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THEORIAE 100.00%
The Greek name for the sacred embassies, which were sent by individual States to the great national festivals, as well as to those of friendly States; for instance, that sent by the Athenians to the festival of Apollo at Delos. A number of important men were appointed to this office, the principal of whom was known as the architheoros. Part of the cost, which was considerable, was borne by the State and part by the architheoros, on whom, as also on his companions (syntheori), devolved the honourable and patriotic duty of appearing with the utmost splendour. In Athens the architheoria was one of the liturgioe undertaken by the wealthier citizens. (See LEITOURGIA.) The members of the sacred embassy were treated as honoured guests by the State to which they were deputed.
One of the public services called liturgioe at Athens; it was the obligation to furnish forth the sacred embassies (theoriae) to the four great national festivals, also to Delphi and other holy places. (See LEITOURGIA.)
The Tactician, a Greek writer on war, about 100 A.D., composed a work dedicated to Trajan on the Greek order of battle, with special reference to Macedonian tactics (Taktike Theoria), which is extant both in its original and in an enlarged form. The original used falsely to be attributed to Arrian.
AMMON 26.67%
A god native to Libya and Upper Egypt. He was represented sometimes in the shape of a ram with enormous curving horns, sometimes in that of a ram-headed man, sometimes as a perfect man standing up or sitting on a throne. On his head was the royal emblems, with two high feathers standing up, the symbols of sovereignty over the upper and under worlds; in his hands were the sceptre and the sign of life. In works of art his figure is coloured blue. Beside him stands the goddess Muth (the "mother," the "queen of darkness," as the inscriptions call her), wearing the crown of Upper Egypt or the vulture-skin (see cut). His chief temple, with a far-famed oracle, stood in an oasis of the Libyan desert, twelve days' journey from Memphis. Between this oracle and that of Zeus at Dodona a connexion is said to have existed from very ancient times, so that the Greeks early identified the Egyptian god with their own Zeus, as the Romans did afterwards withtheir Jupiter; and his worship found an entrance at several places in Greece, at Sparta, Thebes, and also Athens, whence festal embassies were regularly sent to the Libyan sanctuary (see THEORIA). When the oracle was consulted by visitors, the god's symbol, made of emerald and other stones, was carried round by women and girls, to the sound of hymns, on a golden ship hung round with votive cups of silver. His replies were given in tremulous shocks communicated to the bearers, which were interpreted by a priest.
ARCHON 14.20%
(=ruler), the Athenian name for the supreme authority established on the abolition of royalty. On the death of the last king, Codrus, B.C. 1068, the headship of the state for life was bestowed on his son Medon and his descendants under the title of Archon. In 752 B.C. their term of office was cut down to ten years, in 714 their exclusive privilege was abolished, and the right to hold the office thrown open to all the nobility, while its duration was diminished to one year; finally in B.C. 683 the power was divided among nine archons. By Solon's legislation, his wealthiest class, the pentacosio-medimni, became eligible to the office; and by Aristides' arrangement after the Persian Wars it was thrown open to all the citizens, Cleisthenes having previously, in the interests of the democracy, substituted the drawing of lots for election by vote. [See Note on p. 706.] The political power of the office, having steadily decreased with time, sank to nothing when democracy was established; its holders had no longer even the right to deliberate and originate motions, their action being limited to certain priestly and judicial functions, relies of their once regal power. The titles and duties of the several Archons are as follows: (1) Their president, named emphatically Archon, or Archon Eponymos, because the civil year was named after him. He had charge of the Great Dionysia, the Thargelia, the embassies to festivals (theoriae), the nomination of choregi; also the position of guardian in chief, and the power to appoint guardians, the presidency in all suits about family rights (such as questions of divorce or inheritance), and in disputes among the choregi. (2) The Archon Basileus (king), called so because on him devolved certain sacred rites inseparably connected with the name of king. He had the care of the Eleusinian Mysteries (and was obliged therefore to be an initiated person), of the Lencae and Anthesteria, of gymnastic contests, to which he appointed a superintendent, and of a number of antiquated sacrifices, some of which fell to the share of his wife, the Basilissa (queen); and lastly, the position of president in all suits touching religious law, including those trials for murder that came within the jurisdiction of the Ephetae (q.v.). (3) The Archon Polemarchos (leader in war) was originally entrusted with the war-department, and, as late as the battle of Marathon, had the right of voting with the ten generals, and the old royal privilege of commanding the right wing. Afterwards he only had charge of the state sacrifices offered to the gods of war and to the shade of Harm6dius, the public funerals of those who fell in war and the annual feasts in honour of them; finally, the jurisdiction in all questions concerning the personal and family rights of resident aliens (metaeci) and strangers. All this rested on the old assumption that foreigner meant enemy. Each of these three superior Archons had two assessors chosen by himself, but responsible. (4) The Six Thesmothetae (literally law-givers) administered justice in all cases not pertaining to the senior Archons or some other authority, revised the laws once a year, and superintended the apportioning of public offices by lot. The several Archons exercised their jurisdiction at different spots in the city; that of the Polemarch alone lay outside the walls. Duties common to all nine were: the yearly appointment by lot of the Heliastae (q.v.), the choice of umpires in the Panathenaae, the holding of elections of the generals and other military officers, jurisdiction in the case of officials suspended or deposed by the people, and latterly even in suits which had previously been subject to the nautodicae. (See NAUTODICAe.) If they had discharged their office without blame, they entered the Areopagus as members for life. The office of Archon lasted even under the Roman rule.
