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POTTERY 100.00%
The simplest, and at the same time one of the oldest, branches of the primeval art of working in clay is the manufacture of bricks and tiles, the invention of which (at Athens) was ascribed by the Greeks to the mythical personages Euryalus and Hyperbius [Pliny, H. N. vii 194]. So far as bricks were used at all, their use was generally confined to private buildings; and Greeks and Romans for ages employed only unbaked or sun-dried bricks. Bricks baked in the kiln came into use at a later date. The first to employ them extensively were the Romans, probably at the period when the population of the city rendered it necessary to build houses of several stories, which demanded a more solid material. In imperial times such bricks were the common material for private and public buildings. The walls were built of them, and then overlaid with stucco or marble. Building with baked bricks extended from Rome into Greece, and, generally speaking, wherever the Romans carried their arms, they introduced their exceptional aptitude for making excellent bricks. Bricks which presented flat surfaces, to be used for walls or pavements, were made of the most various dimensions, but were for the mostpart thinner than ours. Besides these, there were also rounded bricks for bujlding dwarf column, and for the construction of circular walls. For roofs flat tiles were chiefly used (Lat. tegula), which were provided with a raised rim on both of their longer sides, and were so formed that the upper fitted into the lower. Concave tiles also were used (Lat. imbrex) of the form of a half cylinder, which covered the adjoining edges of the flat tiles. The lowest row was commonly finished off with ornamental moulding. From the same material as bricks were also made pipes for conveying water, for sewers, and for warm air; the section in the first two cases was round, in the last, square. Pottery in its proper sense, the manufacture of utensils, is very old. The potter's wheel was known even before Homer's time [IL. xviii 600]. Its invention was variously ascribed to the Corinthian Hyperbius [Pliny vii 198] and to the Athenian Talus, nephew of Daedalus. Corinth and Athens, where the neighbouring promontory of Colias furnished an inexhaustible supply of fine potter's clay, were, in fact, the headquarters of the manufacture of Greek pottery. Next came Aegina, Samos, Lacedaemon, and other places in Greece itself, which always remained the principal seat of this manufacture, especially in the form of vases of painted clay. These were exported in large numbers to the countries on the Mediterranean and Black Seas. The high estimation in which Greek, and especially Attic, pottery was held is proved by the numerous vases which have been discovered in tombs, chiefly in Italy. More-over they represent almost every period. The excellence of the workmanship lies in the material, which is very fine, and prepared with the utmost care; also in the execution and in the baking. Its thinness, as well as the hardness of its sides, even in vessels of large dimensions, astonishes experts in such matters. The shapes are mostly produced by the potter's wheel, but also by hand in the case of vessels too large to be conveniently placed on the wheel; for example, the largest wine-jars. [The prehistoric pottery from Mycenaene, the Troad, and other Hellenic sites, was-also made by hand.] Whereas small vessels were made of a single piece, in the case of large ones the body, handles, feet, and neck, were fashioned separately, and then united. They were first dried in the sun, then twice baked, before and after the painting. The colours are No less admirable than the workmanship. The clay shows a beautiful bright reddish yellow, which is produced by the addition of colouring matter, and is also further intensified by a thin coating of glaze. The black colour, which often verges upon green, and is of a brilliant lustre, is then applied. Either (1) the design stands out black against the bright background or (2) the figures appear in red on a black ground, the former being the earlier method. Other colours, especially white or dark-red, were applied after the black glaze had been burnt into the clay by the second baking, and served as a less lasting adornment. In later times yellow, green, blue, brown, and gold were also used. [In the case of vases with black figures, the vase was first turned on the wheel, and in order to give it a surface of deeper red: clay finely ground and mixed with water to the consistency of cream, technically known as "slip," was applied by a brush or other wise while it was still revolving. The outline of the design was next roughly sketched, either witho . nt or in light-red ochre with a brush. The vase was then dried in the sun, and again put on the wheel, and the glaze, finely powdered and mixed with water was applied to it with a brush as it revolved. The vase was then in some cases fired for the first time in the kiln in order to provide a smooth, almost non-absorbent surface for the use of the painter. The painter then put on the black enamel figures and ornaments with a brush. After the firing of the enamel, the details were drawn in by incised lines, cutting through the enamel down to the clay body of the vase. In vases with red figures instead of the figures being painted in black, the ground is covered with black enamel and the figures left, showing the glazed red "slip" which covers the whole vase. This method produced a great artistic advance in the beauty of the figures, the details and inner lines of which could be executed with freedom and ease by brush-marked lines, instead of by the laborious process of cutting incised lines through the very hard black enamel (Prof. Middleton on "Pottery" in Encyc. Brit. xix 608, 609).] Lastly, the form deserves all praise. The vases of the best period present the most tasteful elegance of form, that is at once fine and strong, and the most delicate proportion of the various parts to each other and to the whole, without interfering with their practical utility (see cuts under VASES and VESSELS). It was not until the times when taste had begun to degenerate that the fashion was introduced of giving to clay ware, by means of moulds, all kinds of grotesque forms of men and beasts, and of furnishing them with plastic (as well as painted) ornamentation. [The technique of ancient pottery is illustrated by figs. 1 and 2. The first represents a youth seated in front of an oven, from the top of which he takes with two sticks a small, two-handled vase which has been newly glazed. The second shows the potter giving the last polish to a finished vase, while two other vessels are standing to dry on an oven, the door of which is closed (Guhl and Koner's Life of the Greeks and Romans, p. 141, Eng. ed.). Among the votive tablets in the Louvre there are two from Corinth, The first of these represents an early Greek type of kiln, which is domed over, and has a space for the fuel on one side, and a door in the side of the upper chamber, through which the pottery could be put in and withdrawn. The second shows a potter applying painted bands while the vessel revolves on the wheel (Prof. Middleton, l.c., figs. 3 and 20). See also VASES.] The ROMANS, with whom, as early as the time of the second king, Numa, a guild (collegium) of potters existed, neither had vessels of painted clay amongst their household goods, nor did they employ it for the ornamentation of their graves. In earlier times at least, they used only coarse and entirely unornamented ware. They imported artistically executed vases from their neighbours, the Etruscans. In the last hundred years of the Republic, as well as in the first hundred years after Christ, the chief place for the manufacture of the red crockery generally used in households was Arretium (Arezzo) [Pliny, xxxv 160; Martial, i 54, 6, xiv 98; Dennis, Etruria, ii 335]. The ware of this place was distinguished by a coral-red colour, and was generally furnished with glaze and delicate reliefs; in fact, ornamentation in relief was widely employed in later Roman pottery. Very much valued was the domestic ware, called vasa Samia, which was an imitation of the earlier pottery brought from the island of Samos. It was formed of fine, red-coloured clay, baked very hard, of thin make, and very delicate workmanship. It was glazed and generally adorned with reliefs, and served especially for the table use of respectable people who could not afford silver. While this fine ware was made by hand, the manufacture of ordinary pottery as well as of bricks and pipes, especially under the Empire, formed an important industry among capitalists, who, on finding good clay on their estates, built potteries and tileworks, and either worked them on their own account through slaves or had them carried on by lessees. The emperor himself, after the time of Tiberius, and the members of the imperial family, especially the females, pursued a similar trade, as is shown by the trade-mark which, according to Roman custom, was borne by clay manufactures. The production of large statues of clay, apart from the purpose of modelling, belongs amongst the Greeks to the early times. It continued much longer amongst the Italians, especially amongst the Etruscans, who furnished the temple at Rome with clay images of the gods before the victorious campaigns in the East brought marble and bronze productions of Greek art to Rome. On the other hand, throughout the whole of antiquity, the manufacture of small clay figures of very various kinds, for the decoration of dwellings and graves, and for playthings for children, etc., was most extensively practised. They were generally made in moulds, and after baking were decorated with a coating of colour. The excellence which Greek art attained in this department, as in others, is shown by the "figurines" discovered at Tanagra in and after 1874, specimens of which are given in figs. 3, 4. Very important too was the manufacture of clay reliefs, partly with figured representation and partly with arabesque patterns, for the embellishment of columns, windows, cornices, and also of tombstones and sarcophagi. (See Dumont and Chaplain, Ceramiques, 1888: Kekule, Thonfiguren aus Tanagra, 1878, Die antiken Terracotten, 1880, and Die Terracotten von Sicilien, 1884; Henzey, Catalogue des figurines antiques de terre cuite du Musee du Louvre, 1882, id. 60 plates, 1883; and the popular work by Pottier, Les Statuettes de Terre Cuite dans L'Antiquite, 1880.)
