deme of Gargettus, and spent his early years in Samos, where his father had settled as a cleruchus. (See COLONIES, Greek.) While still young he returned to Athens, and there acquired by independent reading a comprehensive knowledge of previous philosophies. In 310 (aetat. 32) he began to teach philosophy, first in Mytilene, and afterwards in Lampsacus. After 304 he carried on his profession at Athens. Here he bought a garden,in which he lived in retirement in a very modest and simple style, surrounded by his brother and his friends. He died (B.C. 268, aetat. 74) of calculus, after terrible sufferings. But to the last moment he never lost the tranquil serenity which had characterized his whole life. Such was his authority with his disciples that none of them ventured to make any innovation in his doctrines. His school continued to flourish in Athens, under fourteen masters, for 227 years; and much longer in other cities. His writings were remarkably numerous, and in parts very comprehensive. They were admired for their clearness, but their form was found fault with as too careless. Epicurus used to say himself that writing gave him no trouble. All that remains of them [exclusive of what may be gleaned from quotations in later writers], is: (1) a compendium of his doctrine in forty-four short propositions, written for his scholars to learn by heart. This we must, however, remember is not preserved in its original form. (2) Some fragments, not inconsiderable, but much mutilated and very incomplete, of his great work On Nature, in thirty books. These are preserved in the Herculanean papyri. (3) Three letters have survived from the body of his correspondence, besides his will. For his system, see PHILOSOPHY.
ZENO 23.94%
Of Elea; born about 485 B.C., a disciple of the philosopher Parmenides, whose doctrine he sought to prove by indirect arguments. (Cp. PHILOSOPHY). Of his writings only isolated fragments are preserved.
MAXIMUS 22.31%
of Tyre. A Greek rhetorician and adherent of the Platonic philosophy, in the second half of the 2nd century after Christ. Forty-one rhetorical lectures of his on philosophical subjects of general interest are extant; the style is neat and scholarly.
ACADEMY 21.54%
A grove on the Cephissus near Athens, sacred to the hero Academus, and containing a gymnasium. Here Plato, whose country-house was near, delivered his lectures; hence the school of philosophy founded by him received the name of "The Academy."
A Greek author who followed the Peripatetic philosophy. He composed in the 4th century B.C. a historical and allegorical explanation of Greek myths in several books. Of this work we possess only a short abstract, probably composed in the Byzantine age under the title, On Incredible Tales. In former times it was a favourite school book.
GELLIUS 20.77%

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Aulus. A Roman writer of the age of the Antonines, about 130-170 A.D. After receiving his education in rhetoric at Rome, he went to Athens, in his thirtieth year or thereabouts, to study philosophy. Here he saw much of Herodes Atticus. Besides studying philosophy, he spent the long winter nights in wide and various reading, which he took up again with ardour after his return to Italy. From the material thus collected he composed the twenty books of his Noctes Atticoe, written in remembrance of his days at Athens. One book, the eighth, is lost, and only the headings of the chapters remain. The remaining nineteen are a series of excerpts, loosely strung together, from all kinds of Greek and Latin authors, especially the ante-classical writers. They also contain a mass of information, and a number of opinions orally delivered by contemporary scholars. The whole forms a valuable storehouse of notes on questions of historical, antiquarian, and literary interest. Gellius' style is sober, and, like that of an admirer of Fronto (see FRONTO), full of archaic expressions.
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