A term applied at Athens to either an ordinary or extraordinary service, which the State imposed on its wealthier citizens in accordance with a regular rotation. The ordinary services, which citizens whose property amounted to more than three talents [£600] were required to perform, are: (1) the Choregia, the most expensive service of this kind, involving the equipment of a chorus (q.v.) for its musical competitions at public festivals, which were accompanied by theatrical and musical performances. (2) The Gymnasiarchia, which imposed the obligation of training in the Gymnasia the Competitors for the gymnastic contests, supplying them with proper diet while they were in training, and providing at the games themselves for the requisite arrangement and decoration of the scene of the contest. The most expensive type of this form of service was the lampadarchia, the equipment of the torch race (q.v.), which in one instance [recorded in Lysias Or. 21 § 3] cost twelve minae [£40]. (3) The Architheoria, or superintendence of the sacred embassies (theoriae) sent to the four great national festivals, or to Delos and other holy places. In this case the State contributed part of the expense. There were other leitourgiai confined to the separate tribes and domes, such as the entertainment of members of the clan on festal occasions. The most expensive of all was the extraordinary leitourgia called the trierarchia, which was necessary only [or rather mainly] in times of war. This involved the equipment of a ship of war, and was required of the wealthiest citizens only. Before the Persian Wars the equipment of the forty-eight to fifty ships of the Athenian navy of that time devolved on the naucrariae (q.v.). When the number of the fleet was increased, the necessary number of trierarchs was nominated in each year by the strategi. The State provided the vessel, i.e. the hull and mast; and every trierarch had to fit out this vessel with the necessary equipment, to keep it in readiness for the year, and to man it with a complete crew of oarsmen and others. The State supplied pay and provision for the crew, though the sum paid did not always suffice for the purpose; it afterwards supplied the furniture of the vessel also. To lighten the expense, which amounted to between forty minoe and a talent (£133-£200), it became allowable, about 411 B.C., for two persons to share it. Afterwards, in 358, twenty symmoriae (q.v.) were instituted, i.e. companies consisting of sixty citizens each, with a committee of the 300 wealthiest citizens at their head; the 300 distributed the expense over the individual symmoriae in such sort that the cost of a single trireme was shared by a greater or less number of citizens. Lastly, about B.C. 340, the incidence of the burden was regulated by a law introduced by Demosthenes, whereby all citizens, with the exception of the poorer classes, bore the expense in proportion to their property. Thus property [or rather, taxable capital] amounting to ten talents imposed the obligation of equipping one vessel, twenty talents two vessels, and so on. Those who had less than ten talents were to club together and to make up that amount among them. The time of service lasted, as has been already stated, for one year. On its expiration, the trierarch, who had looked after the vessel, was responsible to the Logistae (q.v.) for the condition of the vessel, and had to hand in his account of the expenditure of the sums paid by the State. Another board, the epimeletai of the neoria (the inspectors of the dockyards), superintended the regular fulfilment of the duties of the trierarchs, and were armed for this purpose with compulsory powers. No one was compelled to undertake more than one leitourgia at the game time, or two in two immediately successive years. The only persons exempt from the trierarchy were the archons, unmarried "heiresses," and orphans up to the end of the first year after they had come of age. The obligation to see that the leitourgia was discharged in each particular case fell on the tribe concerned. If any one considered that he had been unfairly chosen for this duty, and a wealthier person passed over, he could resort to the form of challenge to exchange properties known as the antidosis (q.v.)). [Cp. Introduction to Demosthenes, Adv. Leptinem, ed. Sandys, pp. ii-xviii.]
Type: Standard
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