Examples of handicraft applied to the ordinary needs of life occur in the mythical ages of Greece. Among the gods of Olympus, Hephaestus represents this kind of industry, and the oldest craftsmen are represented as divine beings appearing on earth, as in the instance of the Idaean Dactyli and the Telchines in Crete. In the Homeric poems, which are the production of an age fairly advanced in culture, the number of craftsmen properly so called is very small. (See DEMIURGI.) The only ones mentioned are builders, carpenters, potters, and workers in leather and metal. The development of the mechanical arts inGreece was immensely indebted, in ancient times, to foreign influence, especially that of the East; for Eastern civilization was far older than Hellenic. The greater part of the trade carried on in Greek waters was in the hands of the Phoenicians, and it was, consequently, Phoenician manufacture which the Hellenes took as a model for imitation, so soon as they thought of widening the sphere of their own industries, and bringing them to perfection. Since the 6th century B.C., or thereabouts, the definite impress of Asiatic manufacture disappears, and Greek trade, supported by a rapidly developing art, takes its own time. Not that it lost all contact with foreign work, for not only did the colonies keep up an active communication with the non-Hellenic world, but foreign craftsmen took up their permanent residence in Greek towns, such as Athens and Corinth. Manual labour, like every lucrative occupation, was generally held in low esteem among the Greeks, and especially among the Dorian tribes. But this state of opinion must have grown up comparatively late, as there is no trace of it in Homer or Hesiod. On the contrary, the Homeric princes do not think it beneath them to undertake the work of craftsmen. In later times we find the free citizens of many states entirely declining all manual labour. In Sparta, for instance, the handicrafts were only practised by the perioeci and helots, and mechanics were excluded from civic rights. At Athens all citizens were equal in the eyes of the law, and it was expressly forbidden to reproach a man for the character of his vocation, whatever it might be. The poorer citizens were compelled by law to practise some trade or other, and it was quite usual to engage in commerce. But still, in the opinion even of the wisest statesmen, mechanical labour was physically, intellectually, and morally prejudicial. The petty anxieties which it involved were held to be incompatible with the tone, and culture demanded by the active life of the citizen, with the qualities which would enable him to join in deliberation on great affairs of state, and conduct public business with hones and intelligence. It was thought, in fact, that all manual labour should be left to slaves and freedmen. Much of the mechanical industry of Athens was, accordingly, in the hands of slaves, freedmen, and resident aliens. The slaves worked sometimes on their own account, paying a certain amount of their earnings to their master; sometimes entirely for the profit of their masters, the latter taking no active part in the business; sometimes they acted as assistants to the citizens and resident aliens who carried on a business of their own. But in industrial cities the great mass of slaves was employed in factories, the owners of which left the superintendence of the work to a head man, usually himself a slave or freedman, reserving for themselves only the general management and the financial control of the business. The immense masses of slaves kept at Athens and Corinth, and in Aegina and Chios, show how numerous the factories were in industrial cities. The manufacture of metal wares, pottery, and other objects which could not be made at home, was the most extended of all. The division of labour kept pace with the development of trade and manufacture. This fact may partly explain how it is that, in spite of the comparative simplicity of their tools, the Greek craftsmen attained, especially in works of art, such admirable perfection of technical detail. In ancient Greece it would appear that there were no trade-guilds and corporations in the proper sense. But among the Romans these societies were an institution of old standing, the foundation of which was attributed to king Numa, like that of many others which had existed from time immemorial. The guilds of craftsmen (collegiaopificum), included flute-players, goldsmiths, coppersmiths, carpenters, fullers, dyers, potters, and shoemakers. There was originally a ninth collegium, which embraced all not included in the other eight; but in later times these, with the new industries that gradually arose, combined into special guilds. The object of the guilds undoubtedly was to maintain an unbroken tradition, and to watch over the common interest. But there seems to have been no compulsion exercised to make men join a guild. The Romans, like the Greeks, seem to have thought that there was something objectionable in mechanical labour; but it is uncertain whether the prejudice was of really old standing. It must be remembered that the Servian constitution threw the burden of military service entirely upon the landowners. Thus the craftsmen, who as a rule had no landed property, were practically, though not legally, excluded from the army. From this circumstance may have arisen the low estimation in which manual industry was consequently held. It was partly owing to this state of opinion that peasants, when they lost their land, were unwilling to win their bread as mechanics, and preferred to adopt the dependent position of clients livin on public alms and the bribes of candidates at elections. In Rome, as in Greece, the handicrafts tended more and more to pass into the hands of strangers, freedmen, and slaves. In wealthy houses most of the necessary manual work was done by slaves, whose talents were often, as in Greece, turned to account by their masters. They were often employed in manufactures, and specially in such branches of industry as could be combined with agriculture, tilemaking for instance, pottery, dying, tanning, felt-making, etc. No social stigma attached to manufacture in Rome any more than in Greece; indeed in the imperial age even the emperors and the members of the imperial household would, without scruple, invest their private capital in industrial undertakings of this sort. After the fall of the republic, and throughout the imperial age, Rome was the centre of the whole commercial activity of the ancient world, though the Romans made no special contribution to industrial progress. Having in former ages been dominated by Etruscan influence, Roman industry was in later times dependent on the art of the Eastern world, and especially of Greece.
VESSELS 23.47%
An immense number of vessels for different purposes is mentioned by the ancients. It is impossible within the present limits to speak of more than a certain number of the most important. In ordinary life much use was made of pottery, which was sometimes ornamented with paintings. (See POTTERY and VASES.) Next to clay, bronze was the favourite material. The precious metals, marble, and other stones, such as porphyry, travertine, alabaster, and onyx, were also used, and the vessels made of these and of bronze were often adorned with carved work. On the employment of glass for this purpose, see GLASS. (Cp. also MURRINA.) It can hardly be said that wood was much in use. Vessels intended to hold wine, oil, salt meat, salt fish, olives, corn, and the like, were generally of clay. The largest of them was the pithos (Gr.) or dolium (Lat.), a butt in the form of a gourd, used for storing oil and wine. This vessel, which was lined with pitch, was often so large that a man could easily get inside it. It was one of these butts in which Diogenes made his abode. They were generally let into the floor of the cellar, and counted as immovable furniture. The Greek bikos and the Roman seria were smaller vats of the same kind, used for storing salt-meats, figs, corn, etc. For purposes of sale and of use, the wine and oil were passed from the dolium into the amphora (Gr. amphoreus), and the cadus (Gr. kados). These were vessels with two handles, and a slim body pointed at the foot. They were either buried up to the middle in the ground, or set up slanting against the wall (fig. 1, nos. 20-23; fig. 2 a, b). The cadi were specially used by the Romans for the storage of Greek wines. Wine and oil were also, especially in the country, put into leather bags (Gr. askos; Lat. uter), as is the case now in the East and in the south of Europe. The bag was made by sewing a number of skins together, and was tapped by untying one of the legs. For drawing and holding water they used the hydria, or kalpis (Lat. urna), carried on the head or shoulders. This was a vessel, with a short neck and large body, often with three handles, two smaller ones for carrying, and one behind for drawing and pouring out (fig. 1, nos. 16, 17). The lagynos (Lat. lagona or lagoena) was a wine-jar. It had a narrow neck, rather a wide mouth, and a handle (fig. 1, no. 34). It was hung up as a sign in front of wine shops, and was put before the guests at table. The lekythos or ampulla was used for oil (fig. 1, no. 33); the alabastron or alabaston (fig. 1, no. 35) for fragrant ointments. This vessel was named from the material of which it was usually made. Both the lekythos and alabastron had narrow necks, so that the liquid ran out in drops. The alabastron was round at the foot, and therefore required a stand to support it. The general term krater (Lat. cratera or creterra) was used to denote the vessels in which wine was mixed with water at mealtimes (fig. 1, no. 25; cp. HILDESHEIM, THE TREASURE OF). They were moderately large, with wide necks and bodies, and two handles. Sometimes they had a pedestal, sometimes they were pointed or round beneath, in which case they required a support (hypokraterion). For ladling and pouring out the wine, spoons were used (trua, trulla, fig. 3), as well as various sorts of cups (cyathus, fig. 1, nos. 10, 13-15). These resembled our tea and coffee cups, but had a much higher handle, rising far above the rim, and contained a definite measure. Drinking-vessels were made in the form of bowls, beakers, and horns. To the first class belonged the flat phiale, or saucer without handle or base, corresponding to the Roman patera generally used in sacrifices (fig. 1, nos. 1, 2); the kymbion, a long deep vessel without handles, so called from its likeness to a boat; and the kylix (Lat. calix) with handle and base (fig. 1, nos. 3 and 8). Among the beakers may be mentioned the skyphos (Lat. scyphus) attributed to Heracles (fig. 1, nos. 4-7). This was a large cup originally of wood, and used by shepherds, sometimes with a round, sometimes with a flat bottom. Another was the kantharos (cantharus) peculiar to Dionysus (fig. 1, no. 12), with a high base and projecting handles. The karchesion (carchesium, fig. 1, no. 11) was tall, slightly contracted at its sides, and with slender handles reaching from the rim to the foot [Macrobius, Saturnalia v 21]: the kiborion (ciborium) resembled the husks of the Egyptian bean. The class of drinking horns included the rhyton (fig. 4), with its mouth shaped like the head of an animal. As may be seen from the names, the Romans borrowed most of their drinking vessels from the Greeks. They were generally fitted with silver; and, during the imperial times often ornamented with finely cut gems. It is unnecessary to enumerate the various vessels used for washing, cooking, and eating, the characteristics of which were not strikingly different from our own. But we may observe that for domestic purposes of all kinds the ancients used basket work of canes, rushes, straw, and leaves, especially palm leaves. The kalathos, made in the form of a lily (fig.5, a and b), was used for holding the wool used in weaving and embroidery: the low kaneon, or basket of round or oval shape (fig. 5, c), for bread and fruit. The Athenian maidens carried kanea on their heads at the Panathenaic procession. (See CANEPHORI.) For baskets of other shapes, see fig. 5, d, e, f.
In Italy. In Italy also the existence of the community was regarded as based upon agriculture. This is proved by the practice of marking the site of the future walls of a new town by a furrow drawn with the plough. At Rome especially, the body of irremovable peasantry long formed the core of the commonwealth. In political life the free peasant was the only factor held in account, and accordingly in war the object was to increase the number of free peasants by planting them out on as much of borderland as could be wrested from the enemy. In early times agriculture was thought the only respectable calling in which a Roman citizen could engage; and manual labour on the land was held in unqualified esteem and as bringing no disgrace even upon persons in high place. Husbandry was mainly directed to the raising of grain, the ordinary cereal being at first spelt, till, in the 5th century B.C., wheat began to take a place beside it. They also cultivated barley, millet, and leguminous plants, as well as turnips, greens, and herbs for fodder. On irrigation and drainage the Italians bestowed much pains. They had no lack of grass-lands, either for pasture or haymaking; and from an early time these were artificially watered. The cultivation of the vine and olive extended as that of grains declined (see below); so did the growth of orchard-fruit, which, under the late Republic and the early Empire, received a vast expansion both from the improvement of native kinds and the introduction and naturalization of many foreign fruits. In earlier times the prime favourite among fruit trees had been, as in Greece, the nutritious fig. Agriculture proper was ruined by the acquisition of the first extra-Italian possessions, Sicily and Sardinia; for the corn supplied by the provincials as tribute in kind began to be used, not only in provisioning the armies, but in feeding the urban population. (See ANNONA.) As the State, to humour the rabble of Rome, sold this corn at the lowest possible prices, sometimes even below its value, the growth of cereals ceased to be profitable; farmers kept it down to a minimum, and took to cattle-breeding or raising wine and oil. These branches of industry not only flourished in the face of competition, but with judicious management were highly remunerative. The death-blow was given to the Italian peasantry by the increasing employment of slaves and the absorption of small farms in large estates (see LATIFUNDIUM). On these, besides the growth of wine, oil, and fruit, the breeding of birds, game, and cattle was carried on, as well as woodcraft, and special industries, pottery, charcoal-burning, and others. Farming implements, in addition to the plough (q.v.) usually drawn by oxen, which was much the same among Greeks and Romans, and always very imperfect, included a great variety of spades, hoes, and mattocks, and among Romans the harrow, the use of which among the Greeks is doubted. The season for sowing all cereals was usually autumn. At harvest the stalks were cut with the sickle about half-way down, and the rest left standing as stubble, to be either burnt or utilized for manure. The process of threshing (q.v.) was very defective. (For ancient works on husbandry, see GEOPONICI.)
The origin of painting as an art in Greece is connected with definite historical personages. That of sculpture is lost in the mists of legend. It was regarded as an art imparted to men by the gods; for such is the thought expressed in the assertion that the earliest statues fell from heaven. The first artist spoken of by name, DAeDALUS, who is mentioned as early as Homer, is merely a personification of the most ancient variety of art, that which was employed solely in the construction of wooden images of the gods. This is clearly proved by his name (= "the cunning artificer"). To him were attributed a series of inventions certainly separated far from each other in respect of time and place, and embracing important steps in the development of wood-carving and in the representation of the human form. Thus he is said to have invented the saw, the axe, the plummet, the gimlet, and glue [Pliny,N. H. vii 198], to have been the first to open the eyes in the statues of the gods, to separate the legs, and to give freer motion to the arms, which had before hung close to the body [Diodorus iv 76]. After him the early school of sculptors at Athens, his reputed native city, is sometimes called the school of Daedalus [Pausanias v 25 § 13]. During a long residence in Crete he is said to have instructed the Cretans in making wooden images (xoana) of the gods [ib. viii 53 § 8]. The invention of modelling figures in clay, from which sculpture in bronze originated, is assigned to the Sicyonian potter BÜTÄDES at Corinth [Pliny, xxxv 151]. The art of working in metals must have been known early in Greece, as appears from the Homeric poems [esp. ll. xviii 468-608, "the shield of Achilles "]. An important step in this direction was due to GLAUCUS of Chios, who in the 7th century B.C. invented the soldering of iron [Herodotus, i 25; Pausanias, x 16 § 1], and the softening and hardening of metal by fire and water [Plutarch, De Defectu Orac. 47]. The discovery of bronze-founding is attributed to RHOECUS and THEODORUS of Samos about 580 [Pausanias, viii 14 § 8]. The high antiquity of Greek sculpture in stone may be inferred from a work of the very earliest period of Greek civilization, the powerful relief of two upright lions over the gate of the castle at Mycenae. (See ARCHITECTURE, fig. 2.) Sculpture in marble, as well as in gold and ivory, was much advanced by two famous "pupils of Daedalus," DIPOENUS and SCYLLIS of Crete, who were working in Argos and Sicyon about 550 B.C. [Pliny, xxxvi §§ 9, 14; Pausanias, ii 15 § 1, 22 § 5], and founded and influential school of art in the Peloponnesus. [This school included Hegylus and Theocles (Pausanias, vi 19 § 8, 17 § 2); Dontas and Dorycleidas (ib., vi 19 § 12, v 17 § 1); Clearchus of Rhegium (iii 17 § 6); Tectaeus and Augelion (ii 32 § 5, ix 35 § 3).] Among their works are recorded not only statues of gods, but also of heroes, often united in large groups. Some conception of the artistic productions of this period may be, formed from scattered monuments still extant, originating in different parts of the Greek world; e.g. the rude and more primitive metopes of Selinus Sicily (fig. 1); the statues of Apollo from the island of Thera and from Tenea, near Corinth (fig. 2); the reliefs on the Harpy Monument from the acropolis of Xanthus in Lycia (figs. 3 and 4), etc. These works, in spite of their archaic stiffness, show an effort after individual and natural expression, though the position of the foot in striding, with the sole completely touching the ground, and the unemotional and stony smile on the mask-like face, are common to all. Even after Greek sculpture had mastered the representation of the human body, not only at rest, but also in the most violent movement, it still continued unable to overcome the lifeless rigidity of facial expression. This is seen in the Trojan battle-scenes (date about 480) on the Aeginetan pediments. Here the figures are represented in every variety of position in the fight, and depicted, not indeed with any ideality, but with perfect mastery even to the smallest detail; whereas the faces are entirely destitute of any expression appropriate to their situation. (See fig. 5, and the (West Pediment under AeGINETAN SCULPTURES.) The athletic forms in which the Aeginetan heroes are represented indicate another important extension of the sphere of artistic representation. From about 544 B.C. it had become usual to erect statues of the victors in the athletic contests, Olympia especially abounding in these. [Ol. 59; Pausanias, vi 18 § 7 ; the statues there mentioned are of wood.] By this innovation the art was freed from the narrow limits to which it had been confined by the traditions of religion, and led on to a truer imitation of nature. In this department the school of Aegina was specially active, attaining its highest perfection in the bronze statuary of GLAUCIAS, CALLON, and above all ONÄTÄS (500-460). Sculpture in bronze flourished simultaneously in the Peloponnesus at Sicyon under CÄNÄCHUS [for a supposed copy of his Apollo see CANACHUS] and his brother ARISTÖCLES, the founder of a school which lasted long after, and at Argos under AGELADAS, the teacher of Phidias, Myron, and Polyolitus. The transition to the period of the finest art is represented by CÄLÄMIS of Athens, PYTHÄGÖRÄS of Rhegium, and especially MYRON, another Athenian, in whom the art attained the highest truth to nature, with perfect freedom in the representation of the human body, and was thus prepared for the development of ideal forms. This last step was taken at Athens, in the time of Pericles, by PHIDIAS. In his creations, particularly in his statues of the gods, whether in bronze or in ivory and gold, he succeeded in combining perfect beauty of form with the most profound ideality, fixing for ever the ideal type for Zeus and Athene, the two deities who were pre-eminently characterized by intellectual dignity. (See ATHENE, ZEUS, and PARTHENON, figs. 4 and 5.) For one of his heroic subjects see fig. 7. Of the pupils of Phidias the two who worked most nearly in the same spirit were AGÖRÄCRITUS and ALCAMENES, the author of the sculpture of the western pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, part of which still remains. The perfection of Attic art at this time can be realized when we consider that, with all their beauty of execution, the extant marble sculptures of the Parthenon, Theseum, Erechtheum, and the temple of "Wingless Victory" must be regarded as mere productions of the ordinary workshop [as compared with the lost masterpieces of Phidias]. The school of Phidias had rivals in the naturalistic school which followed Myron, including his son LYCIUS and CRESILAS of Cydonia. [For a supposed copy of his Pericles, see CRESILAS.] Independent of both schools stood PAeONIUS of Mende, whose Victory, as well as part of his sculptures on the east pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, are still extant [see PAeONIUS and OLYMPIAN GAMES (fig. 1)]; and CALLIMÄCHUS, the "inventor" of the Corinthian order of architecture [Vitruvius, iv 1 § 10] and of the application of the auger to working in marble [Pausanias, i 26 § 6]. Another school of sculpture in opposition to that of Athens was founded at Argos by Phidias' younger contemporary POLYCLITUS, whose colossal gold and ivory statue of the Argive Hera directly challenged comparison with the works of Phidias in its materials, its ideality, and its artistic form, and established the ideal type of that goddess. He mainly devoted himself, however, to work in bronze, the department in which Argos had long been pre-eminent; and made it his aim to exhibit the perfection of beauty in the youthful form (fig. 8). He also established a canon or scheme of the normal proportions of the body. Of his pupils the chief was Naucydes of Argos. As in the first period of Greek sculpture, represented by Myron, Phidias, and Polyclitus, the schools of Athens and Argos held the first rank beyond dispute, so it was also in the second period, which embraces the 4th century down to the death of Alexander the Great. Athens, moreover, during this period remained true to the traditions of Phidias, and still occupied itself mainly with the ideal forms of gods and heroes, though in a spirit essentially altered. The more powerful emotions, the more deeply stirred passions, of the period after the Peloponnesian War were not without their influence on art. The sculptors of the time abandoned the representation of the dignified divinities of the earlier school, and turned to the forms of those deities whose nature gave room for softer or more emotional expression, especially Aphrodite and Dionysus and the circle of gods and daemons who surrounded them. The highest aim of their art was to pourtray the profound pathos of the soul, to give expression to the play of the emotions. With this is connected the preference of this school for marble over bronze, as more suited for rendering the softer and finer shades of form or expression. The art of executing work in gold and ivory was almost lost, the resources of the States no longer sufficing, as a rule, for this purpose. The most eminent of the New Attic school were SCÖPÄS of Paros and PRAXITELES of Athens. Scopas, also famous as an architect, was a master of the most elevated pathos. Praxiteles was no less masterly in regard to the softer graces in female or youthful forms, and in the representation of sweet moods of dreamy reverie. In his statues of Aphrodite at Cnidus and Eros at Thespiae he established ideal types for those divinities. The Hermes with the infant Dionysus, found at Olympia, remains as a memorial of his art (fig. 9). Of the productions of this school (in which the names of BRYAeUS, LEOCHARES, and TIMOTHEUS, who was joined with Scopas in his work on the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, ought also to be mentioned) an opinion may be formed from the spirited reliefs on the choragic monument of Lysicrates (q.v.) at Athens. We have also extant, in a copy, the Niobid group (see NIOBE), concerning the original of which it was much disputed, even in ancient times, whether the author were Scopas or Praxiteles [Pliny, xxxvi 28]. In contrast to the ideal aims of Attic art, the Sicyonian school still remained true to its early naturalistic tendencies and to the art of sculpture in bronze, of which Argos had so long been the home. At the head of the school stood one of the most influential and prolific artists of antiquity, LYSIPPUS of Sicyon. His efforts were directed to represent beauty and powerful development in the human body (fig. 11). Hence Heracles, as the impersonation of human physical strength, was pourtrayed by him oftener, and with more success, than any other deity, and his type fully established. Lysippus was most prolific as a portrait sculptor, a branch of art which bad been much advanced in the invention by his brother Lysistratus of the method of taking plaster casts of the features [Pliny, xxxv 153]. After Alexander the Great the practice of the art, which had thus developed to perfect mastery of technique, began to deteriorate with the general decay of the countries of Greece proper, and to give place to the flourishing artistic schools of Asia Minor and the neighbouring islands. The characteristic of this period is the rise of a method of treatment which strives after effect. Instead of the naivete of earlier times we get a certain deliberate calculation of a theatrical type, a tendency to make the exhibition of technical skill an end in itself. The most productive school was that of Rhodes, at the head of which stood a pupil of Lysippus, CHARES of Lindus, who designed the famous Colossus of Rhodes, the largest statue of ancient times. Two well known extant works in marble proceeded from this school, the group of Laocoon (q.v.) and his sons, by AGESANDER, ATHENODORUS, and POLYDORUS, found at Rome in 1506, now one of the chief treasures of the Vatican Museum, and the Farnese Bull at Naples. This last group, by APOLLONIUS and TAURISCUS of Tralles, represents the revenge of Zethus and Amphion on Dirce (see cut under DIRCE), and is the largest extant antique work which consists of a single block of marble. Both these are admirable in skill and technique, embodying with the greatest vividness the wild passions of a moment of horror; but the theatrical effect and the exhibition of technical skill are unduly exaggerated. [To the Rhodian school is conjecturally assigned the fine group representing Menelaus bearing the body of Patroclus, several imperfect copies of which are still extant (fig. 12). It is sometimes, however, regarded as one of the later products of the same school as the group of Niobe, and assigned to the early part of the 3rd century B.C. (Friederichs - Wolters, Gipsabgusse, no. 1397.) The Pasquino at Rome is probably the original of the copy in the Vatican and of both of those in Florence.] The second in rank of the schools of this period was that at Pergamon, where the sculptors Isogonus, Phyromachus, Stratonicus, and Antigonus celebrated in a series of bronze statues the victories of the kings Eumenes I (263-241) and Attalus I (241-197) over the Gauls. There are still extant, at Venice, Rome, and Naples, single figures from a magnificent offering of Attalus, which stood on the Acropolis at Athens, and consisted of groups of figures illustrating the conflict between the gods and the Giants, the battle of the Athenians and Amazons , the fight at Marathon, and the destruction of the Gauls by Attalus. Other masterpieces of the school are the work popularly called the Dying Gladiator, now identified as a Gallic warrior, who has just stabbed himself after a defeat (fig. 13), and the group in the Villa Ludovisi, called Paetus and Arria, which really represents a Gaul killing his wife and himself. But the most brilliant proof of their powers is furnished by the relief, of the battle of the Giants from the acropolis at Pergamon. This work-brought to light by Humann in 1878, and now at Berlin -is among the most important artistic products of antiquity. (See PERGAMENE SCULPTURES.) To this period may also be referred with certainty the original of the celebrated Belvedere Apollo, which probably had reference to the rescue of the temple of Delphi from the Gallic army in B.C. 280, which was supposed to be the work of the god (fig. 14). To Greek art in Egypt belong the types of Isis and Harpocrates, and the fine reclining figure of the river-god Nilus, with sixteen charming boys playing round him. The artistic activity of the kingdom of the Seleuecidae in Syria is represented by Eutychides, a pupil of Lysippus, and his famous Tyche, a work in bronze representing the presiding destiny of the city of Antioch on the Orontes [Pausanias, vi 2 § 6; see fig. 15]. After the subjugation of Greece by the Romans in the middle of the 2nd century, Rome became the headquarters of Greek artists, whose work, though without novelty in invention, had many excellences, especially in perfect mastery of technique. Of the artists of the 1st Century B.C. and the early imperial times the following are worthy of mention: APOLLONIUS of Athens (Belvedere torso of Hercules at Rome), GLYCON (Farnese Hercules at Naples, see cut, art. HERACLES), and CLEOMENES (Venus de' Medici at Florence), though the works of all these are more or less free reproductions of the creations of earlier masters; also AGASIAS of Ephesus, sculptor of the Borghese Gladiator in the Louvre at Paris, a very fine work in the spirit of the Pergamene school (see cut under AGASIAS). In the same period PASITELES, an Italian Greek of great versatility, attempted a regeneration of art on the basis of careful study of nature and of earlier productions. This movement in favour of an academic eclecticism was continued by Pasiteles' pupil,STEPHÄNUS, who has left us a youthful figure (Villa Albani), and Stephanus' pupil MENELAUS, the artist of the fine group called Orestes and Electra (fig. 16). There was a revival of Greek art in the first half of the 2nd century A.D. under Hadrian, when a new ideal type of youthful beauty was created in the numerous representations of the imperial favourite Antinous (see cut under ANTINOUS). The artistic work of the Romans before the introduction of Greek culture was under Etruscan influence. The art of that people was chiefly displayed in pottery and the closely connected craft of bronze-founding, which they developed with great technical skill and for which they had a special predilection. They not only filled their towns with quantities of bronze statues, Volsinii alone containing about 2,000 at the time of its conquest by the Romans in 265 B.C. [Pliny, xxxiv 34], but provided Rome also for a long time with works of the kind. Judging from the extant monuments, such as the Mars of Todi at the Vatican, the Boy with a Goose under his Arm at Leyden, and the Robed Statue of Aulus Metellus at Florence, the character of their art seems wanting in freedom of treatment and in genuine inspiration. After the conquest of Greece, Greek art took the place of Etruscan at Rome; and, thanks to the continually increasing love of magnificence among the Romans, which was not content with the adornment of public buildings and squares, but sought artistic decoration for private dwellings, a brisk activity in art was developed, whereof numberless extant works give evidence. Beside the Greek influence, to which we owe many copies of the masterpieces of Greek art gradually accumulated in Rome, a peculiarly Roman art arose. This was especially active in portrait sculpture. Portrait statues were divided, according as they were in civil or military costume, into togatae and loricatae or thoracatae (lorica=thorax, a coat of mail). To these were added in later times the so-called Achilleae, idealized in costume and pose [Pliny, xxxiv §§ 8, 118]. It was customary to depict emperors in the form of Jupiter or other gods, and their wives with the attributes of Juno or Venus. Of the innumerable monuments of this description special mention is due to the statue of Augustus in the Vatican (fig. 17); the marble equestrian statues of Balbus and his son at Naples (found at Herculaneum); the bronze equestrian statue of M. Aurelius on the square of the Capitol at Rome; the seated statues of Agrippina the elder in the Capitoline Museum, and the younger at Naples. Hand in hand with portrait sculpture went the art of historical reliefs. In accordance with the realistic spirit of Rome, as opposed to the Greek custom of idealizing persons and events, this department strove to secure the greatest possible accuracy and truth. The most important works of the kind are the reliefs on the Arch of Titus (see cut under TRIUMPH); those on the Arch of Constantine, taken from the Arch of Trajan (see cut under TRIUMPHAL ARCHES); and those on the columns of Trajan and M. Aurelius (see cut under ARCHITECTURE, ORDERS OF, p. 58 b). Roman historical sculpture is seen already on its decline in the reliefs of the Arch of Septimius Severus (203 A.D.), and the decline is complete in those of the Arch of Constantine. A Subordinate branch of relief sculpture was employed on the sarcophagi common from the 2nd century A.D. The subjects of these reliefs are rarely taken from events in the man's actual life, they are most usually scenes from legends of Greek gods or heroes, often after compositions of an earlier period, and accordingly showing a Greek character in their treatment. (See out under MUSES.) Materials. White marble was the material chiefly employed: in the earlier times of Greek art, the local kinds, in Attica particularly the Pentelic, which is "fine in grain and of a pure white" (Middleton's Rome in 1888, pp. 11, 12). From the 4th century on that of Paros was preferred. [This is a very beautiful marble, though of a strongly crystalline grain; it is slightly translucent.] It was used in Roman times in preference to the similar marble of Luna (Carrara), a " marble of many qualities, from the purest white and a fine sparkling grain like loaf sugar, to the coarser sorts disfigured with bluish-gray streaks" (ib). It was sometimes used for columns in Rome. The marble of Hymettus "appears to have been the first foreign marble introduced into Rome. It resembles the inferior kind of Luna marble, being rather coarse in grain and frequently stained with gray striations" (ib.). Coloured marble first became popular under the emperors; e.g. black for Egyptian subjects (statues of Isis), red for Dionysus, Satyrs, and others in his train. To the same period belongs the use of striped and spotted kinds of marble, coloured alabaster, porphyry, and granite. Different colours of stone were also combined (e.g. drapery of black marble or porphyry). A noteworthy peculiarity of ancient sculpture, as also of architecture, is the habit of embellishing all kinds of marble work by the application of colours (Polychromy), which is known from references in ancient writers. [Plato, Rep. 420 C, speaks of "painting statues." Plutarch, De Gloria Athen. 348 F, mentions "dyers" of statues side by side with gilders and encaustic painters. Lastly, Pliny, xxxv 133, states that Praxiteles owned he was much indebted to the circumlitio, or touching up, of his works by the painter Nicias.] It is also attested by traces still present on many works. [Thus the straps of the sandal of the Hermes of Praxiteles still show traces of red and gold; and the statues at Pompeii, especially those of late date, are in many cases coloured, especially certain parts of the drapery. The accompanying cut (fig. 18) introduces us into the studio of an artist engaged in embellishing with paint a terminal statue of Hermes. The original sketch in colours lies on the ground, and she is pausing to examine her work, which is also watched with interest by two bystanders. (Cp. Treu, Sollen wir unsre Statuen bemalen? Berlin, 1884.) Wood and pottery were always painted. [It is sometimes supposed that] even sculptures intended for the adornment of buildings, e.g. metopes and friezes, not only had painted backgrounds (generally blue or red), but were themselves richly adorned with colouring. [It is also held that] originally, even the bare parts of stone figures were painted; afterwards a coating of wax was thought enough [Vitruvius, vii9]. In particular statues, many artists coloured only the characteristic parts, fringes of garments, sandals, armour, weapons, snoods or head wrappings, and of the parts of the body the lips, eyes, hair, beard, and nipples. Probably the cheeks, too, received a light reddish tinge; but all was done with discretion. The colours chiefly used were red, blue, and yellow, or gilding. The employment of different materials for the extremities, and for the drapery, also produced the effect of colouring. Similarly metal-sculpture secured variety of colour by the application of gold, silver, and copper to the bronze. The sparkle of the eyes was often represented by inlaid precious stones or enamel. Particular parts in marble statues, such as attributes, weapons, implements, were also made of metal. [There are examples of this in the pediments of Aegina and in the frieze of the Parthenon. Under the Empire metal was sometimes used for the drapery. Thus the Braschi Antinous in the Vatican was formerly draped in bronze.]-On ancient stone-cutting, see GEMS; on terracottas, see POTTERY; on working in metal, see TOREUTIC ART.
In the earliest times the rooms of the Greeks were lighted by means of pans filled with dried chips of logs, and strips of resinous wood, or long deal staves tied together with bands of bast, and the like. In later times torches were made of metal or clay cases filled with resinous substances. Or again, wooden staves dipped in pitch, resin, or wax were tied close together and inclosed in a metal casing, inserted in a saucer to catch the ashes and drops of resin. These torches were either carried by a handle under the saucer, or had a long shaft and a stand to set them up on. Resinous torches were in use among the Romans also, in early and later times. They used besides a dry wick of linen or oakum dipped in wax or tallow. Oil lamps, however, were no sooner invented than they became the most general medium of illumination among both Greeks and Romans. The lamp consisted of two parts: (1) A saucer for the oil, sometimes round,sometimes oval, sometimes angular, with a hole in the top for pouring in the oil, often shut with a lid. (2) The wick-holder, a projecting socket (Gr. myxa; Lat. rostrum). Sometimes there was a second hole on the surface of the oil-vessel, through which the wick could be pushed up by means of a needle. If the lamp was to be carried, it had a handle; if to be hung up, it was furnished with one or more ears, to which chains were attached. There were lamps with two, three, four, and sometimes as many as twenty wicks; these were hung upon the roof or set up on a high stand. The material of ancient lamps was clay, mostly of the red sort, and the manufacture of clay lamps formed a principal branch of Italian pottery. (Greek lamps of this material are represented in figs. 1, 2.) The next in frequency is bronze; it is not so common to find lamps of other metals, alabaster or glass. The numerous Roman lamps still preserved generally exhibit ornaments in relief of the most various kinds on the surface and on the handle: images of gods, stories from mythology, scenes of warlike and domestic life, of the circus and the amphitheatre, animals, arabesques, etc. (fig. 3). Some lamps are themselves formed in the shape of gods, men, or objects of different kinds (e.g. fig. 3, b, i). The bronze lamps are specially distinguished by elegance and variety. The opening through which the oil was poured in being small, they had vials specially made for the purpose, with thin necks and a narrow mouth. Special instruments were made for trimming and pulling up the wick · little tongs, or hooked pins, which were sometimes fastened by a chain to the handle. No method of preventing the smoking of the lamps was known to the ancients. Lanterns were made of transparent materials, such as horn, oiled linen, and bladders: the use of glass came in later. (see also CANDELABRUM.)
Architecture of the Etruscans and Romans. In architecture, as well as sculpture, the Romans were long under the influence of the Etruscans, who, though denied the gift of rising to the ideal, united wonderful activity and inventiveness with a passion for covering their buildings with rich ornamental carving. None of their temples have survived, for they built all the upper parts of wood; but many proofs of their activity in building remain, surviving from various ages, in the shape of Tombs and Walls. The latter clearly show how they progressed from piling up polygonal blocks in Cyclopean style to regular courses of squared stone. Here and there a building still shows that the Etruscans originally made vaultings by letting horizontal courses jut over, as in the ancient Greek thesauroi above mentioned; on the other hand, some very old gateways, as at Volterra (fig. 7) and Perugia, exhibit the true Arch of wedge-shaped stones, the invention of which is probably due to Etruscan ingenuity, and from the introduction of which a new and magnificent development of architecture takes its rise. The most imposing monument of ancient Italian arch-building is to be seen in the sewers of Rome laid down in the 6th century B.C. (See CLOACA MAXIMA.) When all other traces of Etruscan influence were being swept away at Rome by the intrusion of Greek forms of art, especially after the Conquest of Greece in the middle of the 2nd century B.C., the Roman architects kept alive in full vigour the Etruscan method of building the arch, which they developed and completed by the inventions of the Cross-Arch (or groined vault) and the Dome. With the Arch, which admits of a bolder and more varied management of spaces, the Romans combined, as a decorative element, the columns of the Greek Orders. Among these their growing love of pomp gave the preference more and more to the Corinthian, adding to it afterwards a still more gorgeous embellishment in what is called the Roman or Composite capital (see ARCHITECTURE, ORDERS OF). Another service rendered by the Romans was the introduction of building in brick (see POTTERY). A more vigorous advance in Roman architecture dates from the opening of the 3rd century B.C., when they began making great military roads and aqueducts. In the first half of the 2nd century they built, on Greek models, the first Basilica, which, besides its practical utility served to embellish the Forum. Soon after the middle of the century, appeared the first of their more ambitious temples in the Greek style. There is simple grandeur in the ruins of the Tabularium, or Record-Office, built B.C. 78 on the slope of the Capitol next the Forum. These are among the few remains of Roman republican architecture; but in the last decades of the Republic simplicity gradually disappeared, and men were eager to display a princely pomp in public and private buildings; witness the first stone theatre erected by Pompey as early as 55 B.C. Then all that went before was eclipsed by the vast works undertaken by Caesar, the Theatre, Amphitheatre, Circus, Basilica Iulia, Forum Caesaris with its Temple to Venus Genetrix. These were finished by Augustus, under whom Roman architecture seems to have reached its culminating point. Augustus, aided bu his son-in-law Agrippa, a man who understood building, not only completed his uncle's plans, but added many magnificent structures--the Forum Augusti with its Temple to Mars Ultor, the Theatre of Marcellus with its Portico of Octavia, the Mansoleum, and others. Augustus could fairly boast that" having found Rome a city of brick, he left it a city of marble." The grandest monument of that age, and one of the loftiest creations of Roman art in general, is the Pantheon (q.v.) built by Agrippa, adjacent to, but not connected with, his Thermae, the first of the many works of that kind in Rome. A still more splendid aspect was imparted to the city by the rebuilding of the Old Town burnt down in Nero's fire, and by the "Golden House" of Nero, a gorgeous pile, the like of which was never seen before, but which was destroyed on the violent death of its creator. Of the luxurious grandeur of private buildings we have ocular proof in the dwelling-houses of Pompeii, a paltry country-town in comparison with Rome. The progress made under the Flavian emperors is evidenced by Vespasian's Amphitheatre (q.v.) known as the Colosseum (figs. 8, 9, 10), the mightiest Roman ruin in the world, by the ruined Thermae, or Baths, of Titus, and by his Triumphal Arch (q.v.), the oldest specimen extant in Rome of this class of monument, itself a creation of the Roman mind (fig. 11). But all previous buildings were surpassed in size and splendour when Trajan's architect Apollodorus of Damascus raised the Forum Traianum with its huge Basilica Ulpia (fig. 12) and the still surviving Column of Trajan. No less extensive were the works of Hadrian, who, besides adorning Athens with many magnificent buildings, bequeathed to Rome a Temple of Venus and Roma, the most colossal of all Roman temples (fig. 13) and his own Mausoleum (q.v.), the core of which is preserved in the Castle of St. Angelo. While the works of the Antonines already show a gradual decline in architectural feeling, the Triumphal Arch of Severus ushers in the period of decay that set in with the 3rd century. In this closing period of Roman rule the buildings grow more and more gigantic, witness the Baths of Caracalla (fig. 14), those of Diocletian, with his palace at Salona (three miles from Spalatro) in Dalmatia, and the Basilica of Constantine breathing the last feeble gasp of ancient life. But outside of Rome and Italy, in every part of the enormous empire to its utmost barbarian borders, bridges, numberless remains of roads and aqueducts and viaducts, ramparts and gateways, palaces, villas, market-places and judgment-halls, baths, theatres, amphitheatres and temples, attest the versatility, majesty, and solidity of Roman architecture, most of whose creations only the rudest shocks have hitherto been able to destroy.
Greece. In the Homeric poems the Greeks are not represented as a people with a spontaneous inclination to commerce. Indeed, the position of the oldest Greek cities, far away from the sea, sufficiently shows that their founders can have had no idea of trade as a means of getting wealth. Greek navigation in ancient times was almost exclusively subservient to war and piracy, to which, for a long time, no stigma was attached in public opinion. And the trade carried on with Greece by the Asiatics, especially the Phoenicians, who then ruled the Greek seas, can hardly have been very active. The Greeks, having no agricultural or industrial produce to offer, could not have tempted many foreigners to deal with them. But in the centuries succeeding the Homeric age, the commerce of Greece was revolutionized. The islands, especially Aegina and Euboea, were foremost in commercial undertakings; the only continental town which was at all successful in this way being Corinth, which was favoured by its incomparable position. It was the foundation of the Hellenic colonies in Asia Minor that first occasioned the free development of Greek trade. The exertions of the Ionians were mainly instrumental in creating two things indispensable to its success, namely, commercial activity, excited by contact with the ancient industries of the East, and a maritime power in the proper sense, which made it possible to oust the Phoenicians from the naval supremacy which they had so long maintained. This new commercial activity necessitated a larger use of the precious metals, and the establishment of a gold and silver coinage, which the Ionians were the first among the Greeks to adopt. This proved a powerful stimulus to the development of commerce, or rather it was the very condition of its existence. Miletus took the first place among the trading colonies. The influence of these cities upon their mother country was so strong that even the Dorians gradually lost their national and characteristic dislike of trade and commerce, and threw themselves actively into their pursuit. Down to the 6th century B.C., Greek commerce had extended itself to the coasts of the Mediterranean and the inland seas connected with it, especially towards the East. It was not until a later time that Athens joined the circle of commercial cities. Even in Solon's time the Athenians had lived mainly by agriculture and cattle-breeding, and it was only with the growth of the democratic constitution that their commercial intercourse with the other cities became at all considerable. The Persian wars, and her position as head of the naval confederacy, raised Athens to the position of the first maritime power in Greece. Under the administration of Pericles she became the centre of all Hellenic activity, not only in art and science, but in trade. It was only Corinth and Corcyra whose western trade enabled them to maintain a prominent position by the side of Athens. The Greeks of Asia Minor completely lost their commercial position after their conquest by the Persians. The naval supremacy of Athens, and with it its commerce, was completely annihilated by the Peloponnesian war. It was a long time before the Athenians succeeded in breaking down the maritime power of Sparta which that war had established. Having done so, they recovered, but only for a short time, a position of prominence not at all equal to their former supremacy by sea. The victory of the Macedonian power entirely destroyed the political and commercial importance of Athens, whose trade now fell behind that of other cities. The place of Athens, as the first maritime and commercial power, was taken by the city of Rhodes, founded in 408 B.C. By the second half of the 4th century B.C. the trade of Rhodes had extended itself over the whole known world, and its maritime law was universally observed until a much later period. After the destruction of Corinth in the middle of the 2nd century B.C. the island of Delos enjoyed a brief but brilliant period of prosperity. Among the commercial cities of the Graeco-Macedonian empire, Alexandria in Egypt took the first place, and rose indeed to be the centre of European and Eastern trade. It was mainly through Alexandria that intercourse was kept up between Greece and the Eastern countries opened up by the campaigns of Alexander the Great. One of the most important routes followed by Grecian traffic was that leading to the Black Sea, the coasts of which were fringed with Greek colonies. Besides Byzantium and Sinope, the chief commercial centres in this region were Olbia, Panticapaeum, Phanagoria, and Phasis, from which trade-routes penetrated far into the barbarian countries of the interior. Other main routes led by Chios and Lesbos to the coasts of Asia Minor and by the Cyclades to that part of the Asiatic coast where lay the great cities of Samos, Ephesus, and Miletus. Hence they continued to Egypt and Cyrene, by Rhodes and Cyprus and the coast of Phoenicia. But in travelling to these parts from the Peloponnesus, they generally sailed by way of Crete, which had been long celebrated for its maritime enterprise. Round the promontory of Malea, the southernmost point of the Peloponnese, and by Corcyra, they sailed northwards to the coasts of the Adriatic, or westward to Italy and Sicily Regular traffic beyond Sicily was rendered impossible by the jealousy of the Carthaginians and Etruscans, who were masters of the commerce in this region, and whose place was afterwards taken there by the Romans. A considerable land-traffic was carried on by the colonies with barbarians of the interior. But in Greece, Proper the mountainous nature of the country and the absence of navigable rivers were unfavourable to communication by land, and the land-traffic accordingly was entirely thrown into the shade by the maritime trade. The only opportunity for commerce by land on a large scale was afforded by the great national festivals, which brought together great crowds of people from every part of Greece, and secured them a safe conduct (see EKECHEIRIA). In this way these festivals exactly corresponded to our trade fairs. The exports of Greece consisted mainly in wine, oil, and manufactured goods, especially pottery and metal wares. The imports included the necessaries of life, of which Greece itself, with its dense population, artificially increased by slavery, did not produce a sufficient quantity. The staple was wheat, which was imported in large quantities from the coasts of the Black Sea, Egypt, and Sicily. Next came wood for houses and for ships, and raw materials of all kind for manufacture. The foreign manufactures imported were mostly objects of luxury. Finally we should mention the large number of imported slaves. Comparing the circumstances of the ancient Greek maritime commerce with those of modern trade, we may observe that the ancients were much hampered by having no commission agencies and no system of exchange. The proprietor of the cargo sailed with it, or sent a representative with full powers. No transaction was carried on without payment in ready money, which was often rendered difficult by the existence of different systems of coinage. With uncivilized tribes, notably those on the Black Sea, a system of barter long maintained itself. As no goods could be bought without cash payments, and men of property generally preferred to lend out their capital to borrowers at high interest, a system of bottomry was extensively developed in Greek maritime trade. The creditor usually took care in lending the capital necessary for loading the ship, to secure a lien on the ship, or the cargo, or both. With this he undertook the risks of the business, charging interest at a very high rate, generally 20 to 30 per cent. The written contract contained other specifications as to the ship and the rate of interest, for the breach of which certain customary penalties were fixed. These had reference to the destination of the ship, and, generally speaking, to the route and the time to be occupied, to the character and value of the wares, and to the repayment of the loan; the latter to determine whether it should be made on the ship's arriving at its destination, or on its return home. In the first case the creditor would often sail with the ship, if he had no representative on the spot or at the port for which she was bound. At Athens, and no doubt in other cities, the interests of the creditor were protected by a strict code of laws. Fraudulent appropriation of a deposit was punishable with death; dilatoriness in payment with imprisonment. The creditor was allowed to seize not only the security, but the whole property of the debtor. In other respects Athenian legislation secured several advantages to traders, Commercial cases only came before the law courts in winter, when navigation was impossible, and they had to be decided within a month. In ordinary cases of debt the creditor could only seize on the debtor's property; but in commercial cases he was liable to e imprisoned if condemned to payment. In other matters aliens had to be represented in court by a citizen; in commercial cases they could appear in person. It was the duty of the Thesmothetae to see to the preparation of these cases. The trial was carried on and the verdict given by a special tribunal, the Nautodicae (see NAUTODICAe). Merchants could easily obtain the considerable privilege of exemption from military service, though they were not legally entitled to it. In general it may be said that the Greek states, in consideration of the importance of trade, went very far in providing for its interests. They did their best to secure its safety and independence by force of arms, and concluded treaties with the same end in view. This is especially true of those agreements which regulated the legal relations of the citizens of the two states in their intercourse with each other, and prescribed the forms to be observed by the citizens of one state when bringing suits against those of another. The institution of proxeni, corresponding to that of the modern consuls, was of immense benefit to the trading community. The Greek governments did a great deal in the way of constructing harbours, warehouses, and buildings for exchange in the neighbourhood of the harbours. The superintendence of the harbour traffic, like that of the market traffic, was entrusted to special government officials; in Athens, for instance, to the ten overseers of the Emporium (see AGORANOMI). The Athenians had also a special board, called metronomi, to see that the weights and measures were correct. It was only in exceptional cases that the freedom of trade was interfered with by monopolies, nor was it usual to lay prohibitions upon imports. Prohibitions of exportation were, however, much commoner. In many states, as e.g. in Macedonia, it was forbidden to export building materials, especially wood for ship-building; and no grain might be exported from Attica. Again, no Athenian merchant was permitted to carry corn to any harbour but that of Athens; no citizen or resident alien could lend money on the security of ships carrying corn to any place but Athens. Even foreigners who came with corn into the harbour of Athens were compelled to deposit two-thirds of it for sale there. To prevent excessive profits being realized in the corn trade, it was made a capital offense for any private citizen to, buy up more than 50 bushels at a time, or sell it at a profit of more than an obolos a bushel. The corn trade was under the superintendence of a board called sitophylakes. In the prevailing activity of commerce, the tolls on exports and imports were a plentiful source of revenue to the Greek government. In Greek society petty trading was thought a vulgar and sordid pursuit, and was left to the poorer citizens and resident aliens. In Athens the class of resident aliens included a great number of the larger dealers; for the wealthier and more respectable citizens liked lending their capital to others engaged in trade better than engaging in trade themselves. Italy. In Italy an active commerce was early carried on at sea by the Etruscans, the other Italian peoples taking only a passive part in it. But Rome, from a very early time, became the commercial centre of Middle Italy. It was situated on a river deep enough to admit large vessels, the upper course and tributaries of which were also navigable. Its position was much improved by the harbour at the colony of Ostia, said to have been constructed under king Ancus Martius. So long as the Etruscans and Carthaginians and (as in later times) the Greek cities of Southern Italy and Sicily, like Tarentum and Syracuse, ruled the sea, the maritime power and commerce of Rome were restricted within very narrow limits. Even as late as the middle of the 4th century B.C. the traffic of Rome was confined to Sardinia, Sicily and Africa. But, with the extension of the Roman power, Roman commerce assumed wider dimensions. At the end of the republican period Roman ships were on every sea, and there was a flourishing interior trade in Italy and all the provinces. Wherever there was a navigable river it was used for communication with the happiest results. After the second Punic War, Rome gradually acquired the character of a great commercial city, where the products of the whole world, natural and industrial, found a market. The most considerable import was corn, and this at all periods of Roman history (see ANNONA). The chief exports of Italy were wine and oil, to which we must add, after the development of Italian industry, manufactured goods. The trading harbour of Rome was Puteoli (Pozzuoli), on the Bay of Naples, while Ostia was used mainly by corn-ships. Petty dealing was regarded unfavourably by the Romans as by the Greeks; but trade on a large scale was thought quite respectable, though in older times members of the senate were not allowed to engage in it. Most of the larger undertakings at Rome were in the bands of joint-stock companies (see PUBLICANI), the existence of which made it possible for small capitalists to share in the profits and risks of commerce. It was indeed an old maxim of business men at Rome that it was better to have small shares in a number of speculations than to speculate independently. The corn trade, in particular, was in the hands of these companies. The government allowed them to transport corn from Sardinia, Sicily, Spain, Africa, and Egypt to Rome; whole fleets of vessels, constructed for the purpose, being appointed to this service. Foreign trade was subjected to a number of restrictions. The exportation of certain products was absolutely prohibited; for instance, iron, whether unwrought or manufactured, arms, coin, salt, and gold; and duties were levied on all imports. There were also numerous restrictions on trade in the interior, as each province formed a unit of taxation, in which toll had to be paid on entering or leaving it. Among the state monopolies, the most important was that of salt.
Type: Standard